Journal of Indian Association of Public Health Dentistry

ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year
: 2021  |  Volume : 19  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 76--80

Prevalence and risk factors associated with traumatic dental injuries among 12–15 year old school going children, Mathura city


Roopali Gupta1, Navpreet Kaur1, Vivek Sharma1, Manish Bhalla1, Manvi Srivastava2, Siddharth Sisodia3,  
1 Department of Public Health Dentistry, K.D. Dental College and Hospital, Mathura, Kota, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Pedodontis, K.D. Dental College and Hospital, Mathura, Kota, Uttar Pradesh, India
3 Department of Prosthodontist, K.D. Dental College and Hospital, Mathura, Kota, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Roopali Gupta
Department of Public Health Dentistry, K. D. Dental College and Hospital, Mathura, Uttar Pradesh
India

Abstract

Background: Traumatic dental injuries are a serious public dental health problem throughout the world. The incidence of traumatic injuries is increasing over the years. Trauma to the permanent anterior teeth is a common finding. Dental trauma is an irreversible pathology that after the occurrence is characterized by a life-long debilitating effect. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and assess factors related to traumatic injuries to permanent anterior teeth among 12–15-year-old children attending private and government schools in Mathura city. Materials and Methods: An epidemiological cross-sectional study was carried out among 1000 school children aged 12–15 years in which 500 children from both government and private schools, respectively, of five geographical zones of Mathura city were randomly selected. Children completed a questionnaire related to the history of trauma to their anterior teeth after which they were examined for type of lip coverage, Angle's molar relationship, and incisor nature of trauma sustained. Statistical analysis: SPSS 21 was carried out using Student's t-test (P < 0.05), Chi-square test, and Mantel–Haenszel test. Results: The prevalence of traumatic injuries was 8.9% and was higher among government school children compared to private school children. The boys and girls with a history of trauma were 67.4% and 32.6%, respectively. The main cause of trauma was fall in the playground (46.0%). The main reason of trauma was because of pushing (65.2%). The most predominant injuries were enamel fractures and the most common place for occurrence was school. Conclusion: The prevalence of dental injuries in Mathura city was high and it has a great potential to be considered as an emerging public health problem.



How to cite this article:
Gupta R, Kaur N, Sharma V, Bhalla M, Srivastava M, Sisodia S. Prevalence and risk factors associated with traumatic dental injuries among 12–15 year old school going children, Mathura city.J Indian Assoc Public Health Dent 2021;19:76-80


How to cite this URL:
Gupta R, Kaur N, Sharma V, Bhalla M, Srivastava M, Sisodia S. Prevalence and risk factors associated with traumatic dental injuries among 12–15 year old school going children, Mathura city. J Indian Assoc Public Health Dent [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Sep 18 ];19:76-80
Available from: https://www.jiaphd.org/text.asp?2021/19/1/76/312651


Full Text



 Introduction



The epidemic of common injuries is the most unconcerned health problem of the 21st century.[1] The accountability of all injuries is expected to be equal to that of all communicable diseases worldwide by 2020 and is expected to exceed in Latin America, China, and the Caribbean. In “Other Asia and Islands,” including Thailand, the burden has increased from 14.4% of all deaths in 1990 to 17.2% expected in 2020.[2]

The existence of dental caries as a major oral health problem in children has for long been established, but the prevalence of dental trauma, which is a serious dental public health problem, has not been studied often. Despite its importance, there are few reports available on the epidemiology of injuries to the teeth of children in developing and industrialized countries, especially when compared to the epidemiological data on dental caries and periodontal diseases.[2]

Traumatic dental injuries (TDI) are a serious public dental health issue throughout the world.[3] The incidence of traumatic injuries is increasing over the years. The face and the teeth being the most exposed parts of the body have a higher chance of fracture. Trauma to the permanent anterior teeth is a common finding.[4]

TDI are commonly seen in 92% of patients presenting with oral injuries. Epidemiological studies worldwide and in the past four decades have noticed the varying prevalence of TDI in children and adolescents. In the 0–18-year-old group, the prevalence ranged from 8% to 76%. In most studies, the 0–6-year-old group varied from 9.4% to 40%. In Sweden, the incidence of TDI in rural areas has been reported to be 11.7%. In Taiwan, East Asia, research indicated 16.5% of children in the central region and 19.9% of children in the southern region had a positive history of dental trauma. In South Asia, one Indian study revealed a relatively high prevalence of TDI in children 4–6 years old.[4]

During childhood, the development of the occlusion both functionally and esthetically is dependent on the satisfactory presence of teeth.[5] High levels of violence, traffic accidents, and a greater participation of children in sports have contributed to transform dental traumatic injuries into a public health problem.[6] Unfortunate and disastrous results can occur when a trauma is inadequately treated, causing conditions such as malformed teeth, premature tooth loss, and pulpal death with abscess formation.[5] About 10.3% of patients seeking orthodontic treatment have suffered from dental trauma. Maxillary incisors are the most vulnerable teeth to TDI, with increased overjet, protrusion of upper incisors, open bite, epilepsy, and incompetent lip coverage considered to be the most significant predisposing factors.[3] Maxillary teeth are most frequently traumatized than mandibular teeth and there is general agreement that maxillary central incisors are injured most frequently, probably due to their vulnerable position. When they are lost at the beginning or even in the middle of their biological cycle, there are esthetic alterations with a reduction of the child's self-esteem, making speech difficult or even contributing to install deleterious habits.[7]

In order to introduce appropriate preventive measures for traumatic injuries, the association between their prevalence and the risk factors involved must be better understood.[8] To determine efficiently the extent of injury and correctly diagnose injuries to the teeth, periodontal ligament, and associated structures, a systematic approach to the traumatized child is essential. Subsequent to the initial management of the dental injury, continued periodic monitoring is indicated to determine clinical and radiographic evidence of successful intervention.[9]

The aim of my study is to estimate the prevalence and risk factors related to traumatic injuries to permanent anterior teeth in 12–15-year-old children attending private and government schools in Mathura city.

 Materials and Methods



A cross-sectional survey was carried out on 1000 school children aged 12–15 years, of both genders attending government and private schools of Mathura City. The ethical clearance was obtained from the institutional ethical clearance committee (THE/147 C). The map of Mathura city was procured and divided into five zones, namely north, east, west, south, and central zone.

Inclusion criteria

All the available subjects who were in the age range of 12–15 years and willing to participate in the survey.

Exclusion criteria

School children with extensive caries in the anterior teethSchool children with dental anomalies in tooth structure such as amelogenesis imperfecta, dentinogenesis imperfecta, or enamel or dentin hypocalcificationSubjects not willing to participate in the survey and those who were absent on the day of examinationSubjects suffering from major systemic illness.

The pilot study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of TDI among the study participants of four schools selected randomly.

The sample size was determined using the following formula:

n = Z2 × P (1 − P)/e2

Based on the prevalence obtained for TDI, it was necessary to take 382 as the maximum sample size. However, a total of 1000 school children from private and government schools were examined in the age group 12–15 years to increase the accuracy of the study.

In order to cover the total sample size of 1000, 100 school children of both private and government schools from each of the five zones of Mathura city were randomly selected, out of which 500 children were from government schools and 500 children were from private schools. In total, 200 school children were selected from each zone.

Before examining the children, the consent was obtained from the Principal/Headmaster/Head Mistress of the respective schools of Mathura city. A closed-ended proforma was prepared to collect data.

The ADA type-3 technique was used for examination.[5] The age at which injury occurred, type of damage sustained, incisor overjet, type of lip coverage, and Angle's molar relationship were recorded. CPITN probe was used to measure the degree of overjet as described by the 1997 WHO Basic Oral Health Survey Guidelines.[5]

Hamilton et al.[5] classification of traumatic injuries to anterior teeth was used to assess the TDI to anterior teeth.

Class I – Fracture confined to enamelClass II – Fracture involving dentineClass III – Fracture with pulp exposedClass IV – Intrinsic discolorationClass V – Abnormal mobilityClass VI – Infra-occlusionClass VII – Presence of sinus or swelling in the mucosa over a tooth

The survey data were coded and all the results were analyzed using “Statistical Package for Social Sciences” 21 (IBM Corporation –Armonk, New York, US) software. Data analysis included descriptive statistics (frequency distribution and cross-tabulation). Chi-square test was employed to compare qualitative data and determine the statistical significance. The level of statistical significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. The strength of association between the variable (lip coverage, molar relationship, and incisal overjet) and the outcome was calculated using the Mantel–Haenszel test. Student's t-test was used to assess the quantitative data for comparing two groups.

 Results



On examination of 1000 school children, it was seen that 89 (8.9%) children sustained traumatic injuries to anterior teeth [Table 1]. The boys and girls with a history of trauma were 60 (67.4%) and 29 (32.6%), respectively, and the results were found to be statistically significant (P ≤ 0.01) [Table 2]. The main cause of trauma was fall in the playground, i.e., 46 (51.7%), and a statistically significant difference was obtained (P ≤ 0.02). The main reason of trauma was because of pushing found among 58 (65.2%) children; the difference was statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05).{Table 1}{Table 2}

The most common place for occurrence of trauma was school in 51 (57.3%) children; no statistically significant difference was obtained. Maxillary central incisor was the most common tooth affected by trauma in 85 (8.5%) children [Figure 1]. A total of 70 (60.3%) children suffered enamel fractures and no statistically significant difference was found (P = 0.41) [Figure 2].{Figure 1}{Figure 2}

Children with inadequate lip coverage showed less number of injuries, i.e., 28 (31.5%) than in children with adequate lip coverage, i.e., 61 (68.5%), and the results were not found to be statistically significant (P = 0.92) [Table 3]. Maximum, i.e., 62 (69.7%) children with injured teeth had Class I malocclusion and the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.90) [Table 4]. Furthermore, the maximum injuries occurred in 75 (84.2%) children with overjet 3–5 mm, followed by those having > 5 mm overjet, i.e., 14 (15.8%) and the results were not statistically significant (P = 0.14) [Table 5].{Table 3}{Table 4}{Table 5}

 Discussion



Traumatic dental injury is not a result of disease but a consequence of several factors that will accumulate throughout life if not properly treated.[6]

For this study, children between 12 and 15 years of age were chosen, as during this period, there is the maximum physiologic growth and development and the children are actively involved in lot of outdoor activities. The prevalence of traumatic injuries in this study was 8.9% that corroborates the results of various recent studies.[6] The prevalence noted was lower as compared to the earlier studies done by Kaur and Hiremath[7] (14.5%), Traebert et al.[8] (18.9%), Bendo et al.[10] (17.1%), Baldava and Anup[9] (14.9%), and Gupta et al.[11] (13.8%) in which prevalence was found to be higher.

In our study, boys and girls with a history of trauma were 60 (67.4%) and 29 (32.6%), respectively, and the difference was found to be statistically significant. Similar findings were observed in the study conducted by Ingle et al.[12] and Ravishankar et al.[13] in which more boys were affected by trauma. The higher percentage of traumatic injuries in the boys could be attributed to the fact that boys engage in leisure activities or sports of a generally more aggressive nature or with a greater accident risk than the girls do.[6]

The main cause of trauma was fall in the playground in 46 (51.7%) children. These findings are similar to the study conducted by Patel and Sujan[6] Bhayya and Shyagali[14] Rouhani et al.,[15] Govindaranjan et al.,[3] and Ingle et al.[12] in which 43.8%, 60%, 42.9%, 41.9%, and 57.0% had trauma due to fall in playground, respectively. However, in contrast to the study conducted by Prabhu et al.,[16] Malikaew et al.,[17] Baldava and Anup,[9] and Gupta et al.[11] in which 58%, 60%, 49.9%, and 42% of children, respectively, with a history of trauma had trauma due to sports.

For this study, the main reason of trauma was because of pushing in 58 (65.2%) children. However, in contrast to the study conducted by Malikaew et al.,[17] the main reason of trauma was because of slipping in 14.9% of children.

In the present study, the most common place for occurrence of trauma was school in 51 (57.3%) children. Similar results were seen in a study done by Batra et al.[18] in which 67 (38.7%) children had suffered trauma at school. In contrast in the study conducted by Bendo et al.,[10] Kaur and Hiremath,[7] Rouhani et al.,[15] and Patel and Sujan,[6] 41.8%, 35.4%, 47.4%, and 43.8% of children with a history of trauma had suffered trauma at home, respectively.

In our study, the maxillary central incisor was the most common tooth affected by trauma in 85 (8.5%) children. In contrast in the study conducted by Prasad et al.[19], Ingle et al.,[12] Tumen et al.,[20] and Batra et al.,[18] 46 (37.1%), 115 (72.2%), 36 (29.3%), and 123 (72.3%) children had trauma in maxillary central incisor, respectively. Injury to maxillary incisors was more frequent than mandibular incisors because blows to mandibular teeth are dissipated due to the nonrigid connection of the mandible to the cranial base.

For this study, the most predominant injuries were enamel fractures, i.e., in 70 (60.3%) children. In contrast in a study conducted by Kaur and Hiremath,[7] 81.6% of children had fracture confined to the enamel.

Children with inadequate lip coverage, i.e., 28 (31.5%) showed less number of injuries than with adequate lip coverage, i.e., 61 (68.5%) in the present study. In contrast in the study conducted by Batra et al.,[18] Francisco et al.,[21] Gupta et al.,[22] Pavan Baldava and Anup,[9] and Marcenes et al.[23] in which 136 (13.6%), 101 (14.8%), 19 (43.2%), 21 (7.3%), and 58 (6.5%) children with history of trauma had adequate lip coverage, while 37 (23.1%), 25 (30.9%), 25 (56.8%), 34 (41.0%), and 29 (14.9%) children with history of trauma had inadequate lip coverage, respectively.

Children having Class I malocclusion, i.e., 62 (69.7%) suffered more from trauma. Similarly, in a study conducted by Kaur and Hiremath,[7] 227 (78.5%) children with a history of trauma had Class I malocclusion and 60 (20.8%) children with a history of trauma had Class II malocclusion.

Maximum injuries occurred in children with overjet 3–5 mm, i.e., 75 (84.2%), followed by those having >5 mm, i.e., 14 (15.8%). In contrast in the study conducted by Marcenes et al.[23] and Gupta et al.,[22] 7.6% and 52.3% of children, respectively, with a history of trauma had 3–5 mm incisor overjet, and 11.5% and 47.7% of children, respectively, with a history of trauma had >5 mm overjet.

The limitation of my study was that further studies are required with a larger sample size and more variables are needed to investigate the personal and social factors that increase the risk of damage to the anterior teeth. Such information is necessary to develop and implement effective preventive strategies for reducing the prevalence and cost of traumatic dental injury treatment.

 Conclusion



In the present study, the prevalence of traumatic injuries was 8.9% and was higher among government school children compared to private school children. On the whole, the prevalence was more in boys when compared to girls. The prevalence of traumatic injuries was more among children with adequate lip coverage, Angle's Class I malocclusion, and with 3–5 mm incisor overjet. Maxillary central incisors were most commonly affected by trauma and maximum children had fracture confined to the enamel.

Traumatic dental injury is not a result of disease but a consequence of several factors that will accumulate throughout life if not properly treated. The most important factors significantly contributing to TDI are lip coverage, molar relationship, and incisor overjet. Hence, correction of these predisposing factors may help in the prevention of traumatic injuries.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

References

1Cunha RF, Pugliesi DM, Percinoto C. Treatment of traumatized primary teeth: A conservative approach. Dent Traumatol 2007;23:360-3.
2Bastone EB, Freer TJ, McNamara JR. Epidemiology of dental trauma: A review of the literature. Aust Dent J 2000;45:2-9.
3Govindaranjan M, Reddy VN, Sugumaran K, ArunRao P, Prabhu A. Prevalence of traumatic dental injuries to the anterior teeth among three to thirteen year old school children of Tamil Nadu. Contemp Clin Dent 2012;3:164-7.
4Kang Y, Franco CS. A story of dental injury and orthodontics. Oral Health Dent Manag 2014;13:243-52.
5Hamilton FA, Hill FJ, Holloway PJ. An investigation of dento-alveolar trauma and its treatment in an adolescent population. Part 1: The prevalence and incidence of injuries and the extent and adequacy of treatment received. Br Dent J 1997;182:91-5.
6Patel MC, Sujan SG. The prevalence of traumatic dental injuries to permanent anterior teeth and its relation with predisposing risk factors among 8-13 years school children of Vadodara city: An epidemiological study. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2012;30:151-7.
7Kaur N, Hiremath SS. Prevalence of traumatic injuries to permanent anterior teeth among 8-15 years old government & private school children in Bangalore city. JIAPHD 2011;9:357-63.
8Traebert J, Bittencourt DD, Peres KG, Peres MA, de Lacerda JT, Marcenes W. Aetiology and rates of treatment of traumatic dental injuries among 12-year-old school children in a town in southern Brazil. Dent Traumatol 2006;22:173-8.
9Baldava P, Anup N. Risk Factors for traumatic dental injuries in an adolescent male population in India. J Contemp Dent Pract 2007;8:1-10.
10Bendo CB, Paiva SM, Oliveira AC, Goursand D, Torres CS, Pordeus IA, et al. Prevalence and associated factors of traumatic dental injuries in Brazilian schoolchildren. J Public Health Dent 2010;70:313-8.
11Gupta K, Tandon S, Prabhu D. Traumatic injuries to the incisors in children of South Kanara District. A prevalence study. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2002;20:107-13.
12Ingle NA, Baratam N, Charania Z. Prevalence and factors associated with traumatic dental injuries (TDI) to anterior teeth of 11-13 year old school going children of Maduravoyal, Chennai. JOHCD 2010;4:55-60.
13Ravishankar TL, Kumar MA, Nagarajappa R, Chaitra TR. Prevalence of traumatic dental injuries to permanent incisors among 12-year-old school children in Davangere, South India. Chin J Dent Res 2010;13:57-60.
14Bhayya DP, Shyagali TR. Traumatic injuries in the primary teeth of 4- to 6-year-old school children in gulbarga city, India. A prevalence study. Oral Health Dent Manag 2013;12:17-23.
15Rouhani A, Movahhed T, Ghoddusi J, Mohiti Y, Banihashemi E, Akbari M. Anterior traumatic dental injuries in East Iranian school children: Prevalence and risk factors. Iran Endod J 2015;10:35-8.
16Prabhu A, Rao AP, Govindarajan M, Reddy V, Krishnakumar R, Kaliyamoorthy S. Attributes of dental trauma in a school population with active sports involvement. Asian J Sports Med 2013;4:190-4.
17Malikaew P, Watt RG, Sheiham A. Prevalence and factors associated with traumatic dental injuries (TDI) to anterior teeth of 11-13 year old Thai children. Community Dent Health 2006;23:222-7.
18Batra M, Kandwal A, Gupta M, Tangade P, Dany SS, Rajput P. Prevalence of dental traumatic injuries to permanent incisors in Indian children: A cross-sectional survey. JDSOR 2014;5:1-4.
19Prasad S, Tandon S, Pahuja M, Wadhawan A. Prevalence of Traumatic Dental injuries among school going children in Farukhnagar, District Gurgaon. IJSS 2014;2:44-9.
20Tumen EC, Adıguzel O, Kaya S, Uysal E, Yavuz I, Ozdemir E, Atakul F. Incisor trauma in a Turkish preschool population: Prevalence and socio-economic risk factors. Community Dent Health 2011;28:308-12.
21Francisco SS, Filho FJ, Pinheiro ET, Murrer RD, de Jesus Soares A. Prevalence of traumatic dental injuries and associated factors among Brazilian schoolchildren. Oral Health Prev Dent 2013;11:31-8.
22Gupta S, Kumar-Jindal S, Bansal M, Singla A. Prevalence of traumatic dental injuries and role of incisal overjet and inadequate lip coverage as risk factors among 4-15 years old government school children in Baddi-Barotiwala Area, Himachal Pradesh, India. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2011;16:e960-5.
23Marcenes W, Zabot NE, Traebert J. Socio-economic correlates of traumatic injuries to the permanent incisors in schoolchildren aged 12 years in Blumenau, Brazil. Dent Traumatol 2001;17:222-6.