|Year : 2014 | Volume
| Issue : 4 | Page : 256-260
Bibliometric analysis of two journals of community dentistry
Swati Jain, Basavaraj Patthi, Ashish Singla, Shilpi Singh, Khushboo Singh, Hansa Kundu
Department of Public Health Dentistry, DJ College of Dental Sciences and Research, Modinagar, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
|Date of Web Publication||24-Dec-2014|
Department of Public Health Dentistry, DJ College of Dental Sciences and Research, Ajit Mahal, Niwari Road, Modinagar, Ghaziabad 201 204, Uttar Pradesh
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: The role of scientific journals in diffusion of data concerning research in the field of Public Health Dentistry is of premier importance. Bibliometry involves analysis of publications reflecting the type of research work. Objective: To determine the number and trends of published articles in Journal of Indian association of Public Health Dentistry (JIAPHD) and to compare the same with that of Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology (CDOE) from year 2002 to 2013. Methodology: A retrospective observational study was conducted for JIAPHD and CDOE. All issues of JIAPHD and CDOE from 2002 to 2013 were hand searched for the parameters: Study design, area of interest of research, state/college where research was conducted, authorship pattern, source of articles published each year, changing study trends, disease under study and publication bias. The data were organized and analyzed using software SPSS - version 21.0; descriptive and inferential statistical test (Chi-square test) was used to find a significant difference between the two journals. Results: A total of 676 and 744 articles was retrieved from JIAPHD and CDOE respectively. An increase in a number of articles from 2002 to 2013 was observed in JIAPHD. About 78.8% of articles in CDOE and 68.6% in JIAPHD were observational studies (P = 0. 001) and 60% of CDOE articles and 45.3% of JIAPHD articles had > 3 authors from educational institutes (P = 0. 001). Conclusion: The bibliometric analysis of JIAPHD in comparison to CDOE showed an interesting pattern. It was reasoned that most articles published were of descriptive and analytical epidemiology indicating a demand for leading dental research based on better quality methodology in terms of research and systematic inspections. Also, JIAPHD needs to be more coherent as far as publication issues are concerned.
Keywords: Bibliometry, community dentistry, community dentistry and oral epidemiology, journal of Indian association of public health dentistry, study designs
|How to cite this article:|
Jain S, Patthi B, Singla A, Singh S, Singh K, Kundu H. Bibliometric analysis of two journals of community dentistry
. J Indian Assoc Public Health Dent 2014;12:256-60
|How to cite this URL:|
Jain S, Patthi B, Singla A, Singh S, Singh K, Kundu H. Bibliometric analysis of two journals of community dentistry
. J Indian Assoc Public Health Dent [serial online] 2014 [cited 2019 May 27];12:256-60. Available from: http://www.jiaphd.org/text.asp?2014/12/4/256/147642
| Introduction|| |
The role of scientific journals in the diffusion of data concerning the research in the field is of premier importance.  Communication and interaction between researchers as authors of the articles published contribute to scientific deliberation.  Schaffner (1994) has identified five distinct parts of journals which they work in scholarly communities such as building a collective knowledge base, passing information, validating the quality of research, distributing rewards and building scientific communities.  For this, the quality maintenance of the journal is mandatory, particularly for the developing nations. According to a report published in the WHO bulletin (2004), access to the international scientific and technical literature has several facets.  Health care professionals usually base their decisions on professional experience, prevailing clinical practice, standard processes, training or expert guidance, peer consultation and knowledge acquired in dental school, seminars and continuing training programs. Simply due to the complexity of information, scientific support to clinical practice must be essayed in the medical literature and derived from methodological validated tools. Thus, it is all important that studies be published, for they provide a scientific basis to professionals in their hunting for better quality of life standards for the population. 
Hence, to assess the standard of journal "Bibliometrics" is an important scientific instrument. The subject of bibliometrics was first defined by Pritchard (1996) as "the application of mathematical and statistical methods to books and other media". It involves the analysis of a set of publications characterized by bibliographic variables such as the author(s), a place of publication, the associated subject keywords, and the citations.  Many research fields use bibliometric methods to research the impact of their field, the impact of a set of researchers or the impact of a particular theme.  There have been very little literature regarding the bibliometric analysis of scientific journals. ,,,,,,
The Journal of The Indian Association of Public Health Dentistry (JIAPHD) has been the official journal of IAPHD since 2002, which is a peer-reviewed specialty journal devoted to the field of dental public health in India, including epidemiology, biostatistics and oral health care. It was initiated with the intention of reflecting the research work of Public Health dentists.  Community Dentistry and oral epidemiology (CDOE) is a Denmark based specialty journal with an aim to serve as a forum for scientifically based information in Public Health Dentistry internationally, with the intention of continually expanding knowledge base in the field of Dental Public Health and studies concerning epidemiology, behavioral sciences, health services research, methodological reports in program planning, implementation and evaluation are published.  It's been over a decade since the inception of JIAPHD; but no bibliometric analysis has been carried out to assess the various quality parameters of the articles published in the journal. Also, it is necessary to compare the same with that of CDOE which is an internationally acclaimed specialty journal, to evaluate the areas of improvement, paving a path for the indexing of the national journal (JIAPHD). Hence, the present study was conducted with an objective to determine the number and trends of published articles in the JIAPHD and to compare the same with that of CDOE from the year 2002 to 2013.
| Methodology|| |
A retrospective observational study was conducted for JIAPHD and CDOE from the year 2002 to 2013.
Data extraction strategy
All issues of the JIAPHD and CDOE were hand searched for articles published from 2002 to 2013 and assessed by chief investigator (S J).
A standardized extraction method or checklist for retrieving the data from the articles was prepared. The variables that were collected from the articles are study designs, (the study type was classified according to an adaptation of the classification proposed by Fletcher et al. (2005). The core area of articles was classified into three domains epidemiological studies, clinical studies and policy related articles.
For JIAPHD; the Indian states where the study was conducted was identified according to the origin of the author(s). Thus, the total number of publications in each state, as well as the scientific production of each state were determined. For CDOE, the continent of the first author was, squared up to make the representation of the several characters of the macrocosm of the scientific program.
The data for all the parameters retrieved for JIAPHD and CDOE were entered in the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet (2007). These data were organized and analyzed using the software SPSS - version 21.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, U.S.A) and descriptive and inferential statistical test like Chi-square test were used for the analysis of the data.
| Results|| |
A total of 676 articles was retrieved from JIAPHD and 744 articles of CDOE published from 2002 to 2013 for bibliometric analysis.
An increase in the number of cases from 2002 to 2013 was observed in JIAPHD with a sudden rise in 2011 (from 2 issues in 2002 to 7 cases in 2011) [Figure 1]. However, the number of issues per year have remained relatively constant in CDOE. The majority of the study designs [Table 1] published in both the journals were observational studies (78.8% of articles in CDOE and 68.6% in JIAPHD) followed by review articles (23.5% of JIAPHD and 10.7% of CDOE). Nonetheless, expert opinions and Laboratory Researches (in vitro studies) were more in JIAPHD as compared to CDOE, the difference being statistically significant (P = 0 001).
Most of the articles published in CDOE were Questionnaire studies on social and psychosocial factors while, for JIAPHD, they were questionnaire regarding the Knowledge, attitude and Practices studies [Table 2]. Among the clinical studies, 22% of CDOE articles were related to dental caries, and 11.6% of JIAPHD articles were related to preventive dentistry materials and diagnostic or treatment methodology.
In CDOE, the majority of the articles published [Table 3] had significant results (57%), compared to JIAPHD. The trends of the articles published [Table 4] showed an inclination toward epidemiological studies (59% for JIAPHD and 60.8% in CDOE) with very limited focus on Policymaking studies (5.6% in JIAPHD and 7.1% in CDOE).
About 60% of the articles published in CDOE and 45.3% of the articles published in JIAPHD [Table 5] had >3 authors while only 6.8% of CDOE article and 6.6% of JIAPHD articles were single author works (P = 0 001). Nearly all articles published in JIAPHD had authors from the educational institute [98.2%; [Table 6] while 87% of CDOE articles had authors from educational institutions, 8% from Research Institute and 5% were private practitioner or working in some hospital (P = 0 001).
The zonal representation in JIAPHD [Figure 2]a and in CDOE [Figure 2]b shows a predominance of South zone in JIAPHD and European zone in CDOE.
|Figure 2: (a) Articles from various zones of India published in Journal of Indian association of Public Health Dentistry from 2002 to 1013, (b) Articles from various zones of world published in Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology from 2002 to 1013|
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| Discussion|| |
The health sciences are undergoing great changes in the way they produce and interpret knowledge, so professionals must keep themselves abreast of the latest advances. A great deal of scientific research has been made available through scientific journals, which help disseminate the results obtained. The valuing of clinical conducts based on evidence helps to assess methodological quality that provides the answers to the patients' requests.  Thus, bibliometric analysis plays a pivotal component in quality assessment of the scientific journal highlighting the loopholes and showing the way for improvement.
Numbers of publications (issues) reflect basic research capacity by showing the volume of papers being produced [Figure 1].  Data from the present bibliometric study of JIAPHD indicated that a sudden increase in the number of issues (7 in 2011) from mere 2 subjects in the initiation year 2002 [Figure 1]. There are two possible explanations. First is that publication activity is developing at an immense pace in the specialty reflecting an increasing aptitude toward new research and surveys. Second, the change in regulation regarding publications by dental teaching faculty in India by DCI accounts for two fold increases in the publication of the articles. However, increase of articles in 2011 may be of career enhancement for authors, to be eligible for a postgraduate supervisor.  Yet, for CDOE, the issues per year were rather uniform, reflecting an unswerving research inclination internationally.
The zones of the articles published [Figure 2]a and b] showed a predominance of South Zone in JIAPHD and Europe in CDOE. Multi zone/pan articles were quite common for both the journals indicating commendable pan India and Pan Nations Collaboration for research work. The representation of the scientific research from the Caribbean, African, and Asian countries was limited in CDOE Journal. This might be due to accessibility barriers for the researchers in the developing countries of these regions. Similar trends were observed for the JIAPHD, which had limited representation of the articles from the Western and Eastern Zones of the country. Hence, scientific exercises in these zones should be promoted accordingly.
Being specialty journals; the study designs [Table 1] published in both JIAPHD and CDOE showed a predominance of observational studies. These are crucial for quantifying the disease burden, contributing to evidence-based health care planning, and evaluating effectiveness and relative contribution of various primary, secondary and tertiary preventative measures for reducing the disease burden.  However, the experimental study designs; considered as the gold standard among epidemiological studies formed only a minor portion of the study published.  This shows a lack of imagination or inclination toward experimental research. Hence, the need to diversify the resources and workforce with appropriate knowledge is taken to offer the epitome of evidence-based dentistry.
The focal point of the survey [Table 2] indicates an inclination toward dental caries amongst the various oral health problems for both the journals. Merely, the bulk of the studies concerned the universal knowledge, attitude and practice (questionnaire based studies). This designates that the main concern for the Public Health Dentists in India and Worldwide is to measure the aptitude of the masses so as to develop appropriate preventive programs.
Publication bias [Table 3] reflects the publishing trends of the diary. In CDOE, mostly the articles published had significant effects. However, For JIAPHD, majority of the studies published gave only the descriptive statistics where publication bias was not applicable. Hence, it might be inferred that the majority of the research work both nationally and internationally remains unpublished as gray literature.
Trends of the studies published [Table 4] again indicated the wider influence of the study. Most of the studies were epidemiological studies providing a database for future studies. Research studies and Policymaking studies were fewer. In the future, an increment in both of these trends would provide more valuable information for the Policy makers and Health administrators.
It was noted that the bulk of the articles were of multiple authors from educational institutes [Table 5] and [Table 6] emphasizing the importance of teamwork for the research/survey as well as its coverage. Similar effects were described by the previous bibliometric studies done by Thanukodi  and Thanuskodi.  This also highlights that educational institutes encourage more of research work as a part of the postgraduate curriculum. Similar results were shown by Hussain et al.  CDOE had 13% of the articles from research institutes and private practitioners as compared to a mere 1.8% for JIAPHD which might be ascribed to the lack of interest and participation from private practitioners in our country.
As no bibliometric analysis has been conducted before for the specialty Journals of Public Health Dentistry, there was not much literature available for comparison of the study results, which showed a major restriction of the subject. Likewise, further categorization of focus of studies is required to assess in detail near the shifting trends in the fields of interest for research in Dental Public Health.
|Table 5: Comparison of number of authors per article for CDOE and JIAPHD |
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|Table 6: Comparison of type of institutional attachment of authors for CDOE and JIAPHD |
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| Conclusion|| |
The bibliometric analysis of JIAPHD in comparison to CDOE showed an interesting pattern. It was reasoned that most articles published were of descriptive and analytical epidemiology indicating a demand for leading dental research based on better quality methodology in terms of research and systematic inspections. Moreover, it was found that the assessed literature, generally reflected the epidemiological trends with limited articles influencing policy making.
It further identified areas of interest where little research has been done, indicating a need for more research on these issues. Furthermore, the present study identified a disparity between the evolution and scientific production amongst the several zones of our state, reflecting the lack of governmental incentive and support to scientific and technological progress in these fields.
Also, JIAPHD needs to be more coherent as far as publication issues are concerned to maintain an unswerving Publication standard. Further bibliometric analysis for the various journals available for the concerned specialty is required to evaluate the quality of the journals and to assess the areas of improvement that will help raise the standard of scientific publication.
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[Figure 1], [Figure 1], [Figure 2]
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6]