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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 20  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 370-374

Assessment of periodontal disease severity in patients with cardiovascular disease: A cross-sectional study

1 Nitte (Deemed to be University), AB Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences (ABSMIDS), Department of Periodontics, Deralakatte, Mangaluru, India
2 Nitte (Deemed to be University), KS Hegde Medical Academy (KSHEMA), Department of Cardiology, Deralakatte, Mangaluru, India
3 Nitte (Deemed to be University), Nitte University Centre for Science Education and Research (NUCSER), Division of Infectious Diseases, Deralakatte, Mangaluru, India
4 Nitte (Deemed to be University), KS Hegde Medical Academy (KSHEMA), Department of Biostatistics, Deralakatte Mangaluru, India

Correspondence Address:
Amita Rao
Department of Periodontics, AB Shetty, Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences, Deralakatte, Mangaluru - 575 018, Karnataka
Ballamoole Krishna Kumar
Division of Infectious Diseases, Nitte University Centre for Science Education and Research, Nitte (Deemed to be University), Mangaluru - 575 018, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_151_21

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Background: Periodontitis is a biofilm-induced chronic inflammatory disease that affects the tooth-supporting structures. Transient bacteremia during periodontal infection may lead to direct bacterial invasion of endothelial cells. Aim: To observe if the patient's periodontal status has an influence on the severity of the cardiac disease. Materials and Methods: Subgingival and atherosclerotic plaques were extracted from patients with coronary artery disease in this cross-sectional analytical study. Based on the nested polymerase chain reaction results, 44 patients were age- and gender-matched and divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of periodontal pathogens belonging to the red complex in the atherosclerotic plaque samples. Version 20.0 of IBM SPSS Statistics for the Windows was used to analyze the data. The Pearson Chi-square test was done to investigate the association between periodontal status and pathogen detection, as well as determine the relationship between periodontal severity and cardiac severity. P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Statistically insignificant association was observed between periodontal severity and the detection of the periodontal pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia in the subgingival and atherosclerotic plaques in Group A; however, a significant association was observed for the pathogen Treponema denticola in the subgingival plaque for both Groups A (P = 0.039) and B (P = 0.005). No significant association was observed between the periodontal severity and cardiac severity for Groups A (P = 0.40) and B (P = 0.277). A weak positive but statistically insignificant (P = 0.097) correlation was observed for overall periodontal and cardiac severity. Conclusion: A higher percentage of patients had generalized chronic periodontitis in the group that tested positive for the pathogens in the atherosclerotic plaques, indicating a possible influence of periodontal status on cardiac outcomes.

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