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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 293-296

Career satisfaction among medical and dental graduates in a private institution in Indore city, Madhya Pradesh


Department of Public Health Dentistry, Sri Aurobindo College of Dentistry, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India

Date of Web Publication24-Dec-2014

Correspondence Address:
Sandeep Kumar
Flat No 304, Sanskar Block, Sri Aurobindo Institute of Medical Sciences, Indore 453 555, Madhya Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2319-5932.147667

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  Abstract 

Introduction: Career is the progress and actions taken by a person throughout lifetime, especially those related to that person's occupation and are often composed of the jobs held, titles earned and work accomplished over a long period of time. It plays a very important role in the success of once life. Aim: The aim was to compare the career satisfaction among medical and dental graduates in a private institution in Indore city, Madhya Pradesh. Materials and Methods: The study included a total of 100 medical graduates and 100 dental graduates and was carried out using a self-administered questionnaire. Chi-square test was performed for statistical analysis. Results: In medical profession, it was found that majority (87%) of the graduates were satisfied with their career. Majority (88%) of the graduates believed that their profession had a bright future 10 years from now and majority (74%) recommended joining medical profession as a safe and bright career alternative. On the contrary, in dental profession, it was found that more than half (53%) of the graduates were unsatisfied with their career. More than 50% of graduates believed that dental profession did not have a bright future 10 years from now and majority (66%) of the graduates recommended not to join dental profession. The differences were found to be significantly associated between the two groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The dental graduates were found to be dissatisfied with their career compared with medical graduates. Better job perspectives and better placements needs to be created. Endorsement of effective policies is required.

Keywords: Career, dental graduates, medical graduates


How to cite this article:
Kumar S, Dasar P, Mishra P, Jain D, Warhekar S, Airen B. Career satisfaction among medical and dental graduates in a private institution in Indore city, Madhya Pradesh . J Indian Assoc Public Health Dent 2014;12:293-6

How to cite this URL:
Kumar S, Dasar P, Mishra P, Jain D, Warhekar S, Airen B. Career satisfaction among medical and dental graduates in a private institution in Indore city, Madhya Pradesh . J Indian Assoc Public Health Dent [serial online] 2014 [cited 2019 Oct 19];12:293-6. Available from: http://www.jiaphd.org/text.asp?2014/12/4/293/147667


  Introduction Top


Career refers to the process and actions taken by a person throughout a lifetime especially those related to the person's occupation. A career is often composed of the jobs held titles earned and work accomplished over a long period rather than just referring homeposition. [1] There are various career options available for everyone like the medical, dental, engineering, pharmacy, law, charter accountant, company secretary, fashion designing, modeling, etc., Hence, selecting the right career is a sure thing for success in life. Among these, the medical and the dental professions are considered as noble professions because they serve the humanity and for decades they have been preferred as the most suitable career options.

The number of students enrolled in medical education has increased by around 85% in last 10 years from 1, 88,187 in 1995-1996 to 3, 48,485 in 2005-2006 [2] indicating that a large number of students prefer to select medical fields as their most suitable career options. The total numbers of medical colleges in India according to Medical Council of India {2013} are 345 and the number of medical graduates passing per year is approximately 49,286. The current estimated doctor to population ratio in India is 1:1700 when compared with world average of 1.5:1000 [3] indicating that despite of improvement in health care delivery systems, there is still a demand of doctors for treatment of common diseases. Few years back medical profession was the most preferred career option by the undergraduates as there was less competition, and better job opportunities but nowadays, the situation has changed with the competition increasing every year, declining jobs availability, and reduced salary for graduates and requirement of a great deal of time to establish himself/herself as a good doctor. [4] This profession requires a great amount of hard work and patience and as the younger generation is keen on finding shortcuts to success, most of them are unwilling to opt for this career. [5]

It is not only the medical profession which has seen this transformation but also dental profession has witnessed similar changes. The total numbers of dental colleges in India according to Dental Council of India {2013] are 300 and the numbers of dental graduates passing per year are 25,000. [6] The estimated dentist to population ratio according to WHO is 1:7500. [7] In last 10 years, the dentist population ratio in India has increased considerably. The current dentist population ratio in India is 1:10,000. [6] Due to the increase in the number of colleges and number of dental graduates passing every year, the dental profession has also witnessed tremendous changes. On personal interactions with the dental graduates, it was found that they were not satisfied with their jobs because opportunities for dental graduates were limited with very few jobs in government sector. Poor pay scales, lack of interest, more competition, were among the other reasons for dissatisfaction. Studies comparing career satisfaction amongst health care professionals in other countries have shown that the healthcare professionals have expressed confidence in their ability to perform their duties but possess low job satisfaction mainly due to poor working conditions and lack of opportunities for career development. [8] A recent review of the dental therapy workforce indicated several difficulties in the profession: The lack of career structure, a narrow scope of practice, out-dated facilities and inadequate remuneration. These difficulties are believed to be contributing factors to the poor recruitment and retention of dental therapists. [9] Recent trends [5],[10] suggest that there is increasing dissatisfaction amongst medical and dental graduates towards their profession, and to the best of our knowledge there has been no such study conducted till date in our country, India, to compare the career satisfaction amongst medical and dental graduates. Hence, this study was conducted with the aim to compare the career satisfaction among medical and dental graduates in a private institution in Indore city, Madhya Pradesh.


  Materials and Methods Top


We conducted a cross-sectional study in the month of March - April 2013 [2 months], in a private dental institution, in Indore city, Madhya Pradesh with the aim to compare the career satisfaction amongst medical and dental graduates.

The study included a total of 100 dental graduates and 100 medical graduates based upon convenience sampling technique. Hence, the total sample size comprised 200 medical and dental graduates. The sample size estimation was done based on the findings of the pilot study done on 25 medical and dental graduates, and using the formula of Cochran [11] for determination of number of people keeping alpha as 0.05 and accuracy as 0.08, a total sample size of 200 was finalized. Ethical clearance to conduct the study was taken from the Institution Ethics Committee. The study objectives were informed to the participants and those willing to participate were included in the study. The participants who were not willing to participate were excluded. A consent form was signed by the participants prior to the study. The participants had the right to withdraw, at any point of time, from the study. No incentives were given to increase participation.

A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to the participants. The questionnaire comprised 7 questions that were designed to assess the satisfaction towards their career. The questionnaire also collected information on demographic characteristics. The questionnaire was checked for its face, and content validity, and necessary corrections were made prior to their distribution to the participants. The questionnaire was distributed to the participants by a single investigator. The questionnaire included multiple choice questions and after receiving the full explanation of how to fill the questionnaire, the participants were asked to select one of the most appropriate choices from the provided options. The study was conducted by a single investigator and any doubts arising during the survey were clarified by the investigator himself who was always available during the study.

All statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 20 (IBM SPSS, SPSS INC, USA) and P ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Chi-square test was performed.


  Results Top


A total of 200 graduates agreed to participate in the survey. The mean age of the sample was 23.69 ± 1.123 [Table 1]. In dental profession, 74% were females and 26% were males while in medical profession there was equal distribution of males (50%) and females (50%) in the study population. The differences were found to be statistically significant [Table 2].
Table 1: Mean age of study population


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Table 2: Gender wise distribution of study population


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In the medical profession, it was found that the majority (87%) of the graduates were satisfied with their career. Among those who were satisfied with their career, majority were very (67.8%) or moderately (31%) satisfied. Majority of the graduates had joined medical profession due to personal interest, or it was their childhood dream to become a doctor. Very few (6-7%) reported that they would have preferred other career alternatives such as engineering and others. Majority (88%) of the graduates believed that their profession had a bright future 10 years from now and majority (74%) recommended joining medical profession as a safe and bright career alternative.

On the contrary, in the dental profession it was found that more than half (53%) of the graduates who participated in the study were not satisfied with their career. Among those who were satisfied, majority (48.9%) were only moderately satisfied. Poor pay scale, lack of interest and fewer jobs in the market were the major reasons for dissatisfaction. Nearly 50% opted to choose medical profession as a safe career alternative. More than 50% of the graduates believed that dental profession did not have a bright future 10 years from now and majority (66%) of the graduates recommended not joining dental profession. The differences were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05).

Nearly 50% of the graduates in both medical and dental profession liked to go abroad for further studies due to better job, better salary and better lifestyle abroad. Majority of the graduates in medical (80%) and dental (84%) profession agreed to the fact that they were still taught by traditional methods and that their syllabus needs to undergo major revision in order to cope up with the current scenario [Table 3].
Table 3: Self-reported assessment for career satisfaction amongst medical and dental graduates


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  Discussion Top


The career development and career satisfaction expressed by dental professionals is an area which has attracted much recent research. [4],[12],[13] In our country, with the increase in the number of dental colleges, and increase in the number of dental graduates passing every year, there is a big question whether the dental professionals have a satisfaction towards their profession. Very frequent career enquiries and growing anxiety by the interns and graduates motivated us to undertake this study. We compared their career satisfaction with the medical profession which enabled us to assess whether it is the dental profession that has only witnessed change in career satisfaction of graduates, or medical profession has also undergone such metamorphosis.

The study was conducted by means of validated self-administered questionnaire and a striking difference in career satisfaction was observed amongst medical and dental graduates. The medical graduates were found to be well satisfied with their profession, whereas the dental professionals expressed low level of career satisfaction. Even those dental professionals who expressed satisfaction, they were only moderately satisfied with their career. In a study done by Crossley and Mubarik, [11] it was found that the dental students were significantly more likely to be motivated by "status and security," "high income" and the "nature of the occupation," when compared with their medical counterparts. However, in the present study, the dental professionals cited poor salary, lack of interest and fewer jobs in market as their main reasons for growing dissatisfaction. The growing dissatisfaction prompted them not to recommend dental professional course to their fellow students. The differences were found to be statistically significant.

Nearly 50% of both medical and dental graduates preferred to go abroad for further studies. According to a recent study, there has been a 256% growth in Indian students going abroad in the last decade or so [14] and cited better jobs, salary and better lifestyle as their major reason for going abroad. Research with dental practitioners has determined that system of remuneration, the characteristics of the working environment, and the type of service in which an individual works all exert an influence upon the practitioner's experience of their working life. [15],[16],[17]

The medical and dental syllabus has been dealing with the traditional methods of curative therapy. With the advent of newer technologies in medical and dental fields, majority of the medical and dental graduates agreed with the fact that their syllabus needs to be revised by their council in order to cope up with the changing trends of education systems.

To the best of our knowledge, there has been no such study conducted in India to compare career satisfaction amongst medical and dental graduates and this study finding is an eye opener for the council to create job potentials in the market and create better placements for dental graduates in order to maintain the sovereignty of this profession. Effective steps should be taken by the government to create awareness among masses toward dental treatment in order to avail dental services. National Oral Health Policy has been formulated by the "Dental Council of India," through the inputs of two national workshops organized way back in 1991 and 1994 at Delhi and Mysore respectively [18] but till date, it has not been implemented. There is an urgent need to implement national oral health policy. Only after better placement and better salary, will a dental graduate be satisfied with his/her profession and will express the same level of job satisfaction as a medical graduate.


  Conclusion Top


Medical graduates were satisfied with their career and believed that their profession had a bright future 10 years from now, and the majority recommended joining medical profession as a safe and bright career alternative. However on the contrary, in the dental profession it was found that more than half of the graduates were not satisfied with their career and believed that dental profession did not have a bright future 10 years from now and majority recommended not joining the dental profession. Lack of jobs, poor pay scale and poor placement are the main barriers leading to dissatisfaction among dental graduates. These identified barriers, if corrected, will lead to a boom in the dental profession.

 
  References Top

1.
Available from: http://www.business.dictionary.com/definition/career.html. [Last accessed on 2013 Jun 10].  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Available from: http://Knowledge.commission.gov.in/downloads/baseline/medical.pdf. [Last accessed on 2013 Jun 10].  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Available from: http://www.mci.india.org/tools/announcement/MCI/booklets.pdf. [Last accessed on 2013 Jun 10].  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Newton JT, Thorogood N, Gibbons DE. A study of the career development of male and female dental practitioners. Br Dent J 2000;188:90-4.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Newton JT, Gibbons DE. Levels of career satisfaction amongst dental healthcare professionals: Comparison of dental therapists, dental hygienists and dental practitioners. Community Dent Health 2001;18:172-6.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Available from: http://www.Target.study.com.colleges/in/India. [Last accessed on 2013 Jun 10].  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Thomas S. Plenty and scarcity. Br Dent J 2013;214:4.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Naidu RS, Gobin I, Ashraph A, Newton JT, Gibbons DE. The working practices and job satisfaction of dental nurses in Trinidad and Tobago: Findings of a national survey. Int Dent J 2002;52:321-4.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Dental Therapy Technical Advisory Group. Ministry of Health. Recruitment and Practice of Dental Therapists Wellington, Ministry of Health; 2004.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Crossley ML, Mubarik A. A comparative investigation of dental and medical student's motivation towards career choice. Br Dent J 2002;193:471-3.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Cochran WG. Sampling Techniques. 3 rd ed. New York: John Wiley and Sons; 1977.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Gibbons DE, Corrigan M, Newton JT. A national survey of dental hygienists: Working patterns and job satisfaction. Br Dent J 2001;190:207-10.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Gibbons DE, Corrigan M, Newton JT. The working practices and job satisfaction of dental therapists: Findings of a national survey. Br Dent J 2000;189:435-8.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Available from: http://www.studyabroad.careers360.com/brain-drain-boon-developed-countries-bane-india. [Last accessed on 2013 Aug 13].  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Cooper CL, Watts J, Kelly M. Job satisfaction, mental health, and job stressors among general dental practitioners in the UK. Br Dent J 1987;162:77-81.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Humphris GM, Peacock L. Occupational stress and job satisfaction in the community dental service of north Wales: A pilot study. Community Dent Health 1993;10:73-82.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Newton JT, Gibbons DE. Stress in dental practice: A qualitative comparison of dentists working within the NHS and those working within an independent capitation scheme. Br Dent J 1996;180:329-34.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Bali RK, Mathur VB, Tewari A, Jayna P. National Oral Health Policy for India Formulated by Dental Council of India; 1994.  Back to cited text no. 18
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]


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