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   2011| July-September  | Volume 9 | Issue 17  
    Online since June 29, 2016

 
 
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ARTICLES
Ethical Considerations in Dental Research
Vittal Das Shetty, Vikram Garcha, Mahasweta Joshi
July-September 2011, 9(17):105-107
Any profession to be called as ethical has to have certain set of principles which the members of that profession must follow and should be widely accepted in consensus amongst them. In recent years ethical considerations across the research community have come to the forefront. This is partly a consequence of legislative change in human rights and data protection, but also a result of increased public concern about the limits of inquiry. A community research involves the consultation with appropriate representatives. In all contemporary medical research, there is an inherent conflict between the ethical requirement that we share information which will help those who are suffering and the need to preserve rights to competitively sensitive information related to product development and academic funding. These various pressures on research emphasize the need for an active and lively appreciation of ethical issues in contemporary biomedical sciences.
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  614 133 -
Overcoming Barriers: Action Report of an Oral Health Outreach Program in a Rural Backdrop
Arunadevi Manikyam, Nagashree Savanur Ravindranath
July-September 2011, 9(17):1-4
Oral health care of the underserved segments of the population is a subject of great significance to public health dentists. This article focuses on a venture undertaken to serve the deprived in remote villages of West Bengal state of India. The villages; Ichapur, Irpala, Kamarpukur and Arunda have no water supply and no proper roads to connect to nearby towns. There is practically no oral health service available for the residents of these villages. An oral health outreach program was conducted for the first time in the year 2002 in Ichapur with only two dentists providing services for the needy. The program has witnessed growth and is conducted annually reaching out to the underserved segments of the society for the past eight years. This oral health outreach program renders dental care to hundreds of individuals per year who have no access to dental services. It also provides an opportunity to dental students to gain first hand knowledge of barriers to access dental services in rural areas.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  525 67 -
To Determine the Relationship between Oral Hygiene and Gingival Status With Socia- economic Status among School going Children of Belgaum City aged 12 to 15 Years
A Dodamani, VK Prashanth, A Keshava, A Vinayak, B Girija
July-September 2011, 9(17):14-20
Background and objectives: Oral health is a part of general health and hence has a direct bearing on the total well-being of individuals. The present study was designed to detennine the relationship between Oral Hygiene and Gingival Status with Socio- economic Status among school going children of Belgaum city aged 12 to 15 years. Methodology: A cross sectional survey was conducted among 5752 school children aged 12 to 15 years, belonging to various socioeconomic classes from Class I to Class V. Oral Hygiene Status and Gingival Status was assessed according to OHI-S and Gingival Indices respectively. Results: Majority of the children from upper SES had good oral hygiene (Mean (SD) 0.67 ± 0.38), oral hygiene gradually deteriorated from upper SES to lower SES (Mean (SD) 2.93 ± 1.11). Similarly upper SES children had lesser GI score (Mean (SD) 0.09 ± 0.15) compared to middle and lower (Mean (SD) 1.42 ±0.63) SES groups. Mean OHI-S score for males (1.82 ± 0.79) and females (1.18 ± 0.83) shows females had good oral hygiene compared to males this difference is statistically significant (Z = 28.68, p < 0.001). Interpretation and Conclusions: The study revealed that SES, age, sex and brushing frequency were significantly associated with oral hygiene status and gingival health.
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  521 69 -
A study of oral health status of chronically ill children aged between 6-12 years in Bangalore city
BS Suma, SS Hiremath
July-September 2011, 9(17):5-9
Chronic disease is not only a disease that persists over a long period of time, but one whose symptoms or disabilities are prolonged either because healing cannot take place or because of the continued activity of the disease process. The Commission on Chronic lllness in USA [WHO (1984) TRS, 703] has defined "Chronic diseases" as comprising of all impairments or deviations from normal. Method: 200 chronically ill children aged 6-12years attending pediatric out patient departments and admitted in the pediatric wards in Government Hospitals in Bangalore formed the study group. First, an interview with parents regarding demographic details, illnesses etc. are recorded. Then the clinical examination of the child to assess the oral health status. Descriptive statistics, Pearson's Correlation Co-efficient and Chi-square tests are carried out to statistically analyse the data. Result: Among 200 chronically ill children, 91.5% had good oral hygiene, 95% had mild gingivitis. The mean dmft &DMFT is significantly higher in 8 and 9years age group children, dmfs is found to be significantly higher among 9 and lOyears old children, DMFS is higher among 12year old children. Conclusion: The dental profession has the capability of providing comprehensive oral care as a part of health care team. The need for these skills is greatest among patients suffering from chronic illness. These children should receive regular dental care during their routine medical check-ups.
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  528 56 -
A study of dental status, dental needs and denture treatment needs among elderly people residing in institutions /old age homes in Bangalore city
Arun Kumar Acharya, SS Hiremath
July-September 2011, 9(17):26-29
Aim: To study the dental status, dental needs and denture treatment needs of elderly people in old age homes of Bangalore city. Introduction: The need to study the aged has become important and urgent because every year the demographic figures of the aged are increasing due to improved health status and medi-care facilities for all, social and economic development. Hence the study was conducted to know the dental status, dental needs and denture treatment needs of elderly people in old age homes of Bangalore city. Material and Methods: The study was conducted from November 1997 to June 1998,infonnation based on oral examinations and interviews obtained from 452 residents in 33 of 43 existing home for elderly (old age homesfmstitutions) in Bangalore city. Oral examination was done using WHO oral health assessment form (1986). For statistical comparison between elderly people t-testiZ-test was used. Results: The mean age of study population was found to be 72.13 yrs ( ± 16.89). The mean age of males (73.94 ± 13.19) was higher than of females (71.50 ± 18.40). Mean number of decayed teeth (DT) in dentate persons was found to be 3.2, 2.6, 2.7 and 2.7 in below 64, 65-74, 75-84 and above 85yrs age groups respectively. Conclusion: The responsibility lies on the youth to appreciate the inability of the aged to move with the time. All they need is care, if this could be met then old age will not be regret as one often perceives, rather it could well be a perfection of life.
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  526 57 -
Caries experience, caries pattern and treatment needs in 2-3 and 4-6 year old urban and non-urban pre-school children
Arun Kumar Acharya, SS Hiremath
July-September 2011, 9(17):30-37
Aim: To assess the caries experience, caries pattern and treatment needs in 2-3 and 4-6 year old urban and non-urban preschool children. Introduction: Dental caries is one of the most prevalent disease of man and is the principal cause of tooth mortality in young. Dental caries remains an unsolved problem affecting preschool children throughout the world. Thus a study was done to compare caries experience, caries pattern and treatment needs in 2-3 and 4-6yr old urban and non- urban preschool children. Material and methods: The study was conducted in 2-3 yr and 4-6 yr old children of Bangalore, an urban metropolitan area and in Puttur, Dakshina Kannada(D.K), a non-urban area situated 50 kms from Mangalore. A sample size of 250 in 2-3 yr and 4-6yr old children in each region was statistically decided and a questionnaire was administered to their parents. Dental caries was diagnosed according to WHO criteria and recorded on WHO oral health assessment form (1986) simplified. The chi-squared test and Z-test were used for statistical analysis, p less than 0.05 was selected for describing levels of significance. Results: The caries free children in 2-3 and 4-6yr-old age group were significantly higher in urban than non-urban children (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Oral health education should be provided as a means of maintaining good state of health. This should become the main component of the population preventive oral health strategy.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  524 59 -
Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor in a Dentigerous cyst: Induction or Collision? - A Case reportz
MD Shylaja, A Dodamani, A Kailash, YS Chidambar, V Prashanth
July-September 2011, 9(17):21-25
AOT is a benign (hamartomatous), non-invasive lesion with a slow but progressive growth. AOT presents as follicular, extrafollicular and peripheral lesion. AOT is not as rare an odontogenic tumor as was thought previously, but its association with odontogenic cyst is not commonly seen. AOT can be seen associated with dentigerous cyst, calcifying odontogenic cyst and sometimes with unicystic ameloblstoma. Follicular AOT is usually associated with an impacted tooth, but association of two impacted teeth in a single tumor is a rare finding. Hence herewith we are reporting a case of AOT associated with dentigerous cyst involving an impacted canine and lateral incisor.
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  517 61 -
Dental Caries Experience, Periodontal Status and wear of Tooth among Adult Patients at De-addiction Centers of Ghaziabad District
P Basavaraj, Nitin Khuller, Puneet Kumar, Mohit Dadu
July-September 2011, 9(17):51-56
Background: Concomitant use of psychotropic substances such as Alcohol, Drugs and Tobacco deteriorates the health status of the individuals. Alcohol being a toxic substance, its consumption is associated with high risk of dental erosion in the alcoholic patients, particularly susceptible to tooth wear lesions. Drug abusers are unconcerned with their personal hygiene, whose main concern in life is obtaining their next dose of drug. Tobacco abuse may lead to potentially malignant states or may predispose to oral infections by compromising local immunity. Aim: To assess the Dental Caries Experience, Periodontal Status and Wear of tooth among adult patients at De-addiction Centers of Ghaziabad District. Materials and Method: A study was conducted in 8 de-addiction centers and hospitals at Ghaziabad district in adult patients aged above 30 years were included. (n = 402, male = 361, female = 41). All the subjects present in the de-addiction centers at the time of examination were included. The assessment was carried out for dental caries experience, periodontal status and wear of tooth among the patients at the de-addiction centers by using Modified WHO Proforma. Results: The prevalence of dental caries was 70.15% with mean DMFf 2.24. The prevalence of periodontal disease was 83.3% with loss of attachment present in 53.3% which is directly associated with sex, increase in age, habit and duration of habit. The prevalence of tooth wear was 94% (in maxillary teeth it is more severe in anteriors 39% than posteriors 16.4%) with 100% in 40 to 49 years as compared to 87.2% in 30 to 39 years of patient and also associated with duration of habit 100% in more than 5 years of addict to 91.3% in less than 5 years of addict. Conclusion: It was concluded that most of the addict suffer from periodontal disease and dental caries. Almost all the addicts were suffering from tooth wear. Prevalence of periodontal disease and tooth wear increasing with age, habit and duration of habit.
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  504 54 -
Dental Caries And Gingivitis in βThalassemia Major Subjects in Jaipur City, Rajasthan
Suhas Kulkarni, Tarun Nihlani, Manish Jain, Anmol Mathur, Arti Sharma, D Prabu
July-September 2011, 9(17):69-73
Aims and objective: To determine whether a-Thalassemia major is associated with an increase in the severity of gingivitis and dental caries. Material &Methods: A total of 82 Thalassemia patients and 82 healthy controls (age group 6-15 yrs & 16-25 yrs.)were examined for Dental caries and gingivitis using DMFT and Loe and Silness gingival index (GI), respectively. Results: There was significant differences in GI between both Thalassemic subjects and healthy control groups (P < 0.05). Dental caries was significantly higher in thalassemia patients group (P < 0.0001) compared to the healthy controls. Mean DMFT and GI was 6.89 ± 2.65 & 2.28 ± 2.50 respectively while it was 4.46 ± 3.62 and 1.15 ± .957 in healthy control group. Conclusion: Dental caries and Gingivitis was found higher among Thalassemic subjects when compared with Healthy control group.
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  502 46 -
A Survey on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice {Kap study) of Oral Health Among School Children of Bangalore City
BK Srivastava, Navya R Shettr, Alex George Varghes
July-September 2011, 9(17):85-88
A KAP study was conducted to assess the oral health among 400 school children of Bangalore city. Two stage sampling was conducted (a list of schools was obtained from the commissioner's office Bangalore. The schools had 2 zones north and south zone, each zone had 3 subdivisions each subdivision had one ABO under his jurisdiction). From each subdivisions 67 students were randomly selected from the schools, in the age group of 10-13 yrs. A questionnaire on knowledge, attitude and practices was framed, validation of the questionnaire was done after conducting a pilot study on 25 school children. .85 % of school children had good knowledge, 67.2 % of the school children had good attitude towards oral health, 28.6% of the school children had good oral hygiene practices. The data was analysed using SPSS version 10.0, chi square test was used to find the significance, p value < 0.05 was statistically significant.
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  478 62 -
Dietary Habits, Oral Hygiene Practices and Prevalence of Dental Caries among 10 - 12 years old School Children of South Bangalore
Padma K Bhat, CN Aruna
July-September 2011, 9(17):78-82
Aim: Assess the prevalence of dental caries among 10-12 year old school children of Bangalore south and the relationship with dietary habits and dental caries. Materials and Methods: A total of 414 school children (Males - 207 & Females - 207) from randomly selected two government and two private schools of Bangalore South, were included for the study. All the children in the age group of 10-12 years present on the day of study were examined. Data on their personal information, oral hygiene habits & dietary habits was collected using closed-ended questionnaire. This was followed by assessment of Dental caries experience using DMFT & dmft indices using WHO criteria. Results: 66.2% of the school children were brushing twice daily and only 5.1% of them had dental caries which was more significant (p < 0.001). Around 96% of the participants were using tooth brush. A less percentage of school children were consuming soft drinks and tea or coffee with sugar and their dental caries experience was also less. Near to 54% of the participants were consuming fresh fruits and only around 14% of them had dental caries Conclusion: Children should be encouraged to brush twice daily and consumption of fresh fruits. Community based oral health promotion programmes could be initiated through health promoting school projects.
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  472 59 -
Assessment of Stress Level Among Dental School Setting - An Indian Outlook
Pradeep Tangade, Anmol Mathur, Rahul Gupta, Shikha Chaudhary
July-September 2011, 9(17):133-139
Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate perceived sources of stress on dental students and the role of parents in their career choice decisions. Materials and Methods: A modified dental environmental stress questionnaire (DES) which contained 17 questions was administered to all dental students. The responses to the questionnaire are based on a four-point Lick.ert scale, not stressful to severely stressful. Results: A total of 304 undergraduate students constituted the study population, of the respondent 60% were males and 40% were females. The study showed that the final year students had more stress. In gender comparison male suffered more stress (62.9%) than females (60.1%). According to the career choice decision, students forced by parents have more perception of stress (69.0%) and the students staying in the hostel (62.7%) shows more perception of stress than day scholars (56.3%). Conclusion: The study indicates that the congenial environment needs to be created for dental education and the parents also need to be counselled against forcing their children to join an educational programme i.e. not of their choice.
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  490 41 -
Prevalence of Carabelli Trait in Garhwali Population, Uttarakhand
Pradeep S Tangade, TL Ravishankar, Amit Tirth, Anmol Mathur, Manu Batra
July-September 2011, 9(17):114-117
Objective: The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence, degree of expression of the carabelli structure, and caries prevalence in the carabelli structure in the permanent first and second maxillary molars in a selected Garhwali population of Uttarakhand. Materials and Methods: 300 subjects of age ranged from 12 - 55 years were selected from the camps organized by Department of Public Health Dentistry, Kothiwal Dental College, Moradabad in the month of March 2009. The sample was restricted to population, who were permanent residents of Garhwal region. Results: The prevalence of the carabelli structure was 60% with a bilateralism of 83.6% in the first maxillary molars and 74.6% in the second molars. The Carabelli structure was found to be 27.3% as a groove expression and 32.7% as a cusp expression. The prevalence of caries in the Carabelli structure was 18.1% for the first molars and 16.2% for the second molars. For the groove expression, caries prevalence was 4.3% in the first molar and 5.9% in the second molar. And for the cusp expression, it was 13.8% in the first molar and 10.3% in the second molars. Conclusion: More than half of the Garhwali population has a degree of expression of the carabelli structure and the Carabelli trait is associated with increased caries incidence.
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  488 39 -
Comparison of dental and medical student's motivation towards career choice in India: A cross-sectional study Career choice
Suhas Kulkarni, Harish Sibdewal, Santhosh Kumar, Mansi Shah, D Prabu
July-September 2011, 9(17):57-61
Aim: To investigate the study motives and career choices of dental and medical students in relation to their background factor. Materials and methods: A questionnaire was prepared on the basis of previous surveys investigating the motivations of dental and medical students towards career choice. Six dimensions were covered including: status and security; nature of the occupation; career opportunities; patient care and working with people; use of personal skills; and interest in science. In addition, students were asked about the role of work experience, parental force and unavailibity for desired career in either dentistry or medicine. Results: Results were analyzed using the Chi square test. For instance, dental students were significantly more likely to be motivated by factors relating to high income. By contrast, medical students were significantly more likely to be motivated by factors relating to care or help for people, use of personal skills that is mental and manual skill in science. Parental force was a strong motivating factor in case of dental students whereas medical students manifested a more professional attitude in which altruism and intellectual challenge constituted central motivating factors. By contrast, dental students demonstrated more of a commitment to financial gain. Conclusions: There is need for re-orientation lecture among dental students about the motivation and commitment to an ethical stance of public service compared to medical students.
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  486 39 -
Patterns of Tobacco Sale and Tobacco Consumption in Villages between Vikarabad and Tandur, Andhra Pradesh - A Cross Sectional Study
Md Shakeel Anjum, P Parthasathi Reddy, M Mounica, Arpitha Kotha
July-September 2011, 9(17):89-92
Objective: To study the patterns of tobacco sale and to assess the knowledge of tobacco vendors about the oral cancer. Study design: Observational, Cross sectional Setting: 5 villages in Rangareddy Dist, A.P, India Study population: All the tobacco vendors present in the villages present between Vikarabad and Tandur. Statistical analysis: Frequencies (SPSS package) Results: The response rate was 80.1%. Sale of bidi was highest with 40%, followed by cigarette (26.6%), gutk:ha(23.3%), pan and khaini (10.0%). According to the information obtained from the vendors 53.7% reported decreased sale in the recent years, 33% reported increased sale and 10% had reported no change in tobacco sale. Of all the tobacco vendors 73.3% had an idea about oral cancer. According to them both smoking and gutkha chewing (36.7%) was the major cause for oral cancer. Conclusion: In the present study 57.6% study subjects reported the decrease in sale in the recent years. Decreased sale is attributed to the increase in the prices, hence further increase in taxes may decrease the tobacco sale to some extent. According to most of the tobacco vendors both tobacco chewing and smoking is the main etiology for occurrence of oral cancer.
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  478 44 -
Assessment of fluoride concentration in drinking water and developmental defects of enamel in 14 -15 years old school going children in villages of davangere taluk
Veeranna Ramesh, L Nagesh
July-September 2011, 9(17):152-157
Background and Objectives: Developmental defects of enamel are visible deviations from the normal translucent appearance of tooth enamel resulting from enamel organ dysfunction. The high frequency of enamel defects suggests that the normal progress of enamel formation is highly susceptible to interference and disruption. In many cases, it has been an area of concern with respect to function and aesthetics of the teeth. The objectives of present study are, 1. To assess the prevalence of developmental defects of enamel among 14-15 years old school going children in rural areas of Davangere. 2. To determine the fluoride concentration in the drinking water in the study areas. 3. To find out the association if any, between severity of developmental defects of enamel with varying concentration of fluoride in drinking water. Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted on 733 school children (387 males and 346 females), aged 14-15 year in rural areas of Davangere. Modified DDE index recommended by WHO was used to record the enamel defects. Estimation of fluoride concentration in drinking water was done by using Ion Selective Electrode method (ORION- USA). A proforma was used to obtain relevant personal information. Chi-square test and Karl-Pearson's correlation coefficient test were used for statistical analysis. Results: The overall prevalence of enamel defects was 82.9% (ranging from 71.6% - 95.7%). The fluoride concentrations in drinking water of selected 8 villages were between 0.54 - 2.80 ppm. A positive correlation was seen between enamel defects and fluoride concentration in drinking water(r = +0.75). Interpretation and Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that developmental defects of enamel were common observations among school children and some villages were having more than the recommended optimal fluoride concentration in the drinking water which showed a positive correlation with the enamel defects. Thus simple, effective, inexpensive methods of defluoridation should be considered if alternative low fluoride sources of drinking water are not available.
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  478 43 -
How to Read a Paper - The Basics of Evidence - Based Dentistry
V Hari Devaraya Chowdary, K Padmavathi
July-September 2011, 9(17):74-77
This article is intended for anyone, whether medically qualified or not, who wishes to find their way into the medical literature, assess the scientific validity and practical relevance of the articles and where appropriate, put the results into practice. These skills constitute the basics of evidence - based dentistry. I believe that the science of finding, evaluating and implementing the results of dental research can and often does, make patient care objective, more logical and more cost effective.
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  461 59 -
Dental Caries Prevalence and Treatment Needs Among Davangere Preschool Children
R Yashoda, KP Anuradha, DJ Baskar, SS Hiremath
July-September 2011, 9(17):193-201
Introduction: Oral health has been recognized as an integral part of general health and well being. Generally the dental problems in the preschool children are neglected by their parents as the deciduous teeth are going to be shed off and considered to be of no importance and an economic burden if attended to them. Objectives: 1. To determine the caries prevalence, 2. To analyze the specific pattern of dental caries experience in this population and 3. To assess the treatment needs among them. Methodology: children within the age group of 3-5 years attending kindergarten/Anganwadi schools of Davangere city were included in the study. Caries diagnosis was based on def surface and tooth index given by Grubbel .A.O ( 1944) , caries pattern was recorded using caries analysis system described by Radike in 1972, and the treatment needs were recorded using WHO oral Health Assessment form 1987 (simplified). Results: Out of 1500 children examined 48.7 males and 52.6 females did not require any treatment The mean deft values were found to be significantly high in 5 year old subjects when compared to 3 year old subjects. (P < 0.01). Majority of the children required one surface filling (27.4% males, 22.2% females) followed by two surface filling (26.4% males, 18.8% females), caries arresting sealant care (19.8% males, .1% females), extraction (5.2% males, 4.9% females), crown bridge element (2.1% males, 0.7% females), pulp care (0.9% males, 1.3% females) and space maintainer (0.1% males, 0.6.% females). Conclusion: The most commonly seen pattern was pit and fissure, then maxillary anterior pattern, posterior proximal pattern and posterior buccal lingual smooth surface pattern. The mean deft values were higher in males as compared to females. One surface filling was the commonly required treatment for both males and females.
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  472 46 -
Dental caries experience and periodontal status of police personnel in Ghaziabad city
P Basavaraj, Nitin Khuller, Mohit Dadu, Puneet Kumar
July-September 2011, 9(17):44-50
Background Police personnel as an occupational group endure particularly high levels of stress with busy work schedule. The physiological, psychological and behavioural effects of stress in police can be severe which is a matter of great concern is. The irregular shifts in their work schedule leads to neglecting or skipping of their regular diet, sleep and indulging into adverse habits, which might affect their general as well as oral health. Aim and objectives To assess the dental caries experience and periodontal status of police personnel in Ghaziabad city and to suggest measures to improve the present oral health status. Material & methods Study was conducted in 8 police stations. All the subjects present in these police stations on the days of examination were included. A total of 472 (Male - 444, Female - 28) police personnel was examined with mean age 41.92. Data was recorded in modified WHO proforma. Results The results show that the prevalence of periodontal disease was 82.2% with loss of attachment present in 52.5% and was directly associated with age (as LOA in 21-30 yrs age present in 37% which is very less compared to 80% in age of 51 and above) and also associated with year of service personnel served in police. Prevalence of Dental caries was 67.4% with mean DMFf = 3.19, which is directly with age (due to the M component present is high (74%) in 51 and above and low (30%) in to 30 yrs and also associated with year of service (again due to M component present is high in personnel served for more yrs. One or the other adverse habits was present in almost all the police personnel (83.6%). Conclusion It was concluded that most of the police personnel are suffering from periodontal disease and its prevalence increases with their age and year of services. Prevalence of Caries is also found to be high and increasing with age as the missing component is found to be increasing. Health authorities should strengthen the implementation of community-based oral disease prevention and health promotion programmes to this group.
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  477 40 -
Assessment of Caries Status Among School Children of Moradabad City Using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS)
Pradeep S Tangade, Anmol Mathur, Varun Gupta
July-September 2011, 9(17):140-144
Background: Numerous studies have assessed the caries among children, but very little work has been carried out to assess caries at non-cavitated stage. Recently, a new method- "ICDAS", has been developed which differentiates between non-cavitated and cavitated lesions. Objective: To assess the caries status among school children of Moradabad city using International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). Methods: Multistage random sampling was used. For a total of 1933 school children, socio-demographic factors were assessed using a standardized questionnaire. Caries level was assessed using International Caries Detection and Assessment System. The investigator was calibrated before the start of the survey and intra-examiner reliability was tested in order to limit the variability. Results: Out of 1933 children examined, 1109 were males and 824 were females. There was a highly significant correlation Oral Hygiene Status with DMFf score (P = 0.000). An increase in the prevalence of caries was seen with advancing age. ICDAS code 2 type of carious lesion was found to be most common followed by ICADS code 3 type carious lesions Conclusion: It was found that a number of factors such as Socio-economic status, Oral hygiene status, and mother's level of education as potential risk factors for development of carious lesion. Using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System, the study provides earliest information to prevent canes.
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  474 41 -
Oral Health Status and Treatment Needs of Musicians in Mysore City
S Chaithanya Reddy, C.V.K Reddy
July-September 2011, 9(17):185-192
Objectives: To assess the oral health status and treatment needs of Musicians in Mysore City. To suggest measures to improve their existing oral health status. Materials and Methods :The study population included all the musicians of both the Private and Government Bands in Mysore City. The musicians playing wind instruments through their mouth were only included. All the available 107 subjects (57-government and 50-private) were examined with their consent. Prior permission was obtained from the concerned authorities. participants were questioned about their demographic details, dietary habits, oral hygiene practices, personal habits, the instrument they played, duration and frequency of playing the instrument The subjects were also questioned about jaw problems pain in the temporomandibular joint region, dryness of mouth and pigmentation of oral mucosa. oral health status was recorded on the WHO oral health assessment form 1997 (modified). The examination was carried out under natural light by using mouth mirrors and CPI probe. Results: A total of 107 subjects (50 private & 57 Government) were examined. prevalence of periodontal diseases was 92% in the private bands and 85% in the government bands. The prevalence of dental caries was 64.5% and the total DMFI was 3.69. It was observed that 56.3% of the musicians had pigmentation on the lips whilst the prevalence of malocclusion was 60.5% and 54% of the musicians complained of pain in the temporomandibular joint region and dryness of mouth. Condusion: The high prevalence of periodontal disease in private bands (92%) when compared to government bands (85%) may be due to pernicious habits like smoking, drinking and panchewing (Government 56% Private-69.5%) prevalence of malocclusion, mouth dryness and pain in the temporomandibular joint region maybe due to the long duration and frequency of playing the musical instruments. significant finding was the prevalence of pigmentation of the lips, which may be due to the playing of instruments with brass mouthpieces that was absent in musicians using nickel/steel mouthpieces.
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  473 40 -
Oral health status and treatment needs of Todas Aboriginals in Nilgiris (An Epidemiological study)
JV Bharateesh, C.V.K. Reddy
July-September 2011, 9(17):38-43
Objective: To asses the oral health status and treatment needs of Todas and to suggest measures for improving their oral health status. Methods: A number of 441 Todas and 300 non Todas were examined .Examination was done in natural daylight using mouth mirror and CPITN probe in their natural habitats. Data was recorded in a printed WHO oral health assessment form (1986). Information about oral hygiene practices, diet and habits was also collected through interviews. Results: The prevalence of dental caries was 53.9% in Todas and 59% in non Todas. The prevalence of periodontal diseases was 69.84% in Todas and 81% in non Todas (p < 0.05) which was statistically significant. The treatment needs of Todas was 80.2% and non Todas was 81.9%.There was no much difference observed in the oral hygiene practices among the Todas and non Todas.60% of Todas were found to have the habit snuff dipping which is unique to this population.
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Age and Sequence of Eruption of Permanent Teeth in School Going Children in Panchkula City, Haryana
NC Rao, Shelja Vashisth, Nidhi Gupta
July-September 2011, 9(17):62-68
Tooth eruption is a phenomenon which plays an important role in the process of facial development So the present study was carried out to record the age and sequence of eruption of permanent teeth in school going children of Panchkula city, Haryana. Total of 516 subjects (259 males and 257 females) in the age group of 6-lSyears were included in the study. The data was collected and analyzed. The results revealed that the mean age of eruption of permanent teeth was lower in females compared to males and this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The eruption was also earlier in mandibular arch and left quadrant compared to maxillary arch and right quadrant respectively.
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  477 36 -
Dispensing of OTC Drugs for Dental Problems by Pharmacists in Suburban Areas of Hyderabad- A Cross Sectional Study
Md Shakeel Anjum, P Parthasathi Reddy, M Mounica, Vedati Prathima
July-September 2011, 9(17):93-97
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacist's role and rationale of dispensing medicines OTC (over the counter) for dental ailments and to assess the impact of their knowledge and attitude on oral health care in suburban areas of Hyderabad. Materials and methods: A cross sectional study among a sample of pharmacists in suburban areas of Hyderabad was conducted and data was collected using a closed - ended questionnaire regarding rationale of dispensing drugs OTC and substituting dental prescriptions by pharmacists. Results: Among 62 pharmacists, who participated in the study and completed the questionnaire, 95.2% accepted that they dispense medicines without prescription for dental ailments. The major reasons cited by them for dispensing medicines were, patient's poverty (45.6%), unavailability of Dentist(29.8%), considering dental problem as a minor ailment (36.8%). 56.3% agreed that they dispense both painkillers and antibiotics. Tooth pain (98.4%) was the major dental problem for which the patients approach them. 61.3% felt the reasons for which patient's approach them, rather than dentist, were expensive treatment, time consuming nature of dental treatment and fear of the dentist. 77.5% accepted that substitution was more common for dental prescriptions and 58.1% said that they call up dentists to ask permission for substitution. Conclusion: The present study shows that, the majority pharmacists are dispensing drugs for dental ailments and also trying to motivate them to near by dentist. Hence there is a need for conducting pharmacy educating programs so that every one will be benefited.
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Oral health status of children with Neoplasm receiving Anti-Neoplastic therapy in Bangalore
M Shanthi, SS Hiremath
July-September 2011, 9(17):108-113
Aim: To assess the oral health status of children with neoplasm receiving anti-neoplastic therapy in Bangalore. Introduction: The dental health of children with neoplasm during and after treatment is of importance since it can affect their future quality of life. As patients' lifespan increases, dental effects of oncology treatment become clinically significant. Hence a study was planned to assess the Oral Health Status of children with neoplasm receiving anti-neoplastic therapy. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology, Bangalore. All the children with neoplasm attending the hospital from May 1998 and June 1998 were included in the study. Study group consisted of 175 children (131 males and 44 females). Examination was done and recorded using WHO oral health assessment form 1986. The student t test was used to compare the means between the groups studied. Results: Mean number of dmft among study group of 3-5 years and 10-13 years were significantly higher (2.89, 2.48) compared to controls (1.139, 1.157). DMFT in the age group of 1 13 years was significantly higher in the study group (0.96) compared to controls (0.292). Conclusion: A meticulous maintenance of Oral Health Status seems to be an appropriate way of avoiding the development of oral problems without increasing the risk of infection in children with neoplasm.
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Teachers' Perception on Current Teaching Methodology and Tobacco Cessation Counseling in the Subject of Public Health Dentistry - A Survey Report
J Jithesh, P Sequeira, P Dasar, BR Chinmaya, S Tikare, A Mahuli
July-September 2011, 9(17):10-13
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Colorimetric estimation of water fluoride level and dental survey in Amode village (Maharashtra) India
Pradnya V Kakodkar, Sudarshana D Pawa
July-September 2011, 9(17):158-160
A dental survey was conducted among 303 Amode villagers and the results showed that 95% were canes free and 87.13% had dental fluorosis. The ORLAB fluoride water test kit indicated that the water ad 1.5mg/L of fluoride. ORLAB kit is simple and efficient means for colorimetric estimation of fluoride m water above the optimum range in field studies.
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Types of patients, disease pattern, felt needs and services Provided to patients attending community dental camps
Ashok Kumar Mohapatra, Geetika Arora, SH Jayashree, Ashish Singla
July-September 2011, 9(17):128-132
Objective: To find the type of patients, disease pattern, felt needs, and services provided to patients attending dental camps conducted in Mathura city. Material and Methods: The present study was an observational study done among the subjects who have attended dental camps conducted in three different geographical locations. The data regarding their socio-demographic characteristics, felt needs, disease pattern and services provided in dental camps was collected using pretested proforma. Descriptive statistics was used to describe the data. Results: The patients who visited dental camps were males (54.5%) and females (45.5%), most of them were of age-group 15-34 years, were illiterate, unemployed and distance of camp site from their residence was within 1-km. Dental caries (41%), Gingivitis (27%) and Periodontitis (25%) were commonly observed disease patterns. Most common felt need of patient was pain, dirty-teeth and decay tooth. The services provided were oral-prophylaxis (47%), restoration (26%), referral (18%) and extraction (9%). Conclusion: It was observed from the present study that an effective and successful community outreach programmes, should include those services tailored to the felt needs of the people of the locality.
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Dentist Day 6th March 2011 - A Report.
Swati Sharma
July-September 2011, 9(17):227-228
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  375 37 -
The art and science of pranayama
Anil Ahuia
July-September 2011, 9(17):145-151
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Knowledge, Attitude and Practice - A Critical Review of Literature
BK Srivastava, R Navya Shetty, Alex George Varghese
July-September 2011, 9(17):83-84
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Occupational Hazards in dental practice - current status of knowledge
KM Shivakumar, Prasad Sumanth, GN Chandu
July-September 2011, 9(17):161-167
Dental professionals are susceptible to a number of occupational hazards. In recent years many occupational hazards still persist in modem dentistry. Dentists, as well as dental personnel and their patients are constantly exposed to a number of specific occupational hazards. These cause the appearance of various ailments, specific to the profession, which develop and intensify with years. In many cases they result in diseases and disease complexes, some of which are regarded as occupational illnesses. Carrying out their professional work, dentists are exposed to a number of occupational hazards. These cause the appearance of various ailments, specific to the profession, which develop and intensify with years. In many cases they result in diseases and disease complexes, some of which are regarded as occupational illnesses. Relying on relevant literature, the present paper discusses selected occupational hazards - occupational biohazards, stressful situations, and latex hypersensitivity, as well as factors leading to the musculoskeletal system diseases.
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  347 57 -
Assessment of Oral cancer awareness amongst undergraduate Medical, Dental and Ayurvedic students of Davangere city
MG Jayachandra, L Nagesh, GN Karibasappa, Mohamed lmranulla, BK Sujatha
July-September 2011, 9(17):178-184
Background: Early detection of oral cancer makes the sufferers more amenable to Cieatment and allows the greatest chance of cure. Delay in presentation and/or referral of oral cancer patients has a significant effect on the associated morbidity and mortality. Lack of knowledge among general medical practitioners and general dental practitioners has been shown to contribute to delay in referral and treatment The aim of the current study was to investigate the awareness about oral cancer among future general medical, dental and ayurvedic practitioners of Davangere city. Materials and Method: Self designed structured questionnaire was prepared which consisted of 10 questions related to knowledge of oral cancer risk factors and clinical appearance, oral examination practice. The questionnaires were distributed to the third and final year undergraduates and internees of medical, dental and ayurvedic professions during their regular clinical posting hours after appraising about the aim and objectives of the survey. The questionnaire required 10-15 minutes for the participants to complete. Results were analyzed using Chi-square test, Kruskal Wallis test and Wilcoxon's rank sum test. Results: Undergraduate Medical and Ayurvedic students were less likely to examine patient's oral cavity, risk factors and oral changes associate with oral cancer compared to Dental undergraduate students. Medical and ayurvedic students identified fewer risk factors and oral changes associated with oral cancer compared to dental students. However, more than 80% of the students requested for further information on prevention and early detection of oral cancer. Conclusion: Among all the three professionals, dental students were found to have adequate knowledge about oral cancer compared to medical and ayurvedic students. The study also highlights the need for improved education of undergraduate medical and dental students regarding oral cancer.
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  343 59 -
B.B.D. College of Dental Sciences, Lucknow

July-September 2011, 9(17):228-229
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  369 31 -
Oral Cancer Screening: Mass Screening for Oral Cancer - A Public Health Perspective
HL Jayakumar, Mahesh Chandra, HN Pallavi, D Jyothi
July-September 2011, 9(17):202-212
Worldwide, oral cancer is considered as the most common cancer and it has very low survival rates. It is well recognized that survival rates are improved if the disease is identified early and treated in its early stages. The World Health Organization has clearly stated that one of its objectives in the control of the oral cancer burden worldwide is early detection through regular screening. Screening of oral cancer and its pre-invasive intra-epithelial stages, at a mass level is still largely based on visual examination of the mouth. There is strong available evidence to suggest that visual inspection of the oral mucosa is effective in reducing mortality from oral cancer in individuals exposed to risk factors. Simple visual examination is well known to be limited by subjective interpretation. As a consequence, adjunctive techniques have been suggested to increase dentist's ability to differentiate between benign abnormalities and dysplastic/malignant changes as well as to identify areas of dysplasia/early OSCC that are not visible to naked eye. The present paper discusses regarding Oral cancer, various techniques available for screening of oral cancer and prospects of use in screening programs.
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  343 53 -
Perceived Sources of Stress among Indian Dental Students
VK Prashanth Kumar, Arun Dodamani, Veerendra Kerudi, Ravi Shirahatti, Swaroop Telka
July-September 2011, 9(17):171-177
The aim of this study was to investigate the perceived sources of stress and the role of parents in its etiology among dental students in a private dental school in India. A modified Dental Environment Stress (DES) Questionnaire was administered to 328 dental students. The stressors producing the highest rating for perceived stress varied throughout the course but high values were allocated to examinations, fear of failing the course or year, having reduced holidays, amount of assigned class work and approachability to members of staff. Among clinical students high values were observed for lack of time for relaxationd patient management, shortage of allocated clinical time and completing clinical requirement. Overall 2΀ year students perceived greater stress than their counterparts, and non-localites perceived more stress than localites. The students who joined dentistry due to parental pressure showed greater stress than those who joined of their own accord. Male students experienced greater stress than females. Since high levels of perceived stress can reduce students' performance, dental school should consider courses in stress management and parents also need to be counseled against forcing their children to join an educational program that is not of their choice.
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  340 45 -
Evaluating the pH and Buffering Capacity of Saliva in 12yrs Children with and without Caries - An Experimental Study
Ashok Kumar Mohapatra, Priyanka Bhushan, SH Jayashree, Ashish Singla
July-September 2011, 9(17):118-121
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the pH and buffering capacity of saliva in subjects with caries and subjects without caries. Material and methods: The present study included 40 children in the age group of 12 years, who were divided in two groups - 20 subjects with caries and 20 subjects without caries. The stimulated salivary samples were collected from both the groups and analyzed for pH, buffering capacity. The data was statistically analyzed using student's 't' test {unpaired}. Pearsons correlation test was used to find the correlation between buffering capacity and salivary pH in subjects with caries and subjects without caries. Results: In the present study it was found that the salivary pH and buffering capacity were slightly reduced in subject with caries as compared to subject without caries. However the difference was not found to be statistically significant Further when the relation between pH and buffering capacity was analyzed, it was found that salivary pH was inversely correlated to buffering capacity in both the subjects with caries and without caries. Conclusion: Within the limitation of this study, we can conclude that, the physicochemical properties of saliva play a major role in the development of dental caries.
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  328 43 -
Dental Caries Experience, Oral Hygiene Status, Gingitivitis and Malocclusion among 7-14 year old Mentally Retarded Children with different Intelligence Quotient levels
P Basavaraj, GN Chandu, DJ Bhaskar, Anuradha
July-September 2011, 9(17):213-226
Background: Mental retardation was known during biblical times and referred to in both Greek and Roman literature, but interest in this area was only given impetus in the first half of the 19th century. This interest started in France and Sweden, and spread to other civilized parts of Europe and subsequently to the United States, at which time an American Physician, Samuel Gridley Howe, began establishing residential care institutions for the mentally retarded. Quite often handicapped persons are considered to be highly problematic for their own family members and others. In a country like India where deaths still occur for want of basic medical services; the provision of dental services for the general population is out of reach. In such a situation, dental services for the handicapped seem to be almost an impossibility even if any service was to be provided in the past for the handicapped, it has been only on an adhoc basis with no sharply defined areas of responsibility. Therefore it is important to suggest that such enquiry should be made among this segment of the population Aim and Objectives: To assess Dental Caries Experience, Oral Hygiene Status, Gingitivitis and among mentally retarded children with different Intelligence Quotient levels Material & Methods: Study was conducted in 4 centres of Kamataka namely, Bangalore, Davangere, Dharwad and Shimoga. All the subjects present in these schools on the days of examination were included. A total of 819 (Male - 599, Female - 220) aged between 7-14 were examined. Data was recorded in modified WHO proforma. Results: Hygiene practices followed by the subjects according to the Sex and severity of Mental Retardation 59.7% used Tooth Brush & Tooth paste, 32.6% used tooth & Tooth powder, 6.4% used Finger & Tooth Powder and 1.3% used other method to clean their teeth. om-s values varied from 2.42-4.06. Most of the groups showed the Mean om-s value more than 3.0. Gingival inflammation among Mentally children which varies from 1.04 to 2.20. More than 75% of mentally retarded children had malocclusion of score 1. prevalence of Dental caries varied from 50.0% to 77.8% among mentally retarded children on an average of 63.9%. There is significant difference in the prevalence of dft, dfs , DMFI & DMFS with increasing age. There is significant difference in the oral hygiene status & gingival status according to the severity of malocclusion. Conclusion: The general Oral Hygiene status was poor among these segment of children and the poor oral hygiene showed an increase in trend with increasing age. All children showed one or the other signs of gingival inflammation. The overall gingival health among these mentally retarded children was poor. Malocclusion was observed in most of the children examined. More than 75% children showed slight or more serious anomalies. The prevalence of Dental caries was also high among mentally retarded children may be due to their diet and inadequate use of proper oral hygiene practices.
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  321 45 -
Swine Flu - Perspective's in Developing Countries
KM Shivakumar, Prasad Sumanth, GN Chandu
July-September 2011, 9(17):168-170
The first case of swine flu (H1N1virus) was reported to WHO on April 2009 on the American continent, by then the virus has spread in about 160 countries. In August 2009, there were 177457 cases of swine flu and 1462 deaths has been reported. But Pandemic preparedness is not yet developed and advanced in most of developing countries. The measures to control the disease include early detection accessible medical care , heightened surveillance. Appropriate use of local resources and capacity building measure with the assistance of developed nations will reduce the impact of this pandemic in the developing world.
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  323 41 -
Status of the First Permanent Molars among School Children of Bangalore City {8-12 yrs)
BK Srivastava, Navya R Shetty, Alex George Varghese
July-September 2011, 9(17):98-104
Background: School children in the age group of 8-12 yrs are the most vulnerable group for various oral health problems, this is the time in which the first permanent molars erupt in the oral cavity and heralds the beginning of a time in which there is a combination of primary and permanent teeth. In 2000 both the WHO and the FDI announced the age of 12 to be of special importance with regard to caries and is the crucial age regarding preventive policies .This tooth is often ignored by the child and by parents as they are not aware of the importance of it. Finally such a study can be used as a powerful aid for planning a proper oral health care system at early ages. The study on the status of the first permanent molars among school children of Bangalore city in the age group of 8-12yrs was undertaken. Methods: 2000 school children based on stratified randomised sampling method from Bangalore city were examined (Type Ill) and the findings was recorded on a standardized proforma. The findings reflected the status of the first permanent molars of the school children. Results: About 25- 35% of the first permanent molars were affected by dental caries ,the average number of surfaces affected by dental caries was 1.09 ie. among 2000 students atleast one surface was affected by dental caries. 50% of them had gingival bleeding, 59.19% had fair oral hygiene . Condusions: The present study of the status of the first permanent molars among school children of Bangalore city in the 8-12 yrs reflects the oral health situation in this age group and this is the right period for any diagnosis and prompt treatment of first permanent molars and later maintenance of the future permanent dentition.
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  316 47 -
Efficacy of Various Commercially Available Water Purification Filters, in Reducing the Level of Concentration of Fluoride, in Drinking Water
Ashok Kumar Mohapatra, Prerna Gulati, SH Jayashree, Ashish Singla
July-September 2011, 9(17):122-127
Objective: To compare the efficacy of commercially available water purification filters in reducing the fluoride levels in drinking water with varying concentrations of fluoride. Material and Methods: Distilled water was used to prepare water samples with fluoride concentration of 1, 2,3,4,6 and 8 ppm using reagent NaF. Each water sample was subjected to filtration using: reverse osmosis system, activated carbon, combination of reverse osmosis and u-v, membrane and candle filters. In addition to these, a household defluoridation technique (stacked matka) was also used. The fluoride concentration in the samples was analyzed after filtration, using the spectrophotometer and reduction in the fluoride concentration was calculated. Statistical analysis was done using One-Way ANOVA and Post hoc Tukey's test. Level of significance was set at p :S:: 0.05. Results: All water purification filters showed significant reduction in fluoride concentration of water samples with varying concentration of fluoride. The highest reduction in the fluoride concentration was shown by the combination of reverse osmosis + u-v (0.297 ΁ .001) and reverse osmosis (0.3050 ΁ 0.001) followed by activated carbon (0.3240 ΁ .002) with least reduction shown by the membrane (0.987 ΁ .001) and candle filters (0.8330 ΁ .001). Conclusion: The amount of fluoride removed due to purification varies from one type of system to the others and these water purification systems can be effectively used in the fluoride endemic areas.
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FROMTHE EDITORS DESK
From the Editor's desk
MB Aswath Narayanan
July-September 2011, 9(17):0-0
Full text not available  [PDF]
  210 32 -
FROM THE PRESIDENTS DESK
From the Presidents Desk
RK Bali
July-September 2011, 9(17):0-0
Full text not available  [PDF]
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ARTICLES
Rajarajeswari Dental College and Hospital Department of Public Health Dentistry Activities in the year 2010-2011

July-September 2011, 9(17):230-230
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