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LETTERS TO EDITOR
Updated BG Prasad socioeconomic classification for 2016
Mahesh Ravindra Khairnar, Umesh Wadgave, Pranali Vinayak Shimpi
Oct-Dec 2016, 14(4):469-470
DOI:10.4103/2319-5932.195832  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Knowledge, attitude, and practices of oral hygiene among college students in Bengaluru city
V Gopikrishna, Nithin N Bhaskar, Smitha B Kulkarni, Jeswin Jacob, KG Sourabha
January-March 2016, 14(1):75-79
DOI:10.4103/2319-5932.178726  
Introduction: Poor oral health can have a profound effect on the quality of life. The experience of pain, endurance of dental abscesses, problems with eating and chewing, embarrassment about the shape of teeth or about missing, discolored or damaged teeth can adversely affect people's daily lives and well-being. Aim: To assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices of oral hygiene among college students in Bengaluru city. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted using a self-administered 21-item structured questionnaire that assessed oral health and hygiene knowledge, attitudes, and practices of 499 students from various professions. 202 engineering students, 99 MBA/BBM students, 99 nursing students, and 99 students from B.Com. The study was conducted during June and July 2013. The results were analyzed by descriptive statistics and Chi-square test using SPSS version 14. All tests were set at a 0.05 significance level. Results: The toothbrush with toothpaste is the most common oral hygiene aid used for cleaning teeth, which was adopted by 304 (60.9%) students. More than half 287 (57.5) of the students felt that dental caries affected their esthetics. 358 (71.7) students felt that the health of the mouth and dentition had an impact on the health of the body. Conclusion: The toothbrush with toothpaste is the most common oral hygiene aid used for cleaning teeth; it was observed that a greater number of students brushed their teeth in the morning. Dental pain was the main reason to visit a dentist.
  6,287 748 1
REVIEW ARTICLE
Dentistry meets nature-role of herbs in periodontal care: A systematic review
Venisha Pandita, Basavaraj Patthi, Ashish Singla, Shipli Singh, Ravneet Malhi, Vaibhav Vashishtha
July-September 2014, 12(3):148-156
DOI:10.4103/2319-5932.144784  
Background: Natural products have been used for several years in folk medicine. Over the last decade herbal medications turned out to be a popular form of therapy throughout the world when used in prophylaxis and treatment of various diseases. Many side-effects associated with modern medicines have been averted by using herbal medicines, and thus they are safer to use. Objective: The aim was to evaluate the effect of herbs on the periodontal diseases. Data Source: A literature review was performed in PubMed Central and Cochrane library using MeSH Terms - herbal medicine, periodontitis, and dentistry. Materials and Methods: Of a total 368 titles appeared 39 were related to the research question. Further search criteria were applied to the articles, of which 13 articles fulfilled the criteria and were selected for the review. Five articles that were hand searched were also included. Results and Conclusion: In the available literature, it was found that the low toxicity of herbs encourage further investigation that leads to a better understanding of alternative medicine for prevention of plaque formation and strengthening of the gums, as well as in reducing the incidence of periodontal infections.
  5,170 959 3
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Reasons for smoking among the teenagers of age 14–17 years in Vikarabad town: A cross-sectional study
Md Shakeel Anjum, Madipally Kumar Srikanth, P Parthasarathi Reddy, M Monica, K Yadav Rao, A Sheetal
January-March 2016, 14(1):80-83
DOI:10.4103/2319-5932.178733  
Background: Despite widespread knowledge of the health consequences, tobacco use, especially smoking is common globally. Most of the youngsters become smokers annually and one-third of them are believed to die due to tobacco use. Aim: To assess the various reasons for smoking among teenagers of age 14–17 years. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted on 384 teenagers to know their views regarding the reasons for smoking habit. A specially designed pretested questionnaire was used for the survey. Results: Majority of 76.4% of the study subjects agreed that smoking habit gives psychological pleasure, 77.5% agreed that smoking starts because of friends, and 65.7% felt that smoking starts as an inspiration for outlook and personality. Conclusion: Various psychological factors, personal factors, and social factors are attached with smoking habit.
  5,687 365 1
Knowledge and attitude towards preventive dental care among dental faculties in Bangalore city
Nikhil Ahuja, M Pramila, Archana Krishnamurthy, GK Umashankar, Ranganath , Nitya Sharma
April-June 2014, 12(2):93-99
DOI:10.4103/2319-5932.140261  
Background and Objectives: Preventive approach in dental practice has been cited as a reason for the decline in oral diseases and as a predominant part of the service-mix of dental practices in the future. Dental faculty's knowledge and attitude toward prevention are important, since they have exceptionally important direct and indirect roles in shaping student's preventive orientation and also potentially influencing their patient's ability to take care of their teeth. Thus, this study was conducted to assess knowledge and attitudes toward preventive dental care among dental faculties and their relation to demographic and professional characteristics. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among dental faculties in Bangalore city. Of 17 dental colleges, 4 were selected by simple random sampling. A total of 218 dental faculties was individually asked to complete a pretested questionnaire. The questionnaire requested information on dental faculty's demographic and professional characteristics and their knowledge and attitudes toward preventive dental care. Descriptive, Chi-square tests, and ANOVA were used to analyze the data. Results: The highest knowledge was seen among dental faculties regarding prevention of malocclusion (3.51 ± 1.02) followed by oral cancer (2.95 ± 1.09) and periodontal diseases (2.86 ± 1.02). The least knowledge was seen for the prevention of caries (2.63 ± 1.35). The most positive attitudes regarding preventive dentistry was characterized as being essential (6.34 ± 1.05), useful (6.32 ± 1.07) and valuable (6.27 ± 1.00). Statistically significant differences were found in relation to knowledge and attitudes for all demographic and professional characteristics except for gender and Department of Teaching. Conclusion: Dental faculty seems to have differing levels of knowledge regarding oral diseases with positive attitudes seen regarding preventive dentistry. Continuing education activities and placing emphasis on prevention-related research are recommended.
  4,723 562 -
Assessment of oral health awareness among undergraduate Medical Students in Davangere city: A cross-sectional survey
BK Sujatha, Puja C Yavagal, Mary Shimi S Gomez
January-March 2014, 12(1):43-46
DOI:10.4103/2319-5932.138958  
Background: Oral health is an integral part of general health. It is an essential component of health throughout the life of an individual. Certain systemic diseases can manifest in the oral cavity. Majority of the population approach medical practitioners for their oral health problems at primary health center level. Hence, general practitioners should have adequate knowledge about oral health and also they should play an active role in oral health promotion. Aim: The aim was to assess oral health awareness among undergraduate medical students in Davangere city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a self-structured, pre-tested, closed-ended questionnaire consisting of 25 questions with options on Likert scale. All the undergraduate students of JJM Medical college and SS Medical colleges were included for the survey. Questions were related to oral health problems and their relation with general health. The data was collected, compiled, and analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: Only 25% of the undergraduate students were found to have good oral health awareness, 38% were found to have fair and 37% were found to have poor oral health awareness. Final year undergraduate medical students were found to have better oral health awareness (40%), when compared to second (13%) and third year students (23%) (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Oral health awareness among undergraduate medical students was found to be poor. Final year undergraduate students were found to have better oral health awareness.
  3,887 561 -
Effect of long-term smoking on salivary flow rate and salivary pH
Mala Singh, Navin Anand Ingle, Navpreet Kaur, Pramod Yadav, Ekta Ingle
January-March 2015, 13(1):11-13
DOI:10.4103/2319-5932.153549  
Introduction: Saliva is a complex and important body fluid which is very essential for oral health and it is the first biological fluid that is exposed to cigarette smoke, which contains numerous toxic compositions responsible for structural and functional changes in saliva. Aim: To evaluate the long-term effect of smoking on salivary flow rate (SFR) and salivary pH. Materials and Methods: The subjects of the study were divided into smokers and nonsmokers. Each group comprised of 35 male adults. The saliva of each subject was collected under resting conditions. They were asked to spit in a graduated container at an interval of 60 s for 5 min. Salivary pH was measured immediately after measuring SFR using the (Indikrom Paper) pH indicator and calibrated cylinder. Based on the color change of the indicator paper strip, the pH was assessed in comparison with a color chart. Data were analyzed by Student's t-test using SPSS 15. Results: The mean (±standard deviation) SFR and pH were 0.20 (±0.05) ml/min and 6.30 (±0.36) respectively in smokers while the mean SFR and pH were 0.36 (±0.06) ml/min and 7.10 (±0.24) in nonsmokers. The difference was statistically significant (P = 0.00). Conclusion: Long-term smoking significantly reduces the SFR and salivary pH.
  3,657 764 -
Ill effects of smoking on general and oral health: Awareness among college going students
Yash Paul, Nitin Soni, Rohit Vaid, P Basavaraj, Nitin Khuller
January-March 2014, 12(1):47-53
DOI:10.4103/2319-5932.138963  
Purpose: This cross-sectional study assessed smoking-related behaviors, experiences, beliefs, knowledge, and prevalence among a sample of college going students. It helped to inform them about the different nicotine replacement therapies (NRTs) available for the cessation of the habit. Materials and Methods: After gaining informed consent, 500 college going students (18-25 years age group) of Swami Devi Dyal Group of Colleges, who are smokers and also willing to participate in the study were surveyed regarding their awareness about and prevalence of ill effects of smoking. The survey was conducted by employing a uniform questionnaire. The questionnaire assessed about the tobacco use, no of cigarettes they smokes every day, what form of smoking do they prefer, early smoking experiences and sensations, factors that might motivate a quit attempt, ill effects of smoking on oral health, other psychosocial variables associated with adolescent smoking and about the different NRTs available. The feedback hence obtained was condensed in the form of objective results, which were analyzed to arrive at meaningful conclusions. Results and Conclusion: According to the study as many as about 90% of the students have reasonably good chances of succeeding in quitting smoking. However, the overwhelming majority (96%) had no idea about different NRTs. This shows a stark lack of awareness as to the means that can help them quit the habit. Thus, we get a clear vision as to the direction of our efforts and feel optimistic as to the outcome too.
  3,430 424 -
Patient satisfaction with the dental services offered by a dental Hospital in India
N Nagappan, Joseph John
October-December 2014, 12(4):297-301
DOI:10.4103/2319-5932.147669  
Introduction: A major component of quality of health care is patient satisfaction. Patient satisfaction is multifaceted and a very challenging outcome to define. Patient expectations of care and attitudes greatly contribute to the satisfaction; other psychosocial factors, including facilities and treatments services are also known to contribute to patient satisfaction scores. Aim: To measure patient satisfaction about facilities, services and treatments offered by a dental hospital in India. Materials and Methods: Self administrated questionnaire was distributed to outpatients reporting to the dental hospital for treatment. The questionnaire consisted of 30 items that included information about personal data of the patients and their satisfaction with the facilities, services and treatment received in the hospital. Results: About 89.9% of patients felt that the cost of dental hygiene services were reasonable, 57.6% of patients felt that drinking water facilities were enough in the hospital, 31.9% of patients felt that they have problem with scheduling appointments, 86% of patients felt that they had problem in contacting student dentist. Conclusion: The majority of the patients were satisfied with the facilities, services and treatment received at hospital except for facilities such as water supply and scheduling appointments with patient convenience.
  3,155 469 -
In vitro activity of ethanolic and water extract of guava leaves at various concentrations against Lactobacillus acidophilus
Deepika Jain, Pralhad Dasar, Sandesh Nagarajappa, Sandeep Kumar, Bhuvnesh Airen, Shilpa Warhekar
July-September 2014, 12(3):232-236
DOI:10.4103/2319-5932.144809  
Introduction: Chemical substances used for prevention of dental caries are known to have many side-effects. Thus, natural products should be explored for their anticaries action. Objectives: To prepare 5% and 20% concentrations of ethanolic and water extracts of guava leaves and to assess their activity against Lactobacillus acidophilus. Materials and Methods: In vitro experimental study was conducted in Department of Biosciences. Ethanolic and water extracts of guava leaves were prepared using Soxhlet extractor. Two concentrations 5% and 20% weight/volume of both extracts were prepared. Test organism L. acidophilus Microbial Type Culture Collection 447 was obtained in lyophillized form. After revival in nutrient broth, bacteria were grown on Lactobacilli de Man, Rogosa, Sharpe agar for further experiment. Antimicrobial testing of extracts was done using Agar well-diffusion method. Ten plates each were prepared for both extracts. Chlorhexidine (0.2%) served as a positive control and distilled water as a negative control. Results: Mean zone of inhibition produced by 5% and 20% ethanolic extract was 11.2 mm and 14.1 mm respectively and by 5% and 20% water extract was 1.6 mm and 5.1 mm respectively. Statistical analysis of results using one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey's test revealed that activity of 5% ethanolic extract and 5%, 20% water extract was significantly less than that of 0.2% chlorhexidine. There was no statistical difference in efficacy of 20% ethanolic extract of guava and 0.2% chlorhexidine (P = 0.270). Conclusion: Ethanolic and water extracts of guava leaves possess antibacterial activity against L. acidophilus with 20% ethanolic extract being as efficacious as 0.2% chlorhexidine.
  3,096 413 -
Effectiveness of oral health education among primary health care workers at the primary health center in Nellore district, Andhra Pradesh
Muthyala Pavana Sandhya, M Shanthi, Nusrath Fareed, KM Sudhir, R.V.S Krishna Kumar
April-June 2014, 12(2):74-79
DOI:10.4103/2319-5932.140252  
Background: Primary dental care can be a way of achieving good oral health for the community. This can be achieved by integration of oral health care with the existing primary health care activities through training of primary health care workers on aspects of oral health. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of oral health education among primary health care workers at the primary health center (PHC) in Nellore district, Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: Descriptive longitudinal study was conducted from June 2010 to August 2010 at a PHC. Knowledge about oral health among primary health care workers was pretested using a self-administered questionnaire prepared in local language (Telugu). Later after a month health education was provided to the health workers, and pamphlets with information on oral health were distributed. Posttest assessment was done 1-month after providing health education using the same questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS 12.0 software, Student's t-test was used to compare knowledge scores between pre and posttests. Results: A total of 118 Primary Health Care Workers with the majority in the 20-30 years age group participated in the study. Posttest assessment showed a change in knowledge level with an overall increase in knowledge level of primary health care workers with a mean difference of 12.56 ± 3.23, which was highly significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The knowledge about oral health was poor, and it improved after providing health education to primary health care workers. Change in knowledge was appreciable and may play a key role in oral health promotion of the vast majority of the rural population.
  2,889 490 -
Development and psychometric testing of a visual analog scale for dental fluorosis
R Ramya, CG Ajithkrishnan, K Thanveer
January-March 2014, 12(1):4-8
DOI:10.4103/2319-5932.138898  
Objectives: The aim was to develop and psychometrically test a visual analog scale (VAS) for dental fluorosis. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, esthetic perceptions of varying severities of fluorosis in permanent maxillary incisor teeth presented in 36 photographs were graded on a 10 cm VAS by two groups - an expert panel of dental specialists and lay group comprising 1 st year dental students. The photographs were also graded using Thylstrup-Fejerskov index (TFI). Inter and intra-examiner reliability testing and comparison of specialists' and 1 st year students' perceptions were made using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Mean VAS values were validated against TFI scores using Spearman correlation coefficient. Results: A VAS for dental fluorosis was constructed with the help of mean values of subjective ratings for each of the photographs. Inter-rater reliability was found to be moderate (ICC = 0.59). The intra-rater reliability for both the lay group (ICC range: 0.91-0.98) and dental specialists' group (ICC range: 0.87-0.98) was found to be excellent. High correlation was obtained between lay group's and dental specialists' perception of fluorosis on VAS (r = 0.93). VAS scores correlated moderately with TFI scores for the photographs (Spearman's ρ = 0.725). All the findings were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The developed VAS was found to be a valid and reliable tool to assess dental fluorosis. Validation of the scale on a larger sample from the general population is recommended before it is applied in clinical and epidemiological settings.
  2,916 337 -
Public attitude towards dentists and dental services in Bangalore city, India
Nagashree Savanur Ravindranath, Arunadevi Manikyam
April-June 2014, 12(2):100-105
DOI:10.4103/2319-5932.140264  
Background: Understanding public attitude towards dentists and dental services helps both dental service providers and planners. Hence, this study was conducted to assess public attitude toward dentists and dental services in Bangalore city, India. Methods: Two thousand residents of Bangalore city were selected through multistage cluster sampling method. A structured questionnaire containing statements pertaining to public attitude toward dentists and dental services in Bangalore city was administered to the subjects. Five point Likert scale was used to measure the attitude. Results: About 67.8% of the study subjects had visited a dentist in their lifetime. Negative attitudes were observed regarding waiting time, cleanliness of instruments and dentist advising patients to give up unhealthy practices such as smoking, drinking and pan chewing. Positive attitude was found regarding availability of dental services near place of residence or work, modern equipments being used for treatment and the nobleness of the dental professionals. About 67% of study subjects felt that dental services are expensive. Only 65% agree that regular check-ups prevent dental diseases and 33% of the study subjects agree that dental treatment can be delayed if there are other expenses. Conclusions: Subjects generally had positive attitude toward dentists and dental services. Certain factors like waiting time and cleanliness elicited negative response.
  2,737 397 -
Prevalence of precancerous lesions and conditions in Telangana region, Andhra Pradesh, India
B Hari Vinay, P Venkat Baghirath, J Vijay Kumar, Arvind
January-March 2014, 12(1):23-27
DOI:10.4103/2319-5932.138904  
Aim: To assess the prevalence of oral precancerous lesions and conditions and to determine the potential risk factors associated among general population aged 20-70 years of Telangana region, Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: An oral screening campaign was organized with the help of local general dental practitioners in each district. All the relevant information regarding the subject was documented and clinical examination of the oral soft tissues was carried out. Clinically diagnosed as precancerous lesion or condition were subjected to punch (incisional biopsy) biopsy and evaluated histopathologically to confirm the diagnosis. Results: Among 1200 screened, 150 subjects were chewers and 136 subjects were smokers with 29 chewers and 16 smokers had precancerous lesions and conditions. An overall prevalence of oral precancerous lesions and conditions were found to be 4.2% (males 5.5%; females 2.5%). Leukoplakia was seen in 0.8%, Oral submucous fibrosis in 1.3% and lichen planus in 2% of the study population. Conclusions: The prevalence of precancerous lesions and conditions in our study is higher when compared with the reports from different parts of the country and in South East Asia. These lesions can be prevented from malignant transformation by mass screening, close monitoring, early detection, appropriate treatment plan and prognosis.
  2,710 396 -
An epidemiological data of oral health status and treatment needs of rural population of Nellore district, Andhra Pradesh, India
Deepthi Athuluru, V Chandrasekhara Reddy, KM Sudhir, R.V. S Krishna Kumar, Srinivasulu Gomasani, Sreenivas Nagarakanti
July-September 2016, 14(3):281-286
DOI:10.4103/2319-5932.187179  
Introduction: As India is the second highest populated country and approximately 72% of this population live in rural areas, an attempt has been made to assess the prevalence of oral diseases in rural areas. Aim: To assess the prevalence of oral diseases in 5, 12, 35–44, and 65–74 years old population in rural areas of Nellore district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out using multistage cluster sampling methodology, and random samples of participants were selected. Data were collected on sociodemographic details, oral hygiene practices, and clinical oral health data collected according to the World Health Organization methodology criteria and simplified oral hygiene index. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test and linear and logistic regression. Results: Among 35–44 and 65–74 years age group, 54.1% and 42.2% of the population showed poor oral hygiene status. At age 12 years, 51% of children had caries; mean decayed, missing, filled teeth was 3.24 in 35–44 years and 12.01 in 65–74 years. Extraction was the most required treatment (52.1%) for older people, pulp care therapy for 12 years old (16.5%) and 35–44 years old (23.2%). Community periodontal index score 2 was dominant in 12 years old (30.5%) and 35–44 years old (54.6%) and score 3 in 65–74 years (46.9%) population. Definite malocclusion was seen in 18% of 12 years old population. All the independent variables were related to caries and periodontal status (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The study population was characterized by high prevalence of dental caries, periodontal diseases, and poor oral hygiene status, and age of the population is the most associated factor for dental caries and periodontal diseases.
  2,517 360 -
Dermatoglyphics: An indicator of dental caries in humans
BR Chinmaya, BV Smitha, Shourya Tandon, Charu Khurana
July-September 2016, 14(3):272-275
DOI:10.4103/2319-5932.187175  
Introduction: Fingerprint analysis for personal identification is well-known, as it is unique to all individuals and remains unchanged over a lifetime. Now it is getting identified as a useful tool in understanding the basic questions in genetics and is emerging as an independent field in dentistry as dermatoglyphics. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess if any relationship can be established between fingerprint patterns with dental caries. Materials and Methods: A total of 76 dental students aged 18–26 years were selected using simple random sampling. Their fingerprints were recorded with duplicating InkPad and analyzed by Cummins Method and caries experience was clinically assessed by decayed, missing, and filled teeth index. Results: The dental caries experience was highest among students with whorl pattern (μ = 2.82) followed by the central pocket loop (μ = 2.60) and least among students with loop pattern (μ = 1.58). Furthermore, a significant relationship between twin loop pattern and dental caries was noticed (μ = 2.41); however, a negative correlation was observed for loops and arches with dental caries. Conclusion: The dental caries experience of an individual was associated fingerprints. Dermatoglyphics may be considered as a indicator of dental caries in humans.
  2,468 392 -
Drug prescription awareness among the 3 rd year and final year dental students: A cross-sectional survey
Ankita Jain, Dara John Bhaskar, Devanand Gupta, Priyanka Yadav, Deepak Ranjan Dalai, Vikas Jhingala, Yogesh Garg, Monika Kalra
January-March 2015, 13(1):73-78
DOI:10.4103/2319-5932.153598  
Introduction: Prescribing is the act of indicating one or more drugs to be administered to or taken by the patient, its dosage, and the duration of the treatment. It is a dynamic and individualized clinical process. Prescription has unique characteristics, but it may be inclined by cultural, social, economic and promotional factors. Aim: The aim was to evaluate the knowledge of drug prescription in 3 rd year and final year students at a private dental college. Methodology: A semi-structured questionnaire was used to 150 male and female, 3 rd year and 4 th year students of a private dental college from April 2014 to May 2014. The questionnaire consisted of 10 open-ended questions. Results: The main reason for prescribing medication was pain. The most commonly used nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs were diclofenac, followed by paracetamol and ketorolac. The most extensively prescribed antibiotics were amoxicillin. The main reasons for errors done by students were limited knowledge about correct posology of drugs. Students get their information for drug prescription mainly from professors, followed by classmates and pharmacology course. Most of the students were unaware about the Guide to Good Prescribing by World Health Organization. About 56.67% students had knowledge about dose of the drug prescribed. Conclusion: Pain was found to be the most significant reason for drug prescription. Amoxicillin was the most widely used antibiotic. Lack of knowledge about the posology of drug was the main reason for the error done by students.
  2,437 423 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Effectiveness of sodium fluoride mouthrinses on the prevention of dental caries: A systematic review
P Jagan, Nusrath Fareed, Hemanth Battur, Sanjeev Khanagar, Manohara Bhat, Rajeev Basapathy
April-June 2015, 13(2):110-115
DOI:10.4103/2319-5932.159042  
Background: Caries inhibitory effect of fluoride has been known for about a century. The use of mouthrinses as a vehicle for applying fluoride in a self-administered preventive program was first proposed by Bibby et al. in 1946. Since then sodium fluoride (NaF) mouthrinses have been used extensively as a caries-preventive measure. Aim: To determine the effectiveness of NaF mouthrinses in the prevention of Dental Caries through a systematic review. Materials and Methods: A search strategy for the review was carried out according to the standard Joanna Briggs Institute systematic review methodology. An electronic search was carried out in PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Library from 1970 to 2012. Hand search was conducted through the reference list of articles. The main intention of our investigation was to check the amount of reduction in clinical dental caries. Of 657 articles originally identified, 35 records were considered potentially eligible and sought for further assessment. Results: A total of 28 articles met the inclusion criteria and were assessed independently for methodology and performance. Randomized control study design was followed in 17 studies mainly at evidence level; 2 with a preventive fraction ranging from 16% to 65%. The reported mean annual caries reduction among adolescents was 0.76. Conclusion: Daily or weekly NaF mouthrinses had a significant caries reduction among adolescents. Daily and weekly/fortnightly rinse programs showed an average of 39% fewer decayed-missing-filled-surface. Daily use of NaF had a slightly higher caries reduction rate. Not enough data are available to show the effect of fluoride mouth rinsing programs on deciduous dentition.
  2,328 521 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Knowledge, attitude, and practices in research among postgraduate students in dental institutions in Bengaluru City, India
Nitya Sharma, M Pramila, Archana Krishnamurthy, GK Umashankar, Ranganath , Nikhil Ahuja
July-September 2014, 12(3):189-193
DOI:10.4103/2319-5932.144793  
Introduction: Research is not a separate specialty which is practiced by a few, but it is a systematic approach of reasoning, documenting, analyzing, and reporting unusual clinical observations that we come across in everyday clinical practice. This study was conducted to assess research-related knowledge, attitude, and practices among postgraduate students in dental institutions in Bangalore city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a structured and validated questionnaire. A sample size of 210 postgraduate students was determined. Study was conducted among 2 nd and 3 rd year postgraduate students in 4 randomly selected dental institutions. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, and Student's t-test were used to analyze the data. Results: The average percentage of correct responses was 56.7% and 52.6% in 3 rd year and 2 nd year postgraduate students, respectively. Overall, positive attitude was seen in both the groups and was significantly more in 3 rd years in relation to improvement of patient outcome with research and importance of research training during the post graduate course. Research in practice was carried out by 56.9% and 36% of 3 rd and 2 nd year postgraduate students, respectively. The most common obstacle stated for research was the lack of adequate financial and technical facilities for research. Conclusion: The study revealed fair knowledge and a positive attitude toward research but postgraduates failed to transform it into actual practice.
  2,416 420 -
Dentistry as a career: Motives and perception of dental students attending Dental Colleges in Bengaluru city, Karnataka, India
M Rashmi, Karim Virjee, T Satish Yadava, N Vijayakumar, M Shoba
July-September 2014, 12(3):194-198
DOI:10.4103/2319-5932.144796  
Introduction: The present study reflects a profile of dental students and their attitudes toward dentistry. Aim: The aim was to determine the motives and perceptions of undergraduate and postgraduate dental students attending Dental Colleges in Bangalore city. Subjects and Methods: All the Dental Colleges in the Bangalore city were included in this study. The students were asked to complete a questionnaire consisting 25 questions. The influence of certain factors was scored on a scale from 1 to 9. Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test. Results: Two hundred and thirty-three (38.83%) students had dentistry as a first choice. In the present study, "caring profession" (94.33%) and private practice (25.6%) were the motives for choosing dentistry. Factor analysis was performed for Q9-23; the 15 questions were grouped under five factors: Influence, profession, flexibility, remuneration, and versatility. The level of agreement scores decreased from 1 st year B.D.S students to post graduate students. Conclusions: For selecting dentistry as a career job security, caring profession, flexibility, self-employment and prestigious profession were found to be important motivating and perception factors. Majority of students indicated that dentistry was not their first choice of career. Hence, it may be a good idea to establish educational programs in colleges to educate students on their career choices.
  2,420 326 -
Relationship between untreated dental caries and dental neglect among mentally handicapped children: A cross-sectional study
Amit Kumar, Manjunath P Puranik, KR Sowmya
April-June 2015, 13(2):126-132
DOI:10.4103/2319-5932.159046  
Introduction: Dental caries is the most prevalent disease among mentally handicapped (MH) children worldwide. Dental neglect may throw light on complex relationships between individual behavior, environmental factors, and dental caries in children. Objectives: The objective was to assess the prevalence and severity of untreated dental caries and to explore the relationship between untreated dental caries and dental neglect among MH children and healthy children in Bangalore city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted on 130, 6-17 years MH and 152 healthy school children in Bangalore city. A questionnaire on the children's sociodemographic background, oral health-related behaviors, and dental neglect scale was completed by the parents. Caries was assessed according to World Health Organization criteria (1997). Odontogenic infections were recorded using the pufa/PUFA index. Statistical tests such as Mann-Whitney U-test, Chi-square test, Spearmans correlation, and step-wise linear regression were performed at significance level P < 0.05. Results: Dental caries was present in 89.2% of MH children as compared with 88.15% of the healthy children. Caries experience significantly correlated with consequences of untreated dental caries in both the groups (P = 0.001). No statistical significant correlation was observed between dental neglect and dental caries experience and its consequences in both the groups. Conclusions: High prevalence of dental caries and dental neglect in both the groups calls for an integrated approach. Oral health promotion and intervention programs should be targeted and concentrated toward these risk groups.
  2,188 423 2
Oral health status of battery factory workers in Kanpur city: A cross-sectional study
Suchi Khurana, C Jyothi, CL Dileep, K Jayaprakash
April-June 2014, 12(2):80-87
DOI:10.4103/2319-5932.140254  
Background: The oral cavity is vulnerable to external agents and some occupational exposures are associated with oral changes in both hard and soft tissues. Objectives: To assess oral health status in battery factory workers of Kanpur city and to describe the prevalence and nature of oral health problems among workers. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 battery workers were enrolled and divided into study and control groups based on acid exposure. The data was recorded on a modified World Health Organization 1997 proforma. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 15.0. The categorical variables were compared using Chi-square test for proportions while the quantitative ordinal variables were compared using Mann-Whitney U-test. Quantitative continuous variables were compared using Independent samples t-test. Results: The mean age of all the workers surveyed was 36.24 years. Differences in the erosion, oral hygiene and gingival index scores among the two groups were highly significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Oral health status was poor and significantly associated with dental erosion.
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Evaluation of efficacy of a commercially available herbal mouthwash on dental plaque and gingivitis: A double-blinded parallel randomized controlled trial
Sanjukta Bagchi, Sabyasachi Saha, GV Jagannath, Vamsi Krishna Reddy, Pooja Sinha
July-September 2015, 13(3):222-227
DOI:10.4103/2319-5932.165210  
Aim: To evaluate if a commercially available herbal mouthwash, can be a better choice as an anti-plaque and antigingivitis agent when compared with chlorhexidine. Materials and Methods: In a double-blind, parallel group randomized clinical trial 90 nursing students aged 18-25 years were randomly divided into three groups: A (chlorhexidine), B (HiOra) and C (distilled water). These groups were asked to rinse with their respective mouthwash two times daily for 21 days. Plaque and gingivitis were evaluated by using Turesky et al. modification of Quigley Hein Plaque Index (1970) and Modified Gingival Index by Lobene et al. (1986) respectively. Statistical analysis was done using ANOVA test. Results: There was statistically significant reduction in plaque and gingival scores from baseline to 21 days in both the groups A and B. Conclusions: Although chlorhexidine group proved to be the best anti-plaque and antigingivitis agent, it was found that HiOra group also showed gradual improvement from baseline to 21 days. Whereas no improvement was seen in the Group C using distilled water over 21 days.
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Assessment of oral health attitudes and behavior among undergraduate dental students using Hiroshima University Dental Behavioral Inventory HU-DBI
Swathi Vangipuram, R Rekha, G Radha, SK Pallavi
January-March 2015, 13(1):52-57
DOI:10.4103/2319-5932.153587  
Introduction: Dental students are the future leaders in oral health care and are expected to be teachers of oral hygiene as well as role models of self-care regimens for their patients. Objective: The objective was to assess self-reported oral health attitude and behavior among undergraduate dental students and to analyze variations between gender and level of education. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire based on the Hiroshima University-Dental Behavioural Inventory (HU-DBI) was distributed among 270 undergraduate students which consisted of 20 dichotomous responses (yes-no). Data were analyzed using the analysis of variance and statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: Females had better oral health attitude and behavior toward visiting the dentist and oral hygiene practices, mean HU-DBI score of 8.8 (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the preclinical students (1 st , 2 nd years) had better oral health attitude and behavior especially towards gingival health, oral hygiene practices and visiting the dentist (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Among dental students, the overall attitude of oral health was good, even though there were deficits in a few areas. The oral health attitudes and behavior were better among female's dental students and were not improved with increasing levels of education. Better comprehensive dental education with exposure to dental health and prevention is suggested to improve dental students' oral health attitudes and behavior.
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Perception about self-medication practices for oral health problems among the general population of Davangere city, Karnataka, India
Anjan Giriraju
July-September 2014, 12(3):219-225
DOI:10.4103/2319-5932.144806  
Background: Self-medication is a widely accepted practice in many developing countries. The determining factors of self-medication need to be first understood to develop appropriate medicine information policies and patient-provider education strategies. Keeping this in mind, present survey was conducted with the aim to assess the perception about self-medication practices for oral health problems among the general population of Davangere city, Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional field survey was conducted among 440 subjects in Davangere city. Data were collected through a specially designed proforma using a closed-ended, self-administered questionnaire containing 12 questions, in three sections. Results: Response rate of the survey was 100%. Self-medication and nondoctor prescription was found to be obvious and at an alarming rate of 70.9%. Among reasons of self-medication, toothache was the most common one. People of all sociodemographic categories approved self-medication giving reasons of lack of time as a major reason followed by nonseriousness of their condition. Analgesics, herbal remedies were often used for treating their oral health problems. Most of the respondents consulted pharmacist for basic treatment and only decided to approach a dentist if the problem persisted. Majority of respondents were aware of the adverse effect regarding the drug prescribed including expiry date of the medication used. Conclusions: Self-medication for oral health problems prevalence was higher in the population of Davangere city. Pharmacists and family influence played a major role in self-medication for oral health problems.
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