Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Current issue Search Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 20  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 388-392

Assessment of nicotine dependence among cigarette smokers seeking oral health care using fagerström test for nicotine dependence: A cross-sectional study

1 Department of Public Health Dentistry, St. Joseph Dental College, Eluru, Andhra Pradesh, India
2 Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, GITAM School of Gandhian Studies, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India
3 Department of Public Health Dentistry, Sibar Institute of Dental Sciences, Takkellapadu, Andhra Pradesh, India
4 Private Dental Practitioner, Dr. Smiles Dental Clinic, Eluru, Andhra Pradesh, India
5 Department of Dentistry, Andhra Hospitals, Eluru, Andhra Pradesh, India
6 Private Dental Practitioner, Care Dental Clinic, Hanuman Junction, Telangana, India

Correspondence Address:
Nalini Parimi
Department of Public Health Dentistry, St. Joseph Dental College, Duggirala, Andhra Pradesh
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_16_22

Rights and Permissions

Introduction: In the quest of articulating customized tobacco cessation strategies, evaluation of the level of nicotine dependence among participants is quintessential. Objective: This study was conducted to assess the levels of nicotine dependence and its association with age and socioeconomic status among patients seeking oral health care at a teaching dental institution in coastal Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done among 199 participants with the habit of cigarette smoking who participated in the study. Nicotine dependence scores were assessed using Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). IBM SPSS version 20 software was used for data analysis. The Chi-square tests and Kruskal–Wallis analyses of variance were done to analyze the study data. P ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean FTND score was 4.52 ± 2.1. Significant differences in the mean nicotine dependence score were found between different age groups (P < 0.001) and participants belonging to different socioeconomic strata (P < 0.001). While a positive correlation was observed between age and FTND score, an inverse relation was noted between FTND score and socioeconomic status with participants from lower socioeconomic status demonstrating higher FTND scores. The majority of the participants reported smoking <10 cigarettes per day. Conclusion: The study participants demonstrated moderate nicotine dependence. The assessment of nicotine dependence scores as a preliminary step in tobacco cessation counseling is essential to effectively articulate customized cessation strategies.

Print this article     Email this article
 Next article
 Previous article
 Table of Contents

 Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
 Citation Manager
 Access Statistics
 Reader Comments
 Email Alert *
 Add to My List *
 * Requires registration (Free)

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded116    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal