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Reasons for smoking among the teenagers of age 14–17 years in Vikarabad town: A cross-sectional study
Md Shakeel Anjum, Madipally Kumar Srikanth, P Parthasarathi Reddy, M Monica, K Yadav Rao, A Sheetal
January-March 2016, 14(1):80-83
Background: Despite widespread knowledge of the health consequences, tobacco use, especially smoking is common globally. Most of the youngsters become smokers annually and one-third of them are believed to die due to tobacco use. Aim: To assess the various reasons for smoking among teenagers of age 14–17 years. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted on 384 teenagers to know their views regarding the reasons for smoking habit. A specially designed pretested questionnaire was used for the survey. Results: Majority of 76.4% of the study subjects agreed that smoking habit gives psychological pleasure, 77.5% agreed that smoking starts because of friends, and 65.7% felt that smoking starts as an inspiration for outlook and personality. Conclusion: Various psychological factors, personal factors, and social factors are attached with smoking habit.
  77,617 1,961 1
Updated BG Prasad socioeconomic classification for 2016
Mahesh Ravindra Khairnar, Umesh Wadgave, Pranali Vinayak Shimpi
Oct-Dec 2016, 14(4):469-470
  11,920 988 8
Knowledge, attitude, and practices of oral hygiene among college students in Bengaluru city
V Gopikrishna, Nithin N Bhaskar, Smitha B Kulkarni, Jeswin Jacob, KG Sourabha
January-March 2016, 14(1):75-79
Introduction: Poor oral health can have a profound effect on the quality of life. The experience of pain, endurance of dental abscesses, problems with eating and chewing, embarrassment about the shape of teeth or about missing, discolored or damaged teeth can adversely affect people's daily lives and well-being. Aim: To assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices of oral hygiene among college students in Bengaluru city. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted using a self-administered 21-item structured questionnaire that assessed oral health and hygiene knowledge, attitudes, and practices of 499 students from various professions. 202 engineering students, 99 MBA/BBM students, 99 nursing students, and 99 students from B.Com. The study was conducted during June and July 2013. The results were analyzed by descriptive statistics and Chi-square test using SPSS version 14. All tests were set at a 0.05 significance level. Results: The toothbrush with toothpaste is the most common oral hygiene aid used for cleaning teeth, which was adopted by 304 (60.9%) students. More than half 287 (57.5) of the students felt that dental caries affected their esthetics. 358 (71.7) students felt that the health of the mouth and dentition had an impact on the health of the body. Conclusion: The toothbrush with toothpaste is the most common oral hygiene aid used for cleaning teeth; it was observed that a greater number of students brushed their teeth in the morning. Dental pain was the main reason to visit a dentist.
  11,477 1,214 3
Dentistry meets nature-role of herbs in periodontal care: A systematic review
Venisha Pandita, Basavaraj Patthi, Ashish Singla, Shipli Singh, Ravneet Malhi, Vaibhav Vashishtha
July-September 2014, 12(3):148-156
Background: Natural products have been used for several years in folk medicine. Over the last decade herbal medications turned out to be a popular form of therapy throughout the world when used in prophylaxis and treatment of various diseases. Many side-effects associated with modern medicines have been averted by using herbal medicines, and thus they are safer to use. Objective: The aim was to evaluate the effect of herbs on the periodontal diseases. Data Source: A literature review was performed in PubMed Central and Cochrane library using MeSH Terms - herbal medicine, periodontitis, and dentistry. Materials and Methods: Of a total 368 titles appeared 39 were related to the research question. Further search criteria were applied to the articles, of which 13 articles fulfilled the criteria and were selected for the review. Five articles that were hand searched were also included. Results and Conclusion: In the available literature, it was found that the low toxicity of herbs encourage further investigation that leads to a better understanding of alternative medicine for prevention of plaque formation and strengthening of the gums, as well as in reducing the incidence of periodontal infections.
  10,604 1,495 6
Determination of fluoride level in drinking water from water samples in Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra
Sabita M Ram, Vaibhav Pravin Thakkar, Priyanka Machale
October-December 2017, 15(4):395-398
Introduction: The concentration of fluoride in drinking water influences the dental caries situation in the region. There are no studies reported determining the fluoride levels in drinking water supplies of Navi Mumbai. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the fluoride level in drinking water samples from different areas of Navi Mumbai region. Materials and Methods: In an in vitro experimental study, water samples were collected from seven different locations of Navi Mumbai region. Water samples were collected from the Morbe dam, water purification plant at Bhokarpada in Raigad district, and five randomly selected residential areas of Navi Mumbai region. A total of 35 water subsamples were analyzed for fluoride content using fluoride analysis kit (HiMedia AQUACheck Fluoride Testing Kit). Results: The mean concentration of fluoride level in water samples from dam, water purification plant, as well as the five random residential areas was 0.5 mg/L (1 mg/L = 1 ppm). The fluoride level remained constant throughout from the source till the end consumer. Conclusion: There was no effect of water purification process at the plant on fluoride content of water samples. Similarly, the fluoride content was constant in the distributed purified water to residential areas. In this study, it was observed that the fluoride level in drinking water of Navi Mumbai was below the recommended levels by the World Health Organization as well as the Ministry of Health, Government of India.
  9,970 504 1
Assessment of oral health awareness among undergraduate Medical Students in Davangere city: A cross-sectional survey
BK Sujatha, Puja C Yavagal, Mary Shimi S Gomez
January-March 2014, 12(1):43-46
Background: Oral health is an integral part of general health. It is an essential component of health throughout the life of an individual. Certain systemic diseases can manifest in the oral cavity. Majority of the population approach medical practitioners for their oral health problems at primary health center level. Hence, general practitioners should have adequate knowledge about oral health and also they should play an active role in oral health promotion. Aim: The aim was to assess oral health awareness among undergraduate medical students in Davangere city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a self-structured, pre-tested, closed-ended questionnaire consisting of 25 questions with options on Likert scale. All the undergraduate students of JJM Medical college and SS Medical colleges were included for the survey. Questions were related to oral health problems and their relation with general health. The data was collected, compiled, and analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: Only 25% of the undergraduate students were found to have good oral health awareness, 38% were found to have fair and 37% were found to have poor oral health awareness. Final year undergraduate medical students were found to have better oral health awareness (40%), when compared to second (13%) and third year students (23%) (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Oral health awareness among undergraduate medical students was found to be poor. Final year undergraduate students were found to have better oral health awareness.
  8,591 949 1
Effect of long-term smoking on salivary flow rate and salivary pH
Mala Singh, Navin Anand Ingle, Navpreet Kaur, Pramod Yadav, Ekta Ingle
January-March 2015, 13(1):11-13
Introduction: Saliva is a complex and important body fluid which is very essential for oral health and it is the first biological fluid that is exposed to cigarette smoke, which contains numerous toxic compositions responsible for structural and functional changes in saliva. Aim: To evaluate the long-term effect of smoking on salivary flow rate (SFR) and salivary pH. Materials and Methods: The subjects of the study were divided into smokers and nonsmokers. Each group comprised of 35 male adults. The saliva of each subject was collected under resting conditions. They were asked to spit in a graduated container at an interval of 60 s for 5 min. Salivary pH was measured immediately after measuring SFR using the (Indikrom Paper) pH indicator and calibrated cylinder. Based on the color change of the indicator paper strip, the pH was assessed in comparison with a color chart. Data were analyzed by Student's t-test using SPSS 15. Results: The mean (±standard deviation) SFR and pH were 0.20 (±0.05) ml/min and 6.30 (±0.36) respectively in smokers while the mean SFR and pH were 0.36 (±0.06) ml/min and 7.10 (±0.24) in nonsmokers. The difference was statistically significant (P = 0.00). Conclusion: Long-term smoking significantly reduces the SFR and salivary pH.
  7,895 1,254 8
The effect of oil pulling with pure coconut oil on Streptococcus mutans: A randomized controlled trial
Varsha Komath Pavithran, Madhusudhan Krishna, Vinod A Kumar, Ashish Jaiswal, Arul K Selvan, Sudhir Rawlani
July-September 2017, 15(3):200-204
Introduction: Oil pulling as described in ancient Ayurveda involves the use of edible vegetable oils as oral antibacterial agents. It is a practice of swishing oil in the mouth for oral and systemic health benefits. Pure coconut oil has antimicrobial properties and is commonly available in all Indian households. Aim: This study aims to assess the effect of oil pulling therapy with pure coconut oil on Streptococcus mutans count and to compare its efficacy against sesame oil and saline. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled concurrent parallel- triple blinded clinical trial was conducted. Thirty participants in age range of 20–23 years were randomly allocated into Group A (coconut oil), Group B (sesame oil), and Group C (saline), with 10 in each group. The participants were instructed to swish and pull 10 ml of oil on empty stomach, early morning for 10–15 min. Unstimulated saliva collected before and after oil pulling procedure was analyzed for colony forming units (CFU) per ml saliva of S. mutans. The data were analyzed using paired t-test, ANOVA, and post hoc analysis using Tukey's honest significant difference. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: A statistically significant reduction in S. mutans CFU count after oil pulling with pure coconut oil (P = 0.001) was found. There was no statistically significant difference between sesame oil and coconut oil (P = 0.97) and between sesame oil and saline (P = 0.061). When efficacy of coconut oil against saline was evaluated, a statistical significant difference (P = 0.039) was found. Conclusion: Oil pulling is an effective method for oral hygiene maintenance as it significantly reduces S. mutans count in the saliva.
  7,581 784 -
Oral health knowledge and practices: their influence on oral health status of auxiliary health workers in health centers of Mangalore, India
Mallikarjun Sajjanshetty, Ashwini Rao, Rajesh Gururaghavendran, Ramya Shenoy, BH Mithun Pai
April-June 2019, 17(2):97-102
Background: Disparity exists in the availability of dental care services in rural India as compared to urban setup. Majority of dental offices are set in urban areas, with little access to rural population, driving people to primary health centers for all health needs. In situations like these, auxiliary health workers can be delegated with the duties of oral health education to the masses provided they possess adequate information/knowledge regarding oral healthcare and practices. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the influence of oral health knowledge (OHK) and oral health practices on the oral health status among auxiliary health workers in the health centers of Mangalore. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among the auxiliary health workers in Mangalore. OHK and practices were analyzed using a pretested, screening questionnaire. Oral health status was analyzed using the WHO Oral Health Assessment Form-1997. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software, version 16.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Chi-square test and binary logistic regression test were employed. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Majority (72.8%) of the auxiliary workers had good OHK and followed recommended dental practices. Better OHK was associated with better oral health, namely lesser decayed teeth and more filled teeth (P < 0.05). Better OHK correlated negatively with missing teeth among participants (P < 0.05). Visiting a dentist in previous 6 months, brushing twice a day, and changing brush every 3 months were the important predictors of improved oral health (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Better OHK and practices can significantly impact the oral health status of auxiliary health workers in Mangalore. It also projects the impact that it can have on the oral health of rural population as auxiliary health workers are the first line of information for the underprivileged masses. Dedicated oral health programs to educate/train auxiliary workers in health centers can form an alternative approach to reach rural population.
  7,823 256 -
Knowledge and attitude towards preventive dental care among dental faculties in Bangalore city
Nikhil Ahuja, M Pramila, Archana Krishnamurthy, GK Umashankar, Ranganath , Nitya Sharma
April-June 2014, 12(2):93-99
Background and Objectives: Preventive approach in dental practice has been cited as a reason for the decline in oral diseases and as a predominant part of the service-mix of dental practices in the future. Dental faculty's knowledge and attitude toward prevention are important, since they have exceptionally important direct and indirect roles in shaping student's preventive orientation and also potentially influencing their patient's ability to take care of their teeth. Thus, this study was conducted to assess knowledge and attitudes toward preventive dental care among dental faculties and their relation to demographic and professional characteristics. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among dental faculties in Bangalore city. Of 17 dental colleges, 4 were selected by simple random sampling. A total of 218 dental faculties was individually asked to complete a pretested questionnaire. The questionnaire requested information on dental faculty's demographic and professional characteristics and their knowledge and attitudes toward preventive dental care. Descriptive, Chi-square tests, and ANOVA were used to analyze the data. Results: The highest knowledge was seen among dental faculties regarding prevention of malocclusion (3.51 ± 1.02) followed by oral cancer (2.95 ± 1.09) and periodontal diseases (2.86 ± 1.02). The least knowledge was seen for the prevention of caries (2.63 ± 1.35). The most positive attitudes regarding preventive dentistry was characterized as being essential (6.34 ± 1.05), useful (6.32 ± 1.07) and valuable (6.27 ± 1.00). Statistically significant differences were found in relation to knowledge and attitudes for all demographic and professional characteristics except for gender and Department of Teaching. Conclusion: Dental faculty seems to have differing levels of knowledge regarding oral diseases with positive attitudes seen regarding preventive dentistry. Continuing education activities and placing emphasis on prevention-related research are recommended.
  6,612 769 1
Ill effects of smoking on general and oral health: Awareness among college going students
Yash Paul, Nitin Soni, Rohit Vaid, P Basavaraj, Nitin Khuller
January-March 2014, 12(1):47-53
Purpose: This cross-sectional study assessed smoking-related behaviors, experiences, beliefs, knowledge, and prevalence among a sample of college going students. It helped to inform them about the different nicotine replacement therapies (NRTs) available for the cessation of the habit. Materials and Methods: After gaining informed consent, 500 college going students (18-25 years age group) of Swami Devi Dyal Group of Colleges, who are smokers and also willing to participate in the study were surveyed regarding their awareness about and prevalence of ill effects of smoking. The survey was conducted by employing a uniform questionnaire. The questionnaire assessed about the tobacco use, no of cigarettes they smokes every day, what form of smoking do they prefer, early smoking experiences and sensations, factors that might motivate a quit attempt, ill effects of smoking on oral health, other psychosocial variables associated with adolescent smoking and about the different NRTs available. The feedback hence obtained was condensed in the form of objective results, which were analyzed to arrive at meaningful conclusions. Results and Conclusion: According to the study as many as about 90% of the students have reasonably good chances of succeeding in quitting smoking. However, the overwhelming majority (96%) had no idea about different NRTs. This shows a stark lack of awareness as to the means that can help them quit the habit. Thus, we get a clear vision as to the direction of our efforts and feel optimistic as to the outcome too.
  6,472 687 -
In vitro activity of ethanolic and water extract of guava leaves at various concentrations against Lactobacillus acidophilus
Deepika Jain, Pralhad Dasar, Sandesh Nagarajappa, Sandeep Kumar, Bhuvnesh Airen, Shilpa Warhekar
July-September 2014, 12(3):232-236
Introduction: Chemical substances used for prevention of dental caries are known to have many side-effects. Thus, natural products should be explored for their anticaries action. Objectives: To prepare 5% and 20% concentrations of ethanolic and water extracts of guava leaves and to assess their activity against Lactobacillus acidophilus. Materials and Methods: In vitro experimental study was conducted in Department of Biosciences. Ethanolic and water extracts of guava leaves were prepared using Soxhlet extractor. Two concentrations 5% and 20% weight/volume of both extracts were prepared. Test organism L. acidophilus Microbial Type Culture Collection 447 was obtained in lyophillized form. After revival in nutrient broth, bacteria were grown on Lactobacilli de Man, Rogosa, Sharpe agar for further experiment. Antimicrobial testing of extracts was done using Agar well-diffusion method. Ten plates each were prepared for both extracts. Chlorhexidine (0.2%) served as a positive control and distilled water as a negative control. Results: Mean zone of inhibition produced by 5% and 20% ethanolic extract was 11.2 mm and 14.1 mm respectively and by 5% and 20% water extract was 1.6 mm and 5.1 mm respectively. Statistical analysis of results using one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey's test revealed that activity of 5% ethanolic extract and 5%, 20% water extract was significantly less than that of 0.2% chlorhexidine. There was no statistical difference in efficacy of 20% ethanolic extract of guava and 0.2% chlorhexidine (P = 0.270). Conclusion: Ethanolic and water extracts of guava leaves possess antibacterial activity against L. acidophilus with 20% ethanolic extract being as efficacious as 0.2% chlorhexidine.
  5,913 650 1
The association between psychological stress and recurrent aphthous stomatitis among medical and dental student cohorts in an educational setup in India
A Kaleswara Rao, Sudhakar Vundavalli, NR Sirisha, CH Jayasree, G Sindhura, D Radhika
April-June 2015, 13(2):133-137
Introduction: Aphthous stomatitis is very common, affecting about 20-60% of the normal individuals to some degree. Although its etiology is not well-understood, it is multifactorial, and stress could be one possible triggering factor. Aims: The aim was to assess the prevalence of aphthous stomatitis and its association with psychological stress in both medical and dental graduate students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 275 medical and dental student cohorts of an educational setup in India. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire, information regarding psychological stress, and 1-year period prevalence of aphthous stomatitis was collected. Data analysis was done with SPSS software version 20 (Chicago Inc., IL, USA). Categorical variables were compared using Chi-square test and comparison between mean stress scores and aphthous stomatitis was done with ANOVA and binary logistic regression was done. P ≤0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The prevalence of aphthous stomatitis in the study population was 78.1% and males were more commonly affected than females. Among the student cohorts, final year MBBS and final year BDS students were highly affected than others, which is statistically significant. Conclusions: Stress increases the risk of aphthous stomatitis. Stress management strategies are necessary for medical and dental graduate students.
  5,751 647 3
Relationship between psychological well-being and perceptions of stress among undergraduate dental students in Bengaluru city: A cross-sectional study
M Anushri, R Yashoda, Manjunath P Puranik
October-December 2014, 12(4):283-292
Introduction: The dental profession has been considered a stressful occupation. The origins of this stress may also lie in the process of dental education. The perception of stress is frequently influenced by one's personal system of beliefs and attitudes. Aim: The aim was to assess the relationship between psychological well-being and perception of stress among undergraduate dental students in Bangalore city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among 800 1-4 th year dental students. Information on demographics, social background, and health behaviors were collected. The psychological general well-being (PGWB) index and the dental environment stress (DES) questionnaire were used to measure PGWB and perceptions of stress, respectively. Multiple intergroup comparisons were carried out using ANOVA. Correlation analysis was done to find out relationship between PGWB and DES. Regression analysis to find out the strongest predictor of PGWB. P <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: There was no significant difference in PGWB among different year of study. Female students had significantly lower PGWB scores and higher DES scores than male students. The stress differed among different year of study with highest stress in final year students in all domains except for clinical/preclinical training, which was highest among 1 st year students. Correlational analysis showed a negative relationship between PGWB and DES score. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that "workload," "patient treatment," "performance pressure" and "others" domains of stress were significant predictors of PGWB. Conclusion: This study revealed that the perception of stress is influenced by gender and health behaviors which in turn affect PGWB.
  5,740 650 -
Patient satisfaction with the dental services offered by a dental Hospital in India
N Nagappan, Joseph John
October-December 2014, 12(4):297-301
Introduction: A major component of quality of health care is patient satisfaction. Patient satisfaction is multifaceted and a very challenging outcome to define. Patient expectations of care and attitudes greatly contribute to the satisfaction; other psychosocial factors, including facilities and treatments services are also known to contribute to patient satisfaction scores. Aim: To measure patient satisfaction about facilities, services and treatments offered by a dental hospital in India. Materials and Methods: Self administrated questionnaire was distributed to outpatients reporting to the dental hospital for treatment. The questionnaire consisted of 30 items that included information about personal data of the patients and their satisfaction with the facilities, services and treatment received in the hospital. Results: About 89.9% of patients felt that the cost of dental hygiene services were reasonable, 57.6% of patients felt that drinking water facilities were enough in the hospital, 31.9% of patients felt that they have problem with scheduling appointments, 86% of patients felt that they had problem in contacting student dentist. Conclusion: The majority of the patients were satisfied with the facilities, services and treatment received at hospital except for facilities such as water supply and scheduling appointments with patient convenience.
  5,667 716 -
Antibacterial efficacy of Mimosa Pudica (Lajavanti) against streptococcus mutans
Swati V Balsaraf, Revant H Chole
October-December 2014, 12(4):317-319
Introduction: The Mimosa pudica plant also known as "touch me not" plant, "shame" plant or laajvanti is a widely grown perennial herb as a show plant because of the mysterious action of its leaves which closes when touched. Mimosa pudica is also known for various medicinal purposes such as treatment of depression, piles, insomnia and many more. It has also been used for dental purposes. Literature shows evidence of its use for dental decay, bleeding gums throughout India and worldwide. Materials and Methods: Mimosa pudica plant whole aqueous extract in 10%, 20% and 5% concentration, chlorhexidine mouth wash as control, Streptococcus mutans (Microbial Type Culture Collection). Using agar well method the efficacy of Mimosa pudica extract was tested. Results: The plant extract couldn't show efficacy as the microorganisms didn't show any growth. Conclusion: The potential of this drug needs further investigation.
  5,540 466 -
Effect of fluoride in drinking water on children's intelligence in high and low fluoride areas of Delhi
Hansa Kundu, P Basavaraj, Ashish Singla, Ritu Gupta, Khushboo Singh, Swati Jain
April-June 2015, 13(2):116-121
Introduction: Fluoride is one of the indispensable elements for the living being. However, the intake of F above the threshold level can affect the central nervous system even before causing dental or skeletal fluorosis. Aim: The aim was to assess the effect of fluoride in drinking water on the intelligence quotient (IQ) of 8-12 years old school going children residing in high and low Fluoride (F) areas of Delhi. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 school children were selected, 100 from low F area and 100 from high F area. The IQ of the children was assessed using Ravens Standardized Progressive Matrices Test. Information for each child's sociodemographic data, mother's diet during pregnancy, duration of residency in the village, source of drinking water, and duration of drinking water from the source was entered on a specially designed proforma from mothers of children. Height and weight were also recorded for each child to assess the nutritional status. Independent t-test and Chi-square test was used to compare mean IQ scores in high and low fluoridated areas. Pearson's correlation and multivariate linear regression were used to appraise the issue of all the study variables on IQ. Results: Comparison of mean IQ of children in both high (76.20 ± 19.10) and low F (85.80 ± 18.85) areas showed a significant difference (P = 0.013). Multiple regression analysis between child IQ and all other independent variables revealed that mother's diet during pregnancy (P = 0.001) along with F in drinking water (P = 0.017) were the independent variables with the greatest explanatory power for child IQ variance (r2 = 0.417) without interaction with other variables. Conclusion: Fluoride in the drinking water was significantly related with the IQ of children. Along with fluoride, mother's diet during pregnancy was also found to be significantly related with IQ of children. Researches in the same field are further advocated with large sample size and over a large geographical area.
  5,358 626 10
Evaluation of efficacy of a commercially available herbal mouthwash on dental plaque and gingivitis: A double-blinded parallel randomized controlled trial
Sanjukta Bagchi, Sabyasachi Saha, GV Jagannath, Vamsi Krishna Reddy, Pooja Sinha
July-September 2015, 13(3):222-227
Aim: To evaluate if a commercially available herbal mouthwash, can be a better choice as an anti-plaque and antigingivitis agent when compared with chlorhexidine. Materials and Methods: In a double-blind, parallel group randomized clinical trial 90 nursing students aged 18-25 years were randomly divided into three groups: A (chlorhexidine), B (HiOra) and C (distilled water). These groups were asked to rinse with their respective mouthwash two times daily for 21 days. Plaque and gingivitis were evaluated by using Turesky et al. modification of Quigley Hein Plaque Index (1970) and Modified Gingival Index by Lobene et al. (1986) respectively. Statistical analysis was done using ANOVA test. Results: There was statistically significant reduction in plaque and gingival scores from baseline to 21 days in both the groups A and B. Conclusions: Although chlorhexidine group proved to be the best anti-plaque and antigingivitis agent, it was found that HiOra group also showed gradual improvement from baseline to 21 days. Whereas no improvement was seen in the Group C using distilled water over 21 days.
  5,166 795 4
Effectiveness of sodium fluoride mouthrinses on the prevention of dental caries: A systematic review
P Jagan, Nusrath Fareed, Hemanth Battur, Sanjeev Khanagar, Manohara Bhat, Rajeev Basapathy
April-June 2015, 13(2):110-115
Background: Caries inhibitory effect of fluoride has been known for about a century. The use of mouthrinses as a vehicle for applying fluoride in a self-administered preventive program was first proposed by Bibby et al. in 1946. Since then sodium fluoride (NaF) mouthrinses have been used extensively as a caries-preventive measure. Aim: To determine the effectiveness of NaF mouthrinses in the prevention of Dental Caries through a systematic review. Materials and Methods: A search strategy for the review was carried out according to the standard Joanna Briggs Institute systematic review methodology. An electronic search was carried out in PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Library from 1970 to 2012. Hand search was conducted through the reference list of articles. The main intention of our investigation was to check the amount of reduction in clinical dental caries. Of 657 articles originally identified, 35 records were considered potentially eligible and sought for further assessment. Results: A total of 28 articles met the inclusion criteria and were assessed independently for methodology and performance. Randomized control study design was followed in 17 studies mainly at evidence level; 2 with a preventive fraction ranging from 16% to 65%. The reported mean annual caries reduction among adolescents was 0.76. Conclusion: Daily or weekly NaF mouthrinses had a significant caries reduction among adolescents. Daily and weekly/fortnightly rinse programs showed an average of 39% fewer decayed-missing-filled-surface. Daily use of NaF had a slightly higher caries reduction rate. Not enough data are available to show the effect of fluoride mouth rinsing programs on deciduous dentition.
  5,140 800 1
An epidemiological data of oral health status and treatment needs of rural population of Nellore district, Andhra Pradesh, India
Deepthi Athuluru, V Chandrasekhara Reddy, KM Sudhir, R.V. S Krishna Kumar, Srinivasulu Gomasani, Sreenivas Nagarakanti
July-September 2016, 14(3):281-286
Introduction: As India is the second highest populated country and approximately 72% of this population live in rural areas, an attempt has been made to assess the prevalence of oral diseases in rural areas. Aim: To assess the prevalence of oral diseases in 5, 12, 35–44, and 65–74 years old population in rural areas of Nellore district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out using multistage cluster sampling methodology, and random samples of participants were selected. Data were collected on sociodemographic details, oral hygiene practices, and clinical oral health data collected according to the World Health Organization methodology criteria and simplified oral hygiene index. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test and linear and logistic regression. Results: Among 35–44 and 65–74 years age group, 54.1% and 42.2% of the population showed poor oral hygiene status. At age 12 years, 51% of children had caries; mean decayed, missing, filled teeth was 3.24 in 35–44 years and 12.01 in 65–74 years. Extraction was the most required treatment (52.1%) for older people, pulp care therapy for 12 years old (16.5%) and 35–44 years old (23.2%). Community periodontal index score 2 was dominant in 12 years old (30.5%) and 35–44 years old (54.6%) and score 3 in 65–74 years (46.9%) population. Definite malocclusion was seen in 18% of 12 years old population. All the independent variables were related to caries and periodontal status (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The study population was characterized by high prevalence of dental caries, periodontal diseases, and poor oral hygiene status, and age of the population is the most associated factor for dental caries and periodontal diseases.
  5,213 642 1
Dermatoglyphics: An indicator of dental caries in humans
BR Chinmaya, BV Smitha, Shourya Tandon, Charu Khurana
July-September 2016, 14(3):272-275
Introduction: Fingerprint analysis for personal identification is well-known, as it is unique to all individuals and remains unchanged over a lifetime. Now it is getting identified as a useful tool in understanding the basic questions in genetics and is emerging as an independent field in dentistry as dermatoglyphics. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess if any relationship can be established between fingerprint patterns with dental caries. Materials and Methods: A total of 76 dental students aged 18–26 years were selected using simple random sampling. Their fingerprints were recorded with duplicating InkPad and analyzed by Cummins Method and caries experience was clinically assessed by decayed, missing, and filled teeth index. Results: The dental caries experience was highest among students with whorl pattern (μ = 2.82) followed by the central pocket loop (μ = 2.60) and least among students with loop pattern (μ = 1.58). Furthermore, a significant relationship between twin loop pattern and dental caries was noticed (μ = 2.41); however, a negative correlation was observed for loops and arches with dental caries. Conclusion: The dental caries experience of an individual was associated fingerprints. Dermatoglyphics may be considered as a indicator of dental caries in humans.
  5,052 670 3
Prevalence of precancerous lesions and conditions in Telangana region, Andhra Pradesh, India
B Hari Vinay, P Venkat Baghirath, J Vijay Kumar, Arvind
January-March 2014, 12(1):23-27
Aim: To assess the prevalence of oral precancerous lesions and conditions and to determine the potential risk factors associated among general population aged 20-70 years of Telangana region, Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: An oral screening campaign was organized with the help of local general dental practitioners in each district. All the relevant information regarding the subject was documented and clinical examination of the oral soft tissues was carried out. Clinically diagnosed as precancerous lesion or condition were subjected to punch (incisional biopsy) biopsy and evaluated histopathologically to confirm the diagnosis. Results: Among 1200 screened, 150 subjects were chewers and 136 subjects were smokers with 29 chewers and 16 smokers had precancerous lesions and conditions. An overall prevalence of oral precancerous lesions and conditions were found to be 4.2% (males 5.5%; females 2.5%). Leukoplakia was seen in 0.8%, Oral submucous fibrosis in 1.3% and lichen planus in 2% of the study population. Conclusions: The prevalence of precancerous lesions and conditions in our study is higher when compared with the reports from different parts of the country and in South East Asia. These lesions can be prevented from malignant transformation by mass screening, close monitoring, early detection, appropriate treatment plan and prognosis.
  5,030 617 -
Utilization of dental health-care services and its barriers among the patients visiting community health centers in Nellore District, Andhra Pradesh: A cross-sectional, questionnaire study
P Nagarjuna, V Chandra Sekhara Reddy, KM Sudhir, R. V. S. Krishna Kumar, Srinivasulu Gomasani
Oct-Dec 2016, 14(4):451-455
Introduction: The primary health centers and community health centers (CHCs) offer an opportunity for early diagnosis and treatment, dental health education, and institution of preventive measures in the remote areas. Aim: To assess the level of utilization of dental health care services and to determine barriers that prevent utilization of dental health-care services among the patients visiting CHCs in Nellore District, Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 600 patients aged 20 years and above visiting the randomly selected 10 CHCs during May 2015 in Nellore District. A multistage sampling method was followed. The source of data was primary in nature and it was obtained through self-administered questionnaire. Data was entered and analyzed using a software program IBM SPSS Statistics version 22 (Armonk, NY: IBM Corp) (P < 0.05). Results: Only 36% of patients had visited the dentist in the last 12 months. Males (54%) visited dentist more frequently than females (46%). The most common reported reasons for the last dental visit were pain or a dental emergency (71%), followed by restorative treatment (17%) and other reasons (12%). The most commonly reported reasons for not seeking dental care were “Not needed unless having pain” by 360 (60%), “I do not think dental diseases are very serious” by 304 (51%), “I have fear of dental procedures” by 290 (48.6%),“Lack of time” by 235 (45.6%), “Dental treatment is expensive” by 200 (33.3%), and “The dentist is at a long distance” by 158 (26.8%). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that only a small portion of population visited a dentist in previous year. Most of them believe that visiting dentist is necessary only for pain relief.
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Knowledge, attitude, and practices in research among postgraduate students in dental institutions in Bengaluru City, India
Nitya Sharma, M Pramila, Archana Krishnamurthy, GK Umashankar, Ranganath , Nikhil Ahuja
July-September 2014, 12(3):189-193
Introduction: Research is not a separate specialty which is practiced by a few, but it is a systematic approach of reasoning, documenting, analyzing, and reporting unusual clinical observations that we come across in everyday clinical practice. This study was conducted to assess research-related knowledge, attitude, and practices among postgraduate students in dental institutions in Bangalore city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a structured and validated questionnaire. A sample size of 210 postgraduate students was determined. Study was conducted among 2 nd and 3 rd year postgraduate students in 4 randomly selected dental institutions. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, and Student's t-test were used to analyze the data. Results: The average percentage of correct responses was 56.7% and 52.6% in 3 rd year and 2 nd year postgraduate students, respectively. Overall, positive attitude was seen in both the groups and was significantly more in 3 rd years in relation to improvement of patient outcome with research and importance of research training during the post graduate course. Research in practice was carried out by 56.9% and 36% of 3 rd and 2 nd year postgraduate students, respectively. The most common obstacle stated for research was the lack of adequate financial and technical facilities for research. Conclusion: The study revealed fair knowledge and a positive attitude toward research but postgraduates failed to transform it into actual practice.
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Public attitude towards dentists and dental services in Bangalore city, India
Nagashree Savanur Ravindranath, Arunadevi Manikyam
April-June 2014, 12(2):100-105
Background: Understanding public attitude towards dentists and dental services helps both dental service providers and planners. Hence, this study was conducted to assess public attitude toward dentists and dental services in Bangalore city, India. Methods: Two thousand residents of Bangalore city were selected through multistage cluster sampling method. A structured questionnaire containing statements pertaining to public attitude toward dentists and dental services in Bangalore city was administered to the subjects. Five point Likert scale was used to measure the attitude. Results: About 67.8% of the study subjects had visited a dentist in their lifetime. Negative attitudes were observed regarding waiting time, cleanliness of instruments and dentist advising patients to give up unhealthy practices such as smoking, drinking and pan chewing. Positive attitude was found regarding availability of dental services near place of residence or work, modern equipments being used for treatment and the nobleness of the dental professionals. About 67% of study subjects felt that dental services are expensive. Only 65% agree that regular check-ups prevent dental diseases and 33% of the study subjects agree that dental treatment can be delayed if there are other expenses. Conclusions: Subjects generally had positive attitude toward dentists and dental services. Certain factors like waiting time and cleanliness elicited negative response.
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