Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Current issue Search Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 


 
 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 14  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 287-291

Oral health status among health personnel of primary health centers in Mathura district


1 Department of Public Health Dentistry, K. D. Dental College and Hospital, Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Vasantdada Patil Dental College, Sangli, Maharashtra, India

Date of Web Publication6-Sep-2016

Correspondence Address:
Vivek Sharma
Department of Public Health Dentistry, K. D. Dental College and Hospital, Mathura, Uttar Pradesh
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2319-5932.189830

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 

Introduction: Health is dynamic and multifactorial in nature. Oral health is an integral part of general health. Health personnel, especially in primary health centers (PHCs), can play an important role in grooming health in their patients. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the oral health status of health personnel of PHCs. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 520 health personnel working in PHCs of Mathura district in the month of September-October 2014. The WHO Oral Health Assessment Form (2013) was used to collect data from each subject. Comparison of oral health status of various health personnel was also done. Results: In the present study, 45 (8.7%) belonged to the upper socioeconomic class, 295 (56.7%) were from upper-middle socioeconomic class, and 180 (34.6%) were from lower-middle socioeconomic class. The mean decayed missing filled teeth was 1.11 ± 2.63 for doctors, 1.24 ± 3.10 for pharmacists, 1.10 ± 3.55 for lab technicians, 1.78 ± 3.80 for ward boys/ward nurses, 0.25 ± 0.50 for lady health visitors, and 1.53 ± 3.16 for auxiliary nurse midwives. The difference among study subjects according to occupation was statistically significant (P = 0.787). Conclusion: The oral health status of health personnel of Mathura district was moderate. These health workers can serve as a valuable resource for population-based health promotion approaches in achieving health for all.

Keywords: Health personnel, oral health, primary health center


How to cite this article:
Sharma V, Ingle NA, Kaur N, Yadav P, Ingle E. Oral health status among health personnel of primary health centers in Mathura district. J Indian Assoc Public Health Dent 2016;14:287-91

How to cite this URL:
Sharma V, Ingle NA, Kaur N, Yadav P, Ingle E. Oral health status among health personnel of primary health centers in Mathura district. J Indian Assoc Public Health Dent [serial online] 2016 [cited 2019 May 25];14:287-91. Available from: http://www.jiaphd.org/text.asp?2016/14/3/287/189830


  Introduction Top


The concept of primary health centers (PHCs) is not new in India. The Bhore Committee in 1946 gave the concept of a PHC as a basic health unit, to provide, as close to the people as possible, an integrated curative and preventive health care to the rural population with emphasis on preventive and promotive aspects of health care.[1] India is a vast country with the majority of people living in rural areas. Following the Alma Ata declaration of 1978 on the appropriateness of “primary health care,” rural health infrastructure has been designed to cover rural population through subcenters, PHCs, and community health centers. As oral health is an integral component of general health, oral health care has to be delivered through primary health care infrastructure.[2]

Health personnel play a vital role in the rural health care delivery system. Female health personnel should be sensitive and accountable to meet the health needs of the community. Accredited social health activist (ASHA) is a health activist in the community who creates awareness on health. Primary dental care can be a way of achieving good oral health for the community by the integration of oral health care in the existing primary health care activities. This is possible through training of primary health care personnel about oral health.[3]

Health-care facilities in Mathura are provided by the Central, State, and Local Government facilities, besides numerous private providers. Under the second-tier health-care facilities, Mathura urban area has 12 hospitals including 1 district hospital. The military hospital is in the cantonment area and caters to its personnel. In the rural area, there are six community health centers and twenty-nine PHCs.[4],[5] The health personnel, especially in PHCs, can play an important role in grooming health in their patients. Thus, the more conscious the health personnel become about their own oral health maintenance, the more they can practice it in their life and can gradually bring a change in the oral health status of the community through positive oral health promotion. This study was conducted since no earlier study was carried out in Mathura district to assess the oral health status among health personnel of PHCs.

The objectives of the present study were to assess the oral health status of health personnel and to provide necessary guidelines to health personnel.


  Materials and Methods Top


The present study was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out among health personnel of PHCs of Mathura district. There are 29 PHCs in the district. Before scheduling the present study, the ethical clearance was obtained from the Institutional Ethical Committee. Approval from the Chief Medical Officer of District was obtained. Permission for conducting the survey in the PHCs was obtained from the superintendent of respective community health centers. A pilot study was done on one PHC health personnel to check the feasibility. Before the data collection and clinical examination, the purpose and the methodology of the survey were explained to each of the subjects and informed consent was obtained.

This study was carried out among 520 health personnel in PHCs in September-October 2014. All health personnel were included in the study; only ASHAs and multipurpose health personnel are excluded because they have duties in the village and it not possible to collect all of them. Examination of health personnel was done in all 29 PHCs. Subjects who were present on the day of examination and those willing to participate in the study were included in the study. Health personnel absent on the day of examination were examined on the next scheduled date.

The daily and weekly schedules were prepared, and in a single day, maximum of 20–25 subjects were examined. The WHO Oral Health Assessment Form (2013)[6] was used to collect data from each subject.

The collected data were entered in the Microsoft Excel Sheet and analyzed using the SPSS, Version 22.0 statistical package. Chi-square test was used to correlate between knowledge, attitude, and also with the oral health status of the health personnel. P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.


  Results Top


A total of 520 health personnel were selected, out of which 133 (25.6%) were male and 387 (74.4%) were female; 243 (46.7%) belonged to the age group of 20–35 years and about 277 (53.3%) were from the age group of 36–55 years. Among the health personnel of PHCs, 45 (8.7%) were doctors, 25 (4.8%) were pharmacists, 20 (3.8%) were lab technicians, 98 (18.8%) were ward boys/ward nurses, 4 (0.8%) were lady health visitors (LHVs), and 328 (63.1%) were auxiliary nurse midwives (ANMs) [Figure 1] and 243 (46.7%) had experience of 1–10 years and 277 (43.3%) had experience of more than 10 years. None of the subjects had oromucosal lesions, and 45 (8.7%) subjects belonged to the upper socioeconomic class. In total, 262 (50.4%) had healthy dentition status, and 136 (26.2%) had dental caries [Figure 2]. In the present study, the mean decayed missing filled teeth (DMFT) was 1.11 ± 2.63 for doctors, 1.24 ± 3.10 for pharmacists, 1.10 ± 3.55 for lab technicians, 1.78 ± 3.80 for ward boys/ward nurses, 0.25 ± 0.50 for LHVs, and 1.53 ± 3.16 for ANMs. The difference among study subjects according to occupation was not found to be statistically significant (P = 0.787) [Table 1].
Figure 1: Distribution of study subjects according to occupation

Click here to view
Figure 2: Distribution of study subjects according to dentition status

Click here to view
Table 1: Mean decayed missing filled teeth in study subjects according to occupation

Click here to view


Among 520 health personnel, about 81 (15.6%) health personnel had no bleeding on probing 367 (70.6%) [Table 2]. Health personnel had no pockets, 483 (92.9%) [Table 3], and health personnel had no loss of attachment [Table 4].
Table 2: Distribution of study subjects according to periodontal status (bleeding score)

Click here to view
Table 3: Distribution of study subjects according to periodontal status (pocket score)

Click here to view
Table 4: Distribution of study subjects according to loss of attachment

Click here to view


Furthermore, 177 (34.0%) had no dental fluorosis, 139 (26.7%) had questionable dental fluorosis, 145 (27.9%) had very mild dental fluorosis, 35 (6.7%) had mild dental fluorosis, 16 (3.1%) had moderate dental fluorosis, and only 8 (1.5%) health personnel had severe dental fluorosis [Table 5], and total 512 (98.5%) health personnel had no sign of dental erosion [Table 6]. Among the 520 (100%) health personnel, 24 (4.6%) health personnel had no need of treatment, 56 (10.8%) health personnel needed prevention or routine treatment, 427 (82.1%) health personnel had need of prompt treatment (including scaling), and only 13 (2.5%) health personnel needed immediate treatment due to pain or infection [Table 7].
Table 5: Distribution of study subjects according to dental fluorosis

Click here to view
Table 6: Distribution of study subjects according to dental erosion

Click here to view
Table 7: Distribution of study subjects according to need for intervention urgency

Click here to view



  Discussion Top


In our study, a total of 520 (100%) health personnel were selected, out of which 133 (25.6%) were male and 387 (74.4%) were female. Similarly, in a study conducted by Kumar et al.[7] and Sandhya et al.,[2] female health personnel were more than male health personnel, i.e. 155 (56.3%) and 111 (94.1%). In our study, 243 (46.7%) belonged to the age group of 20–35 years and about 277 (53.3%) were from the age group of 36–55 years. In the study conducted by Sandhya et al.,[2] 105 (89%) were from the age group of 20–40 years and 13 (11%) were from the age group of 41–60 years. In the study conducted by Shakya et al.[8] and Kumar et al.,[7] 63 (39.63%) and 198 (72%) were having experience of 1–10 years and 96 (60.37%) and (28%) were having experience more than 10 years, respectively. In our study, 45 (8.7%) were doctors, 25 (4.8%) were pharmacists, 20 (3.8%) were lab technicians, 98 (18.8%) were ward boys/ward nurses, 4 (0.8%) were LHVs, and 328 (63.1%) were ANMs. In other studies conducted by Kumar et al.[7] and Sandhya et al.,[2] there were 80 (30.9%) and 5 (4.2%) doctors, 86 (31.2%) and 26 (23.7%) nurses/multipurpose health assistants, and 56 (20.3%) and 45 (38.1%) Anganwadi personnel, respectively. However, in a study conducted by Hajizamani et al.,[9] 45.6% were auxiliary health personnel and 12.9% were health technicians.

In the present study, the mean distribution of DMFT was 1.11 ± 2.63 for doctors, 1.24 ± 3.10 for pharmacists, 1.10 ± 3.55 for lab technicians, 1.78 ± 3.80 for ward boys/ward nurses, 0.25 ± 0.50 for LHVs, and 1.53 ± 3.16 for ANMs, respectively. The difference among study subjects according to occupation was not found to be statistically significant (P = 0.787). However, in another study conducted by Gangwar et al.,[10] a statistically significant was found in the mean distribution of DMFT (P = 0.006).

Among the 520 (100%) health personnel, 24 (4.6%) health personnel had no need of treatment, 56 (10.8%) health personnel needed prevention or routine treatment, 427 (82.1%) health personnel had need of prompt treatment (including scaling), and only 13 (2.5%) health personnel needed immediate treatment due to pain or infection. Azodo et al.[11] conducted a study among dental auxiliaries, in which 115 (47.5%) of respondents had no need of dental treatment. The perceived treatment needs were scaling and polishing among 82 (33.9%) auxiliaries, fillings among 25 (10.3%), and extraction among 3 (1.2%) auxiliaries. Among the 520 (100%) health personnel, maximum, i.e. 510 (98.1%) and 513 (98.7%), health personnel were not in need of any prosthesis. However, 10 (1.9%) and 7 (1.3%) health personnel needed partial dentures. In the study conducted by Azodo et al.,[11] among dental auxiliaries, only 1 (0.4%) study subject needed a dental prosthesis.

Oral health is not a single entity but comprises many parameters affected by a multitude of factors such as diet and oral hygiene. While assessing the oral health status of health personnel, effects of these confounding factors on the oral health had not been taken into consideration. There were many more health personnel, such as Anganwadi personnel, ASHAs, and multipurpose health personnel, who were not included in the study because they have duties in interior villages and it is not possible to collect all of them.

Systematic community-oriented oral health promotion programs are needed to improve the oral health, oral health knowledge, and attitude of health personnel. Even though oral health is not considered to be of sufficient importance by them now, an awareness of dental health among the health personnel itself could be a beginning. These health personnel can serve as a valuable resource for population-based health promotion approaches in achieving health for all. Continuing dental education programs may be conducted to improve their knowledge and attitude about various dental problems.


  Conclusion Top


The oral health status of health personnel of Mathura district was moderate. These health workers can serve as a valuable tool for population-based health promotion approaches in achieving health for all.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

1.
Park K. Park's Text Book of Preventive and Social Medicine. 22nd ed. Jabalpur: Bhanott; 2012. p. 678-9.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Sandhya MP, Shanthi M, Fareed N, Sudhir KM, Krishna Kumar RV. Effectiveness of oral health education among primary health care personnel at the primary health center in Nellore district, Andhra Pradesh. J Indian Assoc Public Health Dent 2014;12:74-9.  Back to cited text no. 2
  Medknow Journal  
3.
Haloi R, Ingle NA, Kaur N. Oral health related knowledge, attitude and practices amongst Anganwadi personnel of Mathura district. Direct Res J Health Pharmacol 2014;2:14-9.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Urban Health Initiative (UHI) Organization. Mathura City Expanding Contraceptive Use in Urban UP; 2010. p. 1-3.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Statistics Division Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Government of India. Rural Health Statistics in India; 2012. p. 45-9.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
World Health Organization. Oral Health Survey – Basic Methods. 5th ed. Delhi: A.I.T.B.S. Publishers and Distributors; 2013.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Kumar R, Samrongthong R, Shaikh BT. Knowledge, attitude and practices of health staff regarding infectious waste handling of tertiary care health facilities at metropolitan city of Pakistan. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2013;25:109-12.  Back to cited text no. 7
[PUBMED]    
8.
Shakya A, Rao A, Shenoy R, Shrestha M. Oral health related knowledge and attitude of Anganwadi personnel of Mangalore city, India. J Chitwan Med Coll 2013;3:6-8.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Hajizamani A, Malek Mohammadi T, Hajmohammadi E, Shafiee S. Integrating oral health care into primary health care system. ISRN Dent 2012;2012:657068.  Back to cited text no. 9
[PUBMED]    
10.
Gangwar C, Kumar M, Nagesh L. KAP toward oral health, oral hygiene and dental caries status among Anganwadi personnel in Bareilly city, Uttar Pradesh: A cross-sectional survey. J Dent Sci Oral Rehabil 2014;5:53-7.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Azodo CC, Ehizele AO, Umoh A, Ojehanon PI, Akhionbare O, Okechukwu R, et al. Perceived oral health status and treatment needs of dental auxiliaries. Libyan J Med 2010;5:1-5.  Back to cited text no. 11
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Materials and Me...
Results
Discussion
Conclusion
References
Article Figures
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed661    
    Printed6    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded140    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]