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   2007| July-December  | Volume 5 | Issue 10  
    Online since December 5, 2016

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Plasma Pyrolysis - An Innovation in Biomedical Waste Disposal - {A Review)
C Madhavipadma
July-December 2007, 5(10):66-70
With the phenomenal increase in the large number of hospitals in the Government and the Private Sector, both in the urban and rural areas, biomedical waste disposal strategies form a critical part of total waste management as any failure in this aspect will have hazardous consequences. The traditional systems of biomedical waste disposal i.e. incineration, sterilization (autoclave/microwave) in recent times are shown to have public opposition and positive correlation with Ground Water contamination have resulted in this option steadily going out of favours. Thus, any strategy adopted should have a scientific basis. Thus, a more methodological and scientific approach has come in to existence i.e. plasma pyrolysis. Plasma pyrolysis technology is a state of art technology for safe disposal of biomedical waste, has been developed by FCIPT, Gujarat, India. It is an environment friendly technology which converts organic waste in to commercially useful by products. This innovative technology has proven to outstand the demerits of the conventional waste disposal techniques by destroying the thermally table spores with least residue of pollutants (dioxins, furans, etc.). Its scope includes the possibility of Energy recovery from the hospital waste destroyed.
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  883 96 -
Sports Dentistry: A Review
Ruchi Nagpal, G Nagaraja Rao, Navin A Ingle, Sabyasachi Saha
July-December 2007, 5(10):17-22
Participation in athletic activities at both the recreational and organized sports levels continues to attract growing number of developing children and adolescents. Not only from developed countries, but also from developing countries like India, more and more number of health conscious people are finding their way onto the playing fields and gymnasium. Physical fitness, skill development, stress reduction and team building are some of the important positive aspects associated with participation in vigorous recreational activities and sports. Despite these benefits, there are certain risk factors which are associated with participation in these activities. Since many sports - related orofacial injuries are preventable; the benefit - upon - risk ratio can be enhanced by the use of appropriate, properly fitted, protective athletic equipment. Furthermore, as the predictive risk factors associated with such injuries are more clearly identified and defined, the design and development of new protective devices may contribute to future athletic injury prevention. Here an attempt is made to review the presently available protective devices which are used in sports to reduce the likelihood and the severity of sports - related traumatic injuries to the head, face and mouth of an athlete.
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CPITN - A Review
P Manjunath, SS Hiremath
July-December 2007, 5(10):71-80
In this overview, a variety of issues related to CPITN are reviewed and discussed. CPITN was developed based on existing knowledge about the etiology and pathogenesis of periodontal diseases and on the prevention and treatment philosophies of that time. Since then extensive research has been carried out and the scientific debate has continued. The chosen parameters of bleeding on probing, calculus, moderate and deep pockets are still of great importance in periodontal care, both in practice and at the community level. There are advantages in the use of CPITN, and is a good method to indicate levels of periodontal conditions in populations for which specific interventions might be considered. There are also limitations to the CPITN. Evaluation and Interpretation of the results of the CPITN surveys call for caution. The CPITN serves as a frame of reference and a basis for goal setting. It has also significantly changed global and national estimates the need for prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases.
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Plantibodies - An Overview
Manu Narayan, G Nagaraja Rao, Navin Ingle, Sabyasachi Saha
July-December 2007, 5(10):23-24
The use of plants for medicinal purposes dates back thousands of years but genetic engineering of plants to produce desired biopharmaceuticals is much more recent. Plant-derived biopharmaceuticals are cheap to produce and store, easy to scale up for mass production, and safer than those derived from animals. Dental caries vaccine produced in plants is a safe and effective approach towards providing long-term protection, for up to a year and is applied topically. The development of this vaccine has been made possible by recent advances in molecular biology and genetic engineering.
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  459 51 -
Periodontal Status of Cleft Lip and Palate Patients - A Case Series
Uma Sudhakar, M Ramesh Babu, Pamela Emmadi, R Vijayalakshmi, V Anitha, Bhavana
July-December 2007, 5(10):81-90
Background:The children with cleft lip and palate are at an increasedrisk for tbe development of periodontitis and carious lesions. The purpose of tis study was to evaluate the periodontal status of cleft lip and palate patients and to compare the periodontal status of Ullilarela1 and bilater.d cleft lip and pal.aJe patients. Method: Twenty (20) patienb with unilateral cleft lip and palate and twenty patients with bilateral cleft lip and palate aged between 5-25 years were included in the study. PI. SBI. PD and CAL were measured using a William's periodontal probe. The results were statistically evaluated using t-test and Levine's test for equality of variance. Result: Score of all the parameters measured were significantly higbee in bilateral cleft lip and palate patients compared to unilateral cleft lip and palate patient except for SBI. Conclusion: Periodontal condition and oral hygiene of cleft lip and palate patients was poor, with gteat.er cliDically sigDificant severity in bilateral compared to unilateral cases. Further .interveuti.onal studies are equired to develop better multidisciplinary tteatman protocol.
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Health Insurance in India: A Review
V Sudhakar, C Manjunath, Md Shafiulla
July-December 2007, 5(10):7-16
Health insurance has become a necessity in today's world considering the constant rise in the cost of medical care. The escalating cost of medical treatments is beyond the reach of the common man. In the current debate on health security for the poor, health insurance is made out to be panacea for all the ills facing the poor. But less than 10 % of the population had some form of health insurance coverage. Insurance schemes like Mediclaim, Jan Arogya Bhima policy including recently announced Community based health insurance policies are not successful because the existing health insurance schemes are indemnity based products. lbis review describes the various existing health insurance policies, proposals and possible strategies for better policies in the future.
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Initial Impact of Health Education Program on Oral Health, Knowledge and awareness among 15-year-old Children of Governent High School, Sarakki, Bangalore
Shabana Achapattira Ganesh, Padma Keshava Bhat, C Jyothi
July-December 2007, 5(10):57-65
Oral health educational programs have been reported to have a variable impact on the oral health status of program participants. This study reports the initial impact of an educational health program conducted on 15-year-old children. The objectives of this 4-week study were to determine the initial impact of oral health education program on gingival health (gingivitis and plaque) and to assess the Oral Health knowledge and awareness before and after health education. During the 4 week program (prior to initiation of education program) a questionnaire survey (10 questions) and the whole mouth clinical examination was done by a calibrated examiner at baseline and 4 week later using Loe-Silness Gingival Index (GI) and Turesky's Modification of Quigley-Hein Plaque index (PI). The participants were intervened with health education. The primary efficacy analysis was based on the change from baseline for 54 subjects who were enrolled at baseline, participated in the educational program, and were examined 4 weeks later. In the present study, at baseline the mean gingival index score was 1.33, while 4 weeks later the mean score 0.96. This reduction of 0.37 units of gingival index score was statistically significant with p < 0.001. The mean plaque index score at baseline was 1.71, while 4 weeks later the mean plaque index was 1.21. This reduction of 0.30 units of plaque index score was statistically significant with p < 0.001. Tooth brushing monitoring chart was distributed to all the students to monitor their brushing habits. Collectively, these data support the role of the educational program in promoting improved oral health in these children over a one-month period.
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Periodontal Vaccines - An Overview
J Bhavana, Anita , Uma Sudhakar, R Vijayalakshmi
July-December 2007, 5(10):96-100
Major efforts have been dedicated to the development of vaccines against serious, highly prevalent diseases and diseases without effective treabnents. With regard to periodontitis, there are well established treatment modalities of chronic periodontitis. Whether there is a merit in developing periodontal vaccines for the prevention of periodontitis in general, and for special risk populations, must be considered. Recent findings of association between periodontitits and other systemic diseases may provide a rationale for the development of a vaccine against periodontitis. This article is an overview of the various efforts made in the field of Periodontics for the preparation of vaccines against periodontal diseases.
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  410 39 -
Dental Tourism - Two Faces of Same Coin
Gaurav Gupta, G Nagaraja Rao, Navin A Ingle, Sabyasachi Saha
July-December 2007, 5(10):25-26
"Dental Tourism" this phrase has a huge potential in India, the reason being, that a person while undergoing dental treatment of international standards, can get to enjoy the exotic locates that India has to offer almost free. As the oral health problems and treatment are very costly in most of the European and American countries as compared to this part of the world, the people have started to club their tours with dental treatment here. Different state tourism boards are promoting dental tourism in their own attractive ways to increase the economy of state. If we throw light on its another aspect, we see that as in India 70% of the population resides in rural areas, people over there are not getting even the primary level of oral health care, as the dentists are migrating towards urban locations and metro cities to catch richer and foreign patients.
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Reasons for Extraction of Permanent Teeth among Patients attending Dental Health Camps 1 in Dakshina Kannada District of Karnataka
Preetha Elizabeth Chaly
July-December 2007, 5(10):1-6
A survey was canied out at the dental health camps organized at various places of Dakshina Kannada District, by the College of Dental Surgery, Mangalore to know the reasons for extraction, to analyse the reasons according to the sex and age of the patient, and to determine the type of tooth being extracted. A total of 503 patients aged 6 to 85 years who had their teeth extracted at the dental camps formed the study population. The principal reason for extraction was found to be dental caries (69.2%) followed by periodontal disease (25.7%). Teeth lost due to other causes constituted low percentage (5.1%). Females had more teeth extracted for dental caries (73%) compared to males (56%). Males had more teeth extracted for periodontal disease (39.2%) than females (21.8%). The maximum number of teeth extracted due to dental caries was in the age group 26-35 years (35.8%) and due to periodontal disease was in 56-65 years (35.3%). The most commonly extracted tooth due to dental caries was mandibular first molar and due to periodontal disease was mandibular canine closely followed by maxillary ftrst molar. lbis study enabled the understanding of the patterns of and reasons for tooth loss in a population.
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  400 32 -
Awareness of Viral Hepatitis and Practice of Infection Control Methods among Medical and Dental Practitioners of Davangere City, India
H Mythri, GN Chandu, J Nagendra, GM Prashant
July-December 2007, 5(10):35-42
Background: The transmission of blood borne viruses in Health care workers is a potential hazard to patients as well as to the Health professionals. The recognition of professional's potential to cross infections stimulated practice of safe infection control methods. Aim of the study: To know the awareness of Viral Hepatitis and practices related to Cross-infection control among medical and dental practitioners of Davangere city, India. Methodology: This cross sectional, questionnaire based, anonymous study was conducted during the period from 1st July 2006 to 31st August 2006.All the medical and dental practitioners working in teaching institute, government hospital and private clinics of Davangere city, India constituted the study population. Data was subjected to statistical analysis using Chi square test. Results: In both the groups, 90% were aware of risk associated with Hepatitis B. Regarding Hepatitis C and Hepatitis D, medical practitioners were more aware compared to dental practitioners which was statistically significant. Conclusion: Though the awareness of respondents in relation to Hepatitis B, infection control methods and acceptance of vaccination against Hepatitis B is good, there were many areas which need to be improved.
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Occupational Exposures Occuring among Dental Students in two Dental Teaching Institutions of Davangere City, India
SR Ananda, GN Chandu, J Nagendra, GM Prashant, VV Subba Reddy
July-December 2007, 5(10):27-34
Background: Health care workers (HCW) are at risk for development of infections due to accidental exposures. In Dentistry sharps injuries are likely to occur due to a small operating field, frequent patient movement, and the variety of sharp instruments used in every day practice. Objective: To determine the rate of occupational exposures experienced by the Dental students in two dental teaching institutions and the percentage of these occupational exposures, which were reported by the students to their designated instructors. Methodology: In this cross sectional descriptive study, a total number of 531 students participated, and anonymously filled out a questionnaire on the number of occupational exposures they had experienced and reported. The response rate was 97.3%. Results: There was no significant difference between sex, dominant hand, use of protective glasses and time of the day. Slightly more exposures occurred in the afternoon in right handed post graduate students. The exposures were more when students were working alone, which had occurred out side the patient mouth and majority of them were percutaneous in nature and 65-85% of the students had not reported regarding their occupational exposure to their designated instructors. The result of this study helps to identify the nature and type of occupational exposure experienced by the students and various procedures during which they encountered. Conclusion: To reduce the incidence of these occupational exposures, more instruction and training may be required in the earlier clinical years and more chair side assistance. Under reporting of incidents is common and ways to encourage and facilitate reporting should be sought.
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Occurrence of gingival overgrowth in post renal transplant patients treated with Cyclosporine- A and its possible associations with periodontal and pharmacological variables
Anitha , Srilakshmi , Uma Sudhakar, T Ramakrishnan, Pamela Emmadi, N Ambalavanan
July-December 2007, 5(10):90-95
Aim: To determine the occurrence of gingival overgrowth in post renal transplant patients treated with Cyclosporine-A and its possible associations with periodontal and pharmacological variables. Materials and Methods: Thirty post renal transplant patients receiving Cyclosporine-A participated in the study. Patients were divided into two groups. Group I (non-responders) and Group ll (responders) based on the Me Gaw's gingival overgrowth index score. Clinical parameters such as Plaque index, Gingival index, Gingival overgrowth index, and pharmacological parameters like Cyclosporine-A dosage, duration of therapy and serum Cyclosporine-A level were evaluated. Results: There was a significant difference observed for serum Cyclosporine-A level, Plaque index, Gingival index, Gingival overgrowth index scores between the two groups (Group-1and II). When gingival overgrowth was correlated with age, gender, Cyclosporine-A dose and duration of therapy there was no significant correlation observed. Conclusion: The findings from this study suggest that post renal transplant patients treated with Cyclosporine-A experience gingival overgrowth. The magnitude of gingival overgrowth appears more related to serum Cyclosporine-A level, plaque and gingival status than age, gender, Cyclosporine-A dosage and duration of therapy.
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  378 18 -
Perceived sources of stress among Undergraduate and Postgraduate Dental Students of Davangere City, India
Sudhanshu Saxena, GN Chandu, J Nagendra, GM Prashant, VV Subba Reddy
July-December 2007, 5(10):46-56
Background: Several studies have shown that dental students experiences high level of stress during education, which can result in depression, anxiety, substance misuse, absenteeism and declining student performance. Objectives: To identify the perceived sources of stress among undergraduate and postgraduate dental students and their relationship with the year of study, gender, and career choice of student, as well as to compare the findings with those reported by other investigators. Methodology: Cross sectional study was conducted on a sample consisting of 724 dental students. Dental Environmental Stress questionnaire was used to collect data. Data analysis was done on SPSS and consisted of ANOVA followed by Tukey post hoc comparisons, Student t-test, and Chi-square test. P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Stress level among dental students varies according to specific issues. Higher stress levels were reported by females. Conclusion: Dental students are at the risk for harmful consequences of stress, which may be explained by an underlying towards perfectionism with other pressures. Stress at this level may be the roots for future occupational stress.
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  348 21 -
Association between Periodontal Disease and Acute Myocardial Infarction - A Cross-Sectional Study
R Vijayalakshmi, Anitha , Pamela Emmadi, N Ambalavanan, T Ramakrishnan, R Saravanakumar
July-December 2007, 5(10):101-106
Aim And Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between periodontal disease and acute myocardial infarction. Materials And Methods: A total number of 120 patients were selected for the study. 60 patients who were examined immediately following an episode of myocardial infarction were selected as test group and 60 patients suffering from chronic coronary heart disease were selected as control group for the study.The study was conducted with the help of medical history, periodontal examination and analysis of enzyme profile of the patient. Results: Results of Multiple Logistic Regression Analysis [MLRA] without adjusting for confounding factors showed that Plaque Index [PI :2: 2], Periodontal Disease Index [PDI :2: 4] and Low Density Lipid [LDL] were associated with Acute Myocardial Infarction [AMI]. Former smokers showed a significantly lower risk for AMI. After adjusting for age, current smoking, diabetes, hypertension, LDL and High Density Lipids [HDL], the results showed that PI ::2: 2 and PDI :2: 4 were not significantly associated with AMI. Conclusion: It could be concluded that PI :2: 2 and PDI :2: 4 showed a significantly positive association with AMI, when the confounding factors were not adjusted. But once the confounding factors were adjusted PI 2 and PDI :2: 4 showed no association. This shows that risk factors such as smoking and hyperlipidemia have a more profound association with AMI than periodontal disease.
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  348 16 -
Editorial Musings
MB Aswath Narayanan
July-December 2007, 5(10):0-0
Full text not available  [PDF]
  136 26 -
From the President's Desk
RK Bali
July-December 2007, 5(10):0-0
Full text not available  [PDF]
  87 21 -
Honorary Secretary's Message
SS Hiremath
July-December 2007, 5(10):0-0
Full text not available  [PDF]
  83 25 -