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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 14  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 84-87

Identification of specific microorganisms in fresh squeezed street vended fruit juices


Department of Public Health Dentistry, Panineeya Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Hyderabad, Telangana, India

Date of Web Publication15-Mar-2016

Correspondence Address:
K Sahithi Reddy
Department of Public Health Dentistry, Panineeya Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Road No. 5, Kamala Nagar, Dilsukhnagar, Hyderabad - 500 060, Telangana
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2319-5932.178728

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  Abstract 

Introduction: In developing country like India, street foods such as salads and fresh cut fruits are widely consumed. Among all street foods, fruit juices are common beverages, consumed more because of higher consumer preference both in terms of taste and health. Moreover, there is a dearth of Indian studies on contamination of street vended fruit juices. Aim: To determine the pH and specific microorganisms in freshly squeezed street vended fruit juices. Materials and Methods: Four fruit juices i.e., Grapes, Sweet Lime, Pineapple and Sapota were chosen for the study. Juices were collected in summer season in months between April and June 2013. Ten samples of 50 ml each fruit juice was collected in sterile bottles from various street vendors of Dilshuknagar area of Hyderabad city. Transportation of samples to Food Toxicology laboratory, National Institute of Nutrition was done in the ice box and processing was done within 2–4 h. Results: All juices showed bacterial contamination except one sample of grape juice. Pineapple juice samples showed the high bacterial contamination with all samples positive for fecal coliforms and Shigella spp. (100%). Salmonella spp. was detected only in one sample of Sapota juice (10%). Significant difference among fruit juices for prevalence of microorganisms was seen only for Escherichia coli (P = 0.03) with least count in Grape juice (20%). Conclusion: Freshly squeezed street vended fruit juices were contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, which significantly attributed to public health problem.

Keywords: Fecal coliforms, fruit juices, street vendors, Vibrio


How to cite this article:
Reddy K S, Reddy B S, Doshi D, Reddy P, Kulkarni S. Identification of specific microorganisms in fresh squeezed street vended fruit juices. J Indian Assoc Public Health Dent 2016;14:84-7

How to cite this URL:
Reddy K S, Reddy B S, Doshi D, Reddy P, Kulkarni S. Identification of specific microorganisms in fresh squeezed street vended fruit juices. J Indian Assoc Public Health Dent [serial online] 2016 [cited 2019 Jun 20];14:84-7. Available from: http://www.jiaphd.org/text.asp?2016/14/1/84/178728


  Introduction Top


Fresh fruit juices are becoming an important part of the modern-day diet as they are well-recognised for their nutritive value. In spite of the potential benefits offered by fruit juices, concerns on their safety and quality have been raised as freshly prepared juices have no processes or steps to minimize microorganisms if they are contaminated.[1] Contamination from raw materials and equipment, processing conditions, improper handling, and prevalence of unhygienic conditions contribute substantially to the entry of bacterial pathogens in juices.[2]

A study by Lewis et al.[3] in Vishakhapatnam city, Andhra Pradesh reported that use of unhygienic water for dilution, dressing with ice, prolonged preservation without refrigeration, unhygienic surroundings often with swarming houseflies and fruit flies and airborne dust also act as sources of infection. Such juices have shown to be potential sources of bacterial pathogens notably Escherichia coli, species of Salmonella, Shigella and Staphylococcus aureus. Likewise, a study in Pune city [4] revealed that cholera epidemic was related to street vended sugar cane juice containing ice.

Street vended fruit juices are well appreciated by consumers, because of their taste, low price and availability at the right time.[5] However, they can be a potential source of foodborne infections and illnesses as supported by a study done on street vended freshly squeezed carrot and kinnow-mandarin juice wherein both the juices were contaminated with Fecal coliforms and Staphylococcal bacteria.[6] When the microorganisms involved are so pathogenic, their correlation with our food is critical from a public health point of view.[7]

Hence, in spite of the flourishing demands for the street vended fruit juices, the threats posed by the contamination of bacterial pathogens in these juices cannot be ignored. With this background, this study was undertaken to identify the specific microorganisms in street vended fruit juices in Hyderabad city.


  Materials and Methods Top


This study was carried out in collaboration with Department of Food and Drug Toxicology Research Center, National Institute of Nutrition (NIN), Hyderabad.

Based on consumer demand four fruit juices, i.e. Grapes, Sweet Lime, Pineapple, and Sapota were chosen for the study. Juices were collected in the summer season in months between April and June 2013. Ten samples of 50 ml each fruit juice was collected in sterile bottles from various street vendors of Dilshuknagar area of Hyderabad city. Transportation of samples to Food Toxicology laboratory, NIN was done in the ice box and processing was done within 2–4 h.

Five milliliters of each fruit juice was taken for estimation of pH and measured using pH meter. Ten milliliters of each juice sample was diluted with 100 ml of Buffer Peptone Water, Selenite Broth base and Listeria Enrichment. From these diluted samples, 100 µl was inoculated onto specific media i.e. Buffer Peptone Water inoculated onto Nutrient Agar (Total Bacterial Count), Baired Pakar Agar (S. aureus), MacConkey Agar (Fecal coliforms, E. coli), Thiosulphate Citrate Bile Sucrose Agar (Vibrio) And Shigella Salmonella Agar (Shigella spp.), Selenite Broth Base To Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate Agar (Salmonella spp.) And Listeria Enrichment Broth to High Listeria Media (Listeria spp.) and incubated for 24 h to 48 h at 37°C. After incubation, staining, and morphological examination was done under microscope followed by confirmation with specific biochemical tests. Using standard methods of bacteriological analytical manual, identification and enumeration of various pathogens was done in log colony forming unit per 100 ml.

The statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS software (version 14; SPSS Ins., Chicago, IL, USA). Descriptive analysis was performed to calculate prevalence, range, the mean and standard deviation for each. Inferential statistics was done using Kruskal–Wallis, analysis of variance and Mann–Whitney U-test. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.


  Results Top


A total of 40 fruit juice samples, 10 of each fruit (Grapes, Sweet Lime. Pineapple And Sapota) was collected from various street juice vendors of Dilsukhnagar area. All juices showed bacterial contamination except one sample of grape juice (90%). Pineapple juice samples showed the high bacterial contamination with all samples positive for Fecal coliforms and Shigella spp. (100%). Salmonella spp. was detected only in one sample of Sapota juice (10%). Significant difference among fruit juices for prevalence of microorganisms was seen only for E. coli (P = 0.03) with least count in Grape juice (20%) [Table 1].
Table 1: Prevalence of microorganisms in freshly squeezed street vended fruit juices

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There was a significant difference in the pH score (P = 0.000) among the fruit juices with least mean pH score noted for Grape juice 3.35 ± 0.31 (2.92–4.00) and highest mean pH score for Sapota juice 5.67 ± 0.26 (5.24–6.13). Likewise, a significant difference was observed for the total bacterial count (P = 0.000) among fruit juices with high mean count observed for Sapota juice 4.30 ± 0.61 (3.17–4.47). When specific pathogens were accounted with fruit juices significant difference was observed for S. aureus (P = 0.03) with the highest count in Sapota juice and for E. coli (P = 0.01) count being highest in Pineapple juice [Table 2].
Table 2: pH, mean and range of microbiological counts (log CFU/100 ml) in freshly squeezed street vended fruit juices

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Pair wise comparison revealed Grapes had a significantly lower mean score for the total bacterial count, S. aureus, Fecal Coliforms and E. coli when compared with other fruit juices.

For all samples significant correlation was noted for the total bacterial count, S. aureus (P = 0.000) and Salmonella spp. (P = 0.02) with pH of the fruit juices. On the other hand, significantly positive correlation was noted between Listeria and Vibrio spp. with Grape juice only [Table 3].
Table 3: Correlation of bacterial counts with pH in freshly squeezed street vended fruit juices

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  Discussion Top


In developing country like India, street foods such as salads and fresh cut fruits are widely consumed, as it provides an affordable source of vitamins and minerals to many sectors of the population.[8],[9] To ensure that food is microbiologically safe, both food handlers and the food itself must be monitored on a regular basis.[10],[11],[12],[13] Among all street foods, fruit juices are common beverages, consumed more because of higher consumer preference both in terms of taste and health.[6] Roadside stalls have local facilities to extract the fresh juice from fruits and then serve to the thirsty customers. Therefore, microbiological quality of fruit juices from street vending stalls and busy market places still remain questionable.[3] Moreover, there is a dearth of Indian studies [1],[2],[3],[9] on contamination of street vended fruit juices.

Dilsukhnagar area in Hyderabad was selected as this is one of the busy areas in the city with a considerably high number of street vending juice stalls. Though many fresh fruit juices such as Grapes, Sweet Lime, Pineapple and Sapota, Pomegranate, Mango are sold by street vendors,[11] based on consumer demand fruit juices namely Grapes, Sweet Lime, Pineapple, and Sapota were chosen for the study. The methodology employed in the present study was similar to that of previous studies.[1],[2],[3],[4]

The sources of contamination for the freshly squeezed street vended fruit juice can be from the fruit itself,[7] water used for dilution and prolonged preservation of fruit pulp and squeezed juice without refrigeration. A study by Ukwo et al.[11] revealed that fruit juices under these conditions are contaminated with E. coli, Salmonella species, Shigella and Staphylococcus species. Furthermore, studies [1],[2],[3],[4],[5],[6],[7] have supported the presence of these common pathogens in most of the street vended fruit juices. Therefore, in this study only these specific microorganisms (E. coli, Salomonella species, Shigella species, Staphylococcus species, Vibrio species, Listeria species and Fecal coliforms) were analyzed.

In this study, though all samples of fruit juices showed some bacterial contamination, the most contaminated was pineapple juice. This was similar to findings of the studies carried out by Tambekar et al.[9] and Mukhopadhya et al.[10] which also revealed that Pineapple juice showed maximum contamination with various types of microorganisms. The reason for high contamination of pineapple juice can be attributed to the fact that pineapple fruit is peeled and kept in open for a considerable time before preparation of the juice.

A study done in Nigeria [11] indicated the presence of Staphylococcus spp. and Fecal coliforms in almost all the study samples of street vended juices. Correspondingly, a study by Lewis et al.,[3] pointed out that all street vended fresh fruit juices in many parts of the Vishakhapatnam city showed contamination with Fecal coliforms Likewise, the findings of this study showed the presence of Fecal coliforms and S. aureus in all samples of fruit juices. This may be due to poor hygienic conditions, contamination via handling and lack of knowledge of hygienic practices.

In this study, the overall mean bacterial count in Grapes juice was less, this can be due to low pH of Grapes juice have been limited the growth of number and types of bacteria.[12] Alike, in Sapota juice mean bacterial count was high when compared to all other samples which could be due to high pH which may initiate the growth of microorganisms.

Due to the logistic reasons only single area of Hyderabad city was selected for sample collection. The results of the present study highlight the risk posed by contamination of fresh squeezed street vended fruit juices. Hence, this study brings to light the importance of monitoring of hygiene practices and educating of street vendors. This study also highlights the need for regular monitoring of the street vendors in order to protect the outbreak of food and water-borne epidemic. Furthermore, the results of the study emphasize the need for food safety agencies to educate street vendors about hygiene practices and supervise them regularly.


  Conclusion Top


Freshly squeezed street vended fruit juices were contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, significantly attributed to public health problem. This study also highlights the need for regular monitoring of the street vendors in order to protect the outbreak of food and water borne epidemic. Hence, this study emphasizes the need for all food safety agencies to educate street vendors about hygiene practices and monitor them regularly.

Acknowlegment

I would like to thank the Department of Food and Drug Toxicology Research Center, National Institute Of Nutrition (NIN), Hyderabad. The head of the department Dr. V. Sudershan Rao sir and his team (kashinath sir, Alekhya and naveen) for permitting me to conduct our study in there esteemed institution.

Financial support and sponsorship

Department of Food and Drug Toxicology Research Center, National Institute of Nutrition (NIN), Hyderabad.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

1.
Mahale DP, Khade RG, Vaidya VK. Microbiological analysis of street vended fruit juices from Mumbai city, India. Internet J Food Saf 2008;10:31-4.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Nicolas B, Razack BA, Yollande I, Aly S, Tidiane OC, Philippe NA, et al. Street-Vended foods improvement: Contamination mechanisms and application of food safety objective strategy: Critical review. Pak J Nutr 2007;6:1-10.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Lewis JE, Thompson P, Rao BV, Kalavati C, Rajanna B. Human bacteria in street vended fruit juices: A case study of Visakhapatnam city, India. Internet J Food Saf 2006;8:35-8.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Mosupye FM, von Holy A. Microbiological quality and safety of ready-to-eat street-vended foods in Johannesburg, South Africa. J Food Prot 1999;62:1278-84.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Ohiokpehai O. Nutritional aspects of street foods in Botswana. Pak J Nutr 2003;2:76-81  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Mudgil S, Aggarwal D, Ganguli A. Microbiological analysis of street vended fresh squeezed carrot and kinnow-mandarin juices in Patiala city, India. Internet J Food Saf 2003;3:1-3.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Bagde NI, Tumane PM. Studies on microbial flora of fruit juices and cold drinks. Asiat J Biotechnol Resour 2011;2:454-60.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Ketema T, Gaddisa T, Bacha K. Microbiological safety of fruit juices served in cafes/Restaurants, Jimma town, Southwest Ethiopia. Ethiop J Health Sci 2008;18:95-100.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Tambekar DH, Jaiswal VJ, Dhanorkar DV, Gulhane PB, Dudhane MN. Microbial quality and safety of street vended fruit juices: A case study of Amravati city. Internet J Food Saf 2009;9:72-76.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Mukhopadhyay M, Majumdar M, Basu P. Microbial contamination of street vended fruit juices in Kolkata city. Internet J Food Saf 2011;13:1-5.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Ukwo SP, Ndaeyo NU, Udoh EJ. Microbiological quality and safety evaluation of fresh juices and edible ice sold in Uyo Metropolis, South-South, Nigeria. Internet J Food Saf 2011;13:374-8.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Braide W, Oranusi SU, Otali CC. Microbiological status of processed fruit juices sold in the Commercial city of Onitsha. J Bio Sci 2012;1:25-30.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Oliveira AC, Seixas AS, Sousa CP, Souza CW. Microbiological evaluation of sugarcane juice sold at street stands and juice handling conditions in São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil. Cad Saude Publica 2006;22:1111-4.  Back to cited text no. 13
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]


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