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   2009| January-June  | Volume 7 | Issue 13  
    Online since December 8, 2016

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Be Aware or Beware! Awareness of COPRA (Consumer Protection Act)
Ramya Shenoy, Kavya Ravuri, Adoni Harshavardhan, S Rajalakshmi, Sameekshya Acharya, Sambit Kumar Sadual
January-June 2009, 7(13):25-29
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  434 71 -
Anti-Plaque Efficacy of two Commercially Available Dentifrices
KVV Prasad, R Sohani, S Tikare, M Yelamalli, G Rajesh, SB Javali
January-June 2009, 7(13):12-17
Objective: To compare anti-plaque efficacy of Anchor toothpaste as compared with Pepsodent tooth paste among adult population in Dharwad, Karnataka, India. Methodology: An eight-week, randomized, double blinded, two arm, parallel, clinical trial was conducted in 120 study subjects aged between 14-53 years. After baseline oral hard-soft-tissue examination, baseline plaque status was recorded using Tureskey-Gilmore-Glickman modification of Quigley Hein plaque index. Subjects were assigned in to 2 groups which were balanced in relation to their baseline plaque scores. Subjects were instructed to brush their teeth twice daily for 1 minute using assigned product. Oral hard-soft-tissue examination and follow-up plaque status was recorded at 4 and 8 weeks. Results: Baseline plaque scores were 2.0646 ± 0.6542 and 2.0479 ± 0.5942 in Anchor and Pepsodent groups respectively (p > 0.05). At 4 weeks, plaque scores reduced to 1.6640 ± 0.5385 and 1.6092 ± 0.4671 in Anchor and Pepsodent groups respectively (p < 0.05)]. At 8 weeks, plaque scores reduced to 1.5882 ± 0.5083 and 1.6237 ± 0.4970 in Anchor and Pepsodent groups respectively (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Anchor and Pepsodent toothpastes were equally effective in reducing plaque scores of study subjects over a period of 8 weeks. Maximum reductions were seen in first 4 weeks of product use in both dentifrices with no significant reductions from 4-8 week period.
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  450 51 -
Assessing Patients' Satisfaction with Dental Services Provided by the Dentists in Nellore District of Andhra Pradesh
R.V.S. Krishna Kumar, Nusrath Fareed, M Shanthi, Sreenivas Nagarakanti
January-June 2009, 7(13):1-5
Aim: To assess the levels of Patients' Satisfaction with Dental Services provided by the Dentists in Nellore District of Andhra Pradesh. Introduction: Consumer Satisfaction with health care in recent years has gained wide spread recognition as a measure of quality. Put simply, Care cannot be of high quality unless the patient is satisfied. Here an attempt is made to assess the levels of patients' satisfaction with the Dental Services. Material & Methods: A Descriptive study was done by using Dental Satisfaction Questionnaire (DSQ) developed by Allyson Ross Davies and John E.Ware. DSQ was distributed to the patients attending 4 private dental clinics & 3 government dental hospitals in Nellore District. The DSQ was given to the patients only after their treatment was completed for the day. The study period was 1 month. Analysis was done using SPSS version 14. Results: The mean values for Dental Satisfaction Index (DSI), Pain management, Quality of care, Access, Availability and Cost were significantly lower in Rural patients compared to Urban patients 27.57 ± 2.50 vs 37.19 ± 6.06 (P < 0.05), 3.06 ± 0.26 vs 5.81 ± 0.84 (p < 0.05), 9.61 ± 1.17 vs 14.2 ± 0.88 (p < 0.05), 4.63 ± 0.69 vs 11.4 ± 0.64 (p < O.Ol), 3.2 ± 0.51 vs 12.5 ± 0.49 (p < .05), 3.07 ± 0.41 vs 9.67 ± 0.89 (p < 0.01) respectively. Conclusion: Patient satisfaction is a critically important factor in patient care delivery. Cost continues to be a factor interfering with patient satisfaction in dentistry.
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  429 62 -
Effect of fluoride exposure on Intelligence Quotient {IQ) among 13-15 year old school children of known endemic area of fluorosis, Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh.
KM Sudhir, GN Chandu, GM Prashant, VV Subba Reddy
January-June 2009, 7(13):88-94
Background: Waning controversy over fluoride and water fluoridation is rekindling with the findings released from certain fluoride studies which reported an inverse association between fluoride exposure and intelligence. Objective: To assess the relationship between exposure to different drinking water fluoride levels and children's Intelligence Quotient (IQ) among 13-15 year old school children of Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh. Methodology: An analytical cross sectional study was conducted among the permanent residents of Nalgonda District of Andhra Pradesh. A total of 1000 school children aged 13-15 years were selected by stratified random sampling from four different areas with different levels of naturally occurring fluoride in drinking water. Raven's standard progressive matrices (1992 Edition) were used for assessment of Intelligence Quotient (IQ) of children. Results: Intellectually superior (Grade 1) scores for individual IQ assessment were absent in all the 4 different fluoride levels. Only 0.8% of children were present in Grade !(definitely above the average in intellectual capacity) scores except in 4th level (>4.1ppm). Number of intellectually impaired children were gradually increased with the increase in fluoride concentration in the drinking water. Conclusion: Findings of this study suggest that overall IQ levels in children's exposed to high fluoride level were significantly lower than the low fluoride areas. In view of many endemic Fluorosis areas in India, it is needed that further studies be conducted to examine the link in humans between fluoride & disturbances of the development & function of the central nervous system.
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  438 48 -
Prevalence of Dental Caries Among 12 and 15 Year old School Children in Chennai City
G Sunayana, Joseph John, S Saravanan, I Meignana Arumugham
January-June 2009, 7(13):54-59
Introduction - Dental caries is the most common orofacial problem with its impact worldwide. India is no exception to this ubiquitous problem. There is paucity of information regarding the frequency and prevalence of dental caries and oral hygiene status in many parts of India .An effort has been made to provide a baseline value on the dental caries prevalence of School children in Chennai city. Aims and objectives: To assess the prevalence of dental caries among 12 and 15 year old school children in Chennai city. Methods: A total of 3,315 school children in Chennai city were examined by multiphase cluster sampling technique. The 12 year olds consisted of 1,448 school children of which 706 were males and 742 were females. The 15 year olds consisted of 1,867 school children of which 959 were males and 908 were females. The data was collected and recorded on a preformed proforma sheet. The data was then processed and analyzed using the chi square test and the Z test. The level of significance was set at p=0.05 Results: The prevalence of dental caries among the 12 and 15 year old school children was 46.9% and 48.5% respectively. In the 12 year old age group, females had a higher prevalence (53.5%) while in the 15 year old age group, males had a higher prevalence (50.9%). The significant caries index values for the 12 and 15 year olds were 2.8 and 3.4 respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of dental caries is high in the 15 year old age group (48.9%) when compared to the 12 year old age group (46.5%). The 12 year old age group has the SiC value (2.8) which is in proportion with the WHO proposed value of 3 however the 15 year old age group has marginally higher SiC value (3.4).Hence it is recommended that oral health education and prevention strategies should be implemented at all levels of school education for promoting oral health
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  429 53 -
Oral Health Needs Assessment of Adults with Spinal Cord Injuries Resident in an Institution
Vasudha Khattar
January-June 2009, 7(13):30-36
The oral health needs of 58 adults with spinal cord injuries, resident in an institution in India, were assessed. Of the total study population (65), 6 patients were partially examined, 1 was too ill throughout the period of study. Patients with paraplegia, tetraplegia and typical ambulation possible were involved. The methods used were clinical examination of patients and questionnaires to nursing and care staff to ascertain their level of dental awareness, attitudes to oral health and their role in the provision of oral care to the patients. The level of oral health of the patients was fair. Variation existed between age groups. The overall level of edentulousness was 1.7 %. The need for restorative treatment and extractions was low (8.2%). A large number of patients 88% needed periodontal care. The nonnative assessment of treatment needs revealed that 81% patients required dental care. This figure was high as it incorporated all aspects of care from oral hygiene instruction to complete oral rehabilitation and denture treatment needs. Nursing and care staff had positive attitudes towards their personal oral health and that of the patients. The majority of the staff was involved in the provision of oral care for patients and was motivated and interested in increasing their knowledge of oral health care issues. It is recommended that staff are encouraged, empowered and facilitated in the provision of oral care to patients.
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  422 51 -
Oral health knowledge, attitudes and practices of patients and their attendants visiting College of Dental Surgery, Saveetha University, Chennai
R Pradeep Kumar, Joseph John, S Saravanan, I Meignana Arumugham
January-June 2009, 7(13):43-53
Aim:To describe the oral health knowledge, attitudes and practices of the patients and their attendants visiting College of Dental Surgery, Saveetha University. Methods: A structured questionnaire incorporating items related to oral health knowledge, attitudes and practices was randomly distributed to 354 patients and their attendants aged 7- 70 years visiting this hospital. Results: The study population consisted of males 63% (n=223) and females 37% (n=131). 354 completed questionnaires were statistically analyzed.76.9% of males and 85.4% of females consult a dentist immediately when they notice decay. More than 50% of the males and females of all the age groups are aware of the cause and prevention of decay, gum diseases and malocclusion. 60.8% of the study population are unaware that smoking affects both general and oral health. Majority of the respondents of all age group used tooth paste and tooth brush for cleaning their teeth. None of the subjects in this study used charcoal, bricks or sand for brushing. 47.1% of males and 51.1% of females used fluoridated tooth paste. 9.8%of them had the habit of betel nut chewing. Conclusion: Oral health Knowledge, attitude and practices is reasonably good, hence dental health education to maintain oral health may be imparted.
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  415 47 -
Knowledge, Attitude and Practice amongst dentists' in Pune towards Primary Preventive Measures for Dental Caries - A Questionnaire Study
Yojana B Patil, Pradnya V Kakodkar, Sahana Hegde-Shetiya
January-June 2009, 7(13):18-24
Objectives: The study was carried out to assess knowledge, attitude and practices amongst dentists' in Pune towards primary preventive measures for dental caries. Materials and methods: Data was collected using a 18 item pre-tested, close ended, self-administered questionnaire. 500, registered dentists' were selected but only 274 dentists' responded (response rate=55%). Chi-square test, ANOVA and regression model was used for statistical analysis. Results: The mean percentage of correct knowledge was 73.84%, favourable attitude was 75.66% and desirable practise was 82.56%. Overall, the knowledge about use of fluorides, chlorhexidine and importance of parents and siblings caries activity was relatively less. The most unfavourable attitude noted was performing caries activity tests (58.4%) and the most undesirable practice noted was regarding non-prescription of fluoride mouthwash (51.1%) and dentifrices of varying concentration to their patients (52.2%). However, dentists' tended to emphasize more on the effectiveness of brushing (86.5%), recall reinforcement (88.3%) and diet counselling (85.4%). Analysis showed that older graduates were having less knowledge (p=0.004) and unfavorable attitude (p = 0.038) as compared to the recent graduates. Conclusion: Efforts are needed to enhance the level of knowledge and attitude of dentists and focus on strategies to educate and enforce the use of preventive dentistry.
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  409 38 -
Utilization of Dental Services among Dharwad (Karnataka, India) City Population
Venu K Reddy, K.V.V. Prasad
January-June 2009, 7(13):6-11
Objectives 1. To describe the dental service utilization patterns among Dharwad city population.. 2. To analyze the influence of selected socio-demographic variables on the utilization. Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Dharwad city during September - October 2004 by involving a sample of 300 study subjects picked up from 10 randomly selected wards. Data on utilization was collected with the help of structured Questionnaires & Face interviews. Information was collected on selected Socio-demographic variables & attitudes of the subjects towards the utilization of dental services. Results: 64% of study population and utilized the dental services. Toothache (46%) was the main reason for utilizing the dental services. Conclusion: Utilization of dental services is considerably high among Dharwad city population. Individuals with higher level of education are utilizing the dental services better than others. Age, sex and occupation did not had significant influence on the utilization.
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  398 31 -
Effect of pre-procedural rinsing with an antimicrobial agent on aerosols in a mobile dental unit
H Mythri, SR Ananda, Sudanshnu Saxena, GM Prashant, GN Chandu
January-June 2009, 7(13):76-79
Background: Microbial aerosols are generated during dental treatments and may represent an important source of infection. A number of sources of bacterial aerosols exist within and outside the dental clinic. Dental personnel working in the MDU are found to be more prone to cross-infections. Infection control has long been considered one of the main concerns of the dental community. Hence, dental staff should consider appropriate methods which reduce bacterial aerosols and splatters in the dental clinic along with personnel protective measures. Objective: To check the effect of pre-procedural rinse on viable bacteria in a mobile dental unit. Materials and method: The study was conducted in a treatment camp, using Mobile Dental Unit from College of Dental Sciences, Davangere. The aerosols were collected in a Petri dish with blood agar base before and after the use of mouthrinse during scaling procedure. Study design was a randomized split mouth technique. Result: There was a reduction in the colony forming units after the use of mouthrinse. The reduction in the count after rinse was statistically highly significant with that of without rinsing. Conclusion: Pre procedural rinse with an antiseptic mouthwash reduced significant number of organisms, making it a simple, inexpensive method for the control of dental aerosol and splatter.
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  392 25 -
Evidence Based Dentistry - A Judicious Way of Making Decision
Shafaat Mohammad, Sabyasachi Saha, Sahana Srinivas
January-June 2009, 7(13):37-42
The importance of evidence for every branch of medicine in teaching in order to orient the practitioners among the great amount of most actual scientific information, and to support clinical decisions, is well established in health care, including dentistry. The need for reliable information and the electronic revolution have come together to allow the''paradigm shift" towards evidence-based health care. Recent years have seen an increase in the importance of evidence-based dentistry, aiming to reduce to the maximum the gap between clinical research and real world dental practice. Aim of evidence-based practice is the systematic literature review, which synthesizes the best evidences and provides the basis for clinical practice guidelines. These practice guidelines give a brief review of what evidence-based dentistry is and how to use it.
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  373 29 -
The efficacy of a tooth paste containing perlite as an abrasive in removal of extrinsic tooth stain- A two week study
Jagadishchandra , GN Chandu, GM Prashant, VV Subbha Reddy
January-June 2009, 7(13):60-64
Background: For majority of people, appearance of the teeth is very important and any discoloration or stain present on them will affect their quality of life. It is the reason behind the rapid growth of tooth whitening market segment in recent years. Objective: To measure the stain removal and prevention efficacy of a whitening toothpaste containing perlite as abrasive in two weeks period. Methodology: Fifty adult subjects with at least 6 assessable incisor teeth from Davangere city, Karnataka, with a history of extrinsic tooth stain were selected for this study. Subjects brushed their teeth with given toothpaste twice daily for two weeks. Extrinsic stain was measured at baseline and after two weeks by using Macpherson modified Lobene stain index. Results: After two weeks, there was reduction in mean stain score when compared to a baseline data and this difference was statistically significant Conclusion: The whitening toothpaste containing perlite significantly reduced extrinsic stain in two weeks period.
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  364 27 -
Age Estimation from Teeth of Indian Adults Following Gustafson's Method
Vartika Agarwal, BK Srivastava, Ramesh Nagarajappa, Pradeep Tangade, TL Ravishankar
January-June 2009, 7(13):95-98
Background: In mass disasters, dental identification assumes a primary role in the identification of the persons. Objective: The purpose of this study was to estimate the age of person's from the physiological changes of the teeth. Material & methods: 30 freshly extracted teeth were examined by Gustafson's method for age estimation which is based on the evaluation of ground sections of teeth. Six age-associated parameters were evaluated in the ground sections. Each parameter was allotted a score of 0-3 depending upon degree of changes in the tooth. Total age was then estimated. Results: The mean difference between chronological and estimated age was 0.55 ± 0.42 SD years. Conclusion: The study shows that Gustafson's ageing method is one of the convenient methods in assessing the age of a person.
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  365 25 -
Plaque removal efficacy of tooth brushes with different bristle designs - A four period cross over study
SR Ananda, H Mythri, Sudhanshu Saxena, GM Prashant, GN Chandu
January-June 2009, 7(13):64-69
Background: It is well documented, that mechanical plaque control can prevent gingivitis, periodontitis and dental caries. As on today in the market there are numerous manual toothbrush bristle designs and the media abounds with claims of superiority for dental plaque removal by individual brands. Objectives: 1. To check the plaque-removal efficacy of toothbrushes with different bristle designs. 2. To inter - compare the efficacy of dental plaque removal between the toothbrushes. Methodology: A total of 12 subjects used four different types of commercially available manual toothbrushes with different bristle designs. The subjects were assessed for dental plaque prior to brushing, according to the criteria's of Turkeys and Gilmore modification of Quigley-Hein plaque index using two tone disclosing agent. After which the subjects were asked to brush for 2 minutes, and again scored for dental plaque using the same index. Results: There was a significant reduction in the dental plaque scores after tooth brushing with all the tooth brushes tested but there was no statistically significant difference between the different toothbrush bristle designs. Conclusion: The study emphasizes that it is the ability of the individual that is of paramount importance to tooth cleaning and variations in manual toothbrush bristle design play a trivial role by comparison. When making recommendations to patients, the dental professional must consider factors related to patient compliance and hygiene efficiency, as they also play an important role in treatment outcomes.
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  362 20 -
Aesthetic perceptions of children and parents in relation to severity of dental fluorosis in Nalgonda District, an endemic fluorosis area of Andhra Pradesh
S Suresh, GN Chandu, GM Prashant, VV Subba Reddy
January-June 2009, 7(13):80-87
Background: Aesthetic disfigurement of teeth is one of the significant consequences of Fluorosis. The studies involving the lay individuals' perceptions of fluorosis are of special significance, as public perceptions of esthetics drive demands for treatment and could, in a large sense, drive the need to reduce fluorosis prevalence. Objective: To assess the esthetic perceptions of 13-15 year old school children and their parents of Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh in relation to different scores of Tooth Surface Index of Fluorosis {TSIF) of the children. Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted among 1000 school children, aged 13-15 years, who were lifelong residents of communities with different drinking water fluoride levels in Nalgonda district. Samples were selected by stratified random cluster sampling. Demographics and the esthetic perceptions of the children and their parents were recorded using a structured questionnaire. Severity of Dental fluorosis of the children was recorded using Tooth Surface Index of Fluorosis (TSIF). Drinking water samples were collected and analyzed for fluoride concentration. Spearman Correlation Coefficient, Mann-Whitney U test and Kappa statistics were used for statistical analysis. Results: Fluorosis prevalence of the study population was 98.2%. Teeth with a TSIF score of 1 were perceived to be more pleasant than fluorosis free teeth. As the TSIF score increased, the percentage of children and parents who perceived the teeth to be unpleasant and stained increased and this change was drastic at TSIF scores 3 and 4.
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  357 14 -
Periodontal status of cleft lip and palate patients - A case series
Uma Sudhakar, R Vijayalakshmi, M Ramesh Babu, V Anitha, J Bhavana
January-June 2009, 7(13):99-104
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  289 27 -
Nitric oxide concentrations in saliva and dental plaque in relation to oral hygiene status
Sudhanshu Saxena, H Mythri, SR Ananda, GM Prashant, GN Chandu
January-June 2009, 7(13):70-75
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  279 30 -
From the Editor's Desk

January-June 2009, 7(13):0-0
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  91 53 -
Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj Medical University, Lucknow 4th Convocation - 2009 Conferring Honorary Degree of Doctor of Science, D.Sc. (Honoris causa) on Dr. R.K. Bali

January-June 2009, 7(13):0-0
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