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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 18  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 25-30

Effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy compared with basic health education for tobacco cessation among smokers: A randomized controlled trial


Department of Public Health Dentistry, Government Dental College and Research Institute, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Mohammed Umar Farooq
Department of Public Health Dentistry, Government Dental College and Research Institute, Bengaluru, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_106_19

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Background: Tobacco is a risk factor for oral cancer, adult periodontal diseases, and cleft lip and palate in children. Tobacco cessation counseling has been shown to improve the likelihood of achieving success for quitting the habits. Aim: This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) compared with basic health education (BHE) for tobacco cessation among smokers in Bengaluru city. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted over a period of 6 months among smokers attending a tobacco cessation center in a dental college in Bengaluru city. The participants were assigned to either CBT or BHE groups with 1:1 allocation sequence ratio. Randomization and allocation concealment were done by an investigator who had no clinical involvement in the trial. Nicotine dependence was assessed using the Fagerstrom's Addiction Scale for smokers, while motivational levels were assessed using Transtheoretical model. The groups were followed up for 4 and 12 weeks. Statistical analysis was done using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 22.0, IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). Paired and unpaired “t“-tests, Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and analysis of variance test were applied. Statistical significance was considered atP < 0.05. Results: Majority of the study participants started smoking at an early age and had long duration and cigarette smoking years. Among CBT group, the mean Fagerstrom's addiction score at baseline (4.8 ± 7.3) significantly reduced (3.8 ± 3.1) at the 1st follow-up and at the 2nd follow-up (3.5 ± 8.9) (P < 0.001). The proportion of smokers with frequency more than ten cigarettes per day reduced from baseline (P = 0.16) to the 2nd follow-up (P = 0.07) in CBT group compared to BHE group. Conclusion: CBT is effective in reducing tobacco habits and addiction levels when compared to BHE among smokers. Tobacco cessation counseling using CBT has been found to reduce smoking habits, thereby improving the possibility of quitting the habits.


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