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   2010| January-June  | Volume 8 | Issue 15  
    Online since January 4, 2017

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An overview of Superior Labial Frenum (A significant anatomical landmark).
Pradnya (Hegde) Kakodkar, Teja N Patel, Shimul V Patel, Sapan H Patel
January-June 2010, 8(15):23-27
Background: Superior labial frenum is an anatomical structure whose function is to provide stability and support for the upper lip. Aim: The aim of the present paper was to present an overview of superior labial frenum. Method: The overview was completed by the systematic review of 23 papers retrieved from Pubmed database. The overview was presented under eight different headings: Embryological development, Diverse frenum morphology, Torn labial frenum as a diagnostic of physical child abuse, Frenum as a site for oral jewelry, Frenum abnormalities - a clinical marker of syndromic and non-Syndromic condition, Tight labial frenum- Its Impact On Breast Feeding, Frenum - an etiological factor of midline diastema and Abnormal fraenal attachment and its associated effects. Conclusion: The review indicates that superior labial frenum is a significant anatomical landmark, has diverse morphology, can be used as an indicator of abuse and syndromic / non-syndromic conditions and that the abnormal frenum can have negative consequences in the oral cavity. In community surveys it can serve as an important diagnostic marker.
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  1,078 86 -
Overtreatment in Dentistry: Points to Ponder
Shweta Y Somasundara, HL Jayakumar
January-June 2010, 8(15):173-176
Overtreatment is the treatment of non-existent pathology or providing services excessive to the true needs of the patient. It has been observed that overtreatment in dentistry is a problem spread throughout the profession. There are a number of reasons why a dentist might suggest unnecessary or overzealous treatment. This paper explores the instances and potential factors which lead to overtreatment as also the solutions for this growing problem. Overtreatment has been reported to be one of the causes of increasing health care costs today. There is a need to embrace evidence-based treatment protocols that can lead to optimum treatment. Thereby we can prevent overtreatment of unsuspecting patients and also keep dentistry's conscience clear.
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  944 125 -
Oral Health Awareness Among the Anganwadi Workers in Karimnagar Town
B Prathibha, MDShakeel Anjum, Parthasarathi P Reddy, Jaya A Kumar
January-June 2010, 8(15):5-8
Anganwadi workers form a bridge between the community and the health care delivery system. They are an effective means of spreading the health related messages and delivering the primary care to mothers and children. The aim of the present study was to assess the oral health awareness among the anganwadi workers of Karimnagar town, Andhra Pradesh. 104 anganwadi workers have participated in the study and were assessed using a pretested, structured, closed ended questionnaire. The results revealed that almost everyone(100%) generally clean their teeth with toothbrush, out of which 63.5% of them brush twice daily i.e in the morning and evening and 34% brush once only in the morning and remaining 4% clean after very meal. 33.7% expressed reasons for dental caries to be improper brushing, while 17.3% felt it to be because of eating sweets, while the majority 44.2% expressed as both and a very few i.e 4.8% answered that they did not know the reason for dental caries.38.5% of them felt that dental problems can be prevented by visiting a dentist regularly, while 31.7% felt that dental diseases can be prevented by regularly cleaning the teeth,22.1% expressed as both of the above reasons may help one to prevent dental problems and 7.7% of them answered that they did not have any idea about prevention of dental diseases.
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  682 68 -
Knowledge of oral cancer and screening practice of primary health care providers in Davangere district, Karnataka
M Mahesh Kumar, GM Prashant, GN Chandu
January-June 2010, 8(15):31-34
Title: Knowledge of Oral cancer and screening practice of primary health care providers in Davangere district, Karnataka. Background: Oral cancer is a disease with known high risk factors. Unfortunately, for a large segment of rural areas of developing countries access to dental care are limited however, there is relatively better access to primary health care who play an important role in early screening of oral cancer. Objective of the study: 1. To assess knowledge and awareness of oral cancer. 2. To assess screening practice in relation to the detection and prevention of oral cancer by primary health care workers of Davangere district. Methodology: In this descriptive cross sectional study; a total number of 58 questionnaires were distributed to the PHC workers attending different primary health centers. Five questionnaires were not responded by the respondents due to unknown reason. Thus a total number of 53 questionnaires were considered with responding rate of 91.4%. Result: Out of 53 participants 28 were male and 25 were females. Over 77.4% of the respondents reported that they screen patients for oral cancer during a routine physical examination. 84.9% of the respondents think that volume of alcohol consumption and tobacco use per day is related to oral cancer. Conclusion: The study revealed that there is a limited knowledge base on the selected intervention on oral health screening by primary care providers. To involve PCPs in screening for oral cancer, oral health programs should focus on up-to-date education.
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  644 77 -
"Bioterrorism"- Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Faculty Members of Dental Schools of Uttar Pradesh, India
Ipseeta Menon, Hari G Parkash, BK Srivastava, Ramesh Nagarajappa, Pradeep Tangade
January-June 2010, 8(15):141-148
Objective : The purpose of this study was to assess Bioterrorism knowledge, attitude and practice among dentists serving as faculty members in dental schools situated in Uttar Pradesh. Design and Setting: Five among 28 Dental Schools in Uttar Pradesh (U.P) were randomly selected. The knowledge and attitude towards Bioterrorism was assessed by mailing a closed ended structured questionnaire with 24 questions which was pre-tested among 10 dentists of the same institution. "Chi Square" Test was employed for statistical analysis. Main outcome measures: Knowledge, Attitude and Practice about Bioterrorism among dental school faculty members. Results: Out of 150 questionnaire delivered, 115 returned (response rate = 76.6%). Only 7% of the survey respondents reported having Bioterrorism preparedness training. About 40% agreed that they could recognize oral manifestation of Bioterrorism agents. A high percentage (85.2%) was interested in participating in Bioterrorism response training. Conclusions: A low prevalence of prior training coupled with high degree of willingness to provide assistance in response to Bioterrorism suggests that a high priority should be established for providing dentists with the knowledge and training necessary to respond effectively in such an event.
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  658 63 -
Knowledge, Attitude and Practice towards personal protective measures adapted by dental practitioners in Hyderabad city - a cross infection control measure
Vijay Y Kumar, Md Shakeel Anjum, P Parthasarathi Reddy, Jaya Kumar
January-June 2010, 8(15):1-4
Back ground: "Treat each patient as potentially risk", this statement is given by CDC(Center for Disease Control), which proposed Universal Precautions, for the control of many dreadful diseases. As health care workers, it is our basic responsibility to control the spread of such devastating diseases by following infection control measures. Aim & Objective: To assess the various personal protective measures adapted by dental practitioners in Hyderabad metropolitan city. Materials and methods: The study included response from 208 dentists from Hyderabad city, who have been chosen by stratified random sampling. A questionnaire has been designed with closed and open ended questions. Questions were related to their age, gender, specializations personal protective measures employed by the practitioners and their auxiliaries and information about prophylaxis against dreadful diseases like Tetanus, Hepatitis etc. Results: It was observed that 83.4% were males and 16.5% were females. 78% of the dentists were vaccinated against HBV. Only 4% followed the CDC recommendations for hand washing practices. There is also an inverse relation between the use of barrier techniques and age. Conclusion: Lack of awareness on universal precautions proposed by CDC is observed especially in older dentists, but there is an increase in awareness in the younger dentists.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  625 70 -
Association of feeding patterns and oral hygiene practices with early childhood caries in 3-6 year old children in Moradabad city
Mousumi Goswami Singh, Seema Chaudhary, Naveen Manuja, Zohra Jabin
January-June 2010, 8(15):121-125
Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is a particularly destructive form of tooth decay that afflicts young children. Factors like feeding practices and oral hygiene measures play a key role in initiation and progression of Early Childhood Caries. The aim of this study was to focus on the recognition of feeding practices (breast and bottle) and oral hygiene practices as a risk factor for early childhood caries. A total of 1300 children in the age group of 3-6 years were examined using deft index. To determine feeding and oral hygiene measures, a self- formulated questionnaire was used. Results revealed that, out of 1053 subjects enrolled and examined for caries (deft), majority 731 (69.4%) had no caries while 322 (30.6%) had evidence of caries in one or more teeth. Amongst the children having evidence of caries, the mean number of decayed teeth was 3.29ζ2.93, mean number of missing teeth was 0.12ζ0.50, mean number of filled teeth was 0.10ζ0.39. Among the feeding practices bottle feeding predicted the risk for ECC and Breast feeding did not show any association with ECC. Improper oral hygiene practices also proved to be significant risk factor for ECC.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  635 54 -
Salivary fluoride levels after brushing with dentifrices containing different concentration of fluoride
SR Ananda, GN Chandu, GM Prashant, VV Subba Reddy
January-June 2010, 8(15):9-13
Background: Fluoride dentifrices are well accepted for their effectiveness in caries prevention. Concerns over the risk of fluorosis in children due to the ingestion of fluoride in toothpaste have led to the introduction of kid toothpaste with low fluoride concentration. Objectives: (i) To determine the salivary fluoride levels after brushing with dentifrices containing 458 ppm and 1000 ppm of fluoride. (ii) To compare salivary fluoride levels of two dentifrices at different intervals of time. Methodology: Twenty children in the age group of 5-6 years participated in the study. The individuals were randomly selected and divided into two groups using either 458 ppm or 1000-ppm fluoride dentifrice. On the day of study, whole saliva samples were collected prior to brushing, immediately after brushing and at subsequent interval after brushing. Results: Data collected was evaluated using unpaired t-test and ANOVA. Baseline salivary fluoride levels of children in both the group were not statistically significant, however salivary fluoride levels following use of 458 ppm fluoride dentifrice was significantly lower than 1000 ppm dentifrice, but the levels were above the baseline values even after one hour. Conclusion: There is considerable salivary fluoride retention after brushing with fluoride dentifrices. The retention of fluoride in saliva at a higher level even with low fluoride dentifrices may prove equally cariostatic as of high concentration dentifrice.
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  625 53 -
Dental Caries, Treatment Needs and Oral Hygiene Status of 6-15-year old individuals with special needs, attending special learning schools in Shimla city, H.P.- India: A Cross-sectional study.
Nidhi Pruthi, GM Sogi, KR Sharma
January-June 2010, 8(15):74-80
Background: Individuals with special needs have poorer oral health than does the general population. Dental care is consistently reported as one of the top medical needs of children with disabilities. Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the dentition status, treatment needs, and oral hygiene status of individuals with different disability conditions; and to compare the oral health status of these groups of individuals. Methods: A total of 54 individuals with special needs, 6-15-years-old, attending three special learning schools in Shimla city were examined in a cross-sectional survey. Dental caries and treatment needs were assessed using the World Health Organization (WHO) method of oral health surveys (1997), and oral hygiene status was assessed using the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index. Oral health education and hygiene instructions were given to the caregivers. Statistical analysis : One-way ANOVA test. Results: Prevalence of dental caries was 90.74%. The mean deft and DMFT were 3.07 (S.D. = 1.94) and 3.75 (S.D. = 1.31), respectively. Decayed component formed the majority of the caries index. The inter-group comparison showed no statistically significant difference in the deft / DMFT (p=0.501 & 0.11, respectively) and OHI-S (p=0.50) between the different disability conditions. Treatment needs were high with 92% of the decayed teeth in need for treatment. Oral hygiene status was fair (Mean OHI-S=1.85± 0.73). Conclusions: It was concluded that prevalence of dental caries was quite high along with substantial unmet treatment need.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  607 60 -
Oral Health Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of School Teachers in Chennai
Benley George, Joseph John, S Saravanan, I Meignana Arumugham
January-June 2010, 8(15):85-90
Aim: To assess the oral health Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of school teachers in Chennai. Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire was used for the study. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in which 45 schools were conveniently selected from 5 zones in Chennai. A total of 971 school teachers had participated in the survey. Statistical analysis was done using chi-square test and p<0.05 was selected in describing the levels of significance. Results: This study shows statistically significant relationship between oral health knowledge and attitude with regard to age and gender (p<0.05).Among the school teachers in the age group of 50 +, ninety-six percent of them knew that dental decay was the most common oral disease. This study showed that 6.3 %, 30.6%, 40.1% and 20.8% of the school teachers consumed soda, juice or tinned fruits, sweets or chocolate and cakes atleast once a day respectively. Among the male teachers, 97.9% had agreed that dental visit is important to them. No statistical significance was observed between oral health knowledge and attitude with regard to educational status. Conclusion: The school teachers were well informed pertaining to oral health. However, a few deficiencies were noticed in this regard and recommendations have been presented. There is a need for the inclusion of oral health promotion in the curriculum of the school teachers which will thereby benefit the school children in the future. The dental professionals as a part of their task should update the knowledge of the schoolteachers by conducting dental health workshops and other oral health promotional programmes.
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  606 60 -
Prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs among 12-15 years school children using dental aesthetic index (DAI)
S Pankaj
January-June 2010, 8(15):81-84
Background: Knowledge about prevalence, severity & distribution of malocclusion is important for planning, organizing and implementing orthodontic services. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess prevalence of malocclusion and to determine orthodontic treatment needs. Methods: Sample consisted of 1600 children (831 boys and 769 girls) 12-15 years from four high schools of Belgaum city (Karnataka). The children were selected by two stage random sampling method. The Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) was used to assess malocclusion status and orthodontic treatment needs. Data were collected according to method recommended by W.H.O. Results: Most of the children (88.6%) had a dental appearance which required no orthodontic treatment. Over 6.8% had a definite malocclusion where treatment was considered 'elective'. However, a specific proportion (4.6%) of the children had a severe to handicapping malocclusion where treatment was 'highly desirable' or 'mandatory'. There were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) in DAI scores between age groups and gender. Conclusion: This study found that children had better dental appearance and lesser treatment need.
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  601 58 -
Dental practice management - A Review
M Anita, Joseph John, S Saravanan, Meignana Arumugham
January-June 2010, 8(15):91-95
A service based business is considered successful when it meets the needs of the people it serves. To achieve this, modern dentistry has to reach beyond the conventional clinical disciplines. Therefore a developed business understanding is essential to be able to meet the future challenges of dentistry and public health care planning as it encompasses areas of expertise that relate to the non- clinical dimensions of dental practice. Hence an attempt has been made to include all information concerning the establishment and management of a dental practice.
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  625 34 -
Publication trends of Indian Public Health Dentist between 1997 - 2007: A Medline Approach
PD MadanKumar, MB AswathNarayanan, T Rooban, M Shivakumar, S Ramachandran
January-June 2010, 8(15):182-186
Background: Analysis of publication trends will guide the policy framers, administrators and dentists to frame future policies and design programs for development of scientific and technological policies in dentistry. Aims and Objectives: This study was undertaken to assess the trends in Indian Public Health Dentists' Publication in Pubmed Medline database during 1997 - 2007. Materials and Methods: Using the time limitation of publication date limit of 1st January 1997 to 31st December 2007, all articles where author's affiliation had the word "Dental" AND "India" were selected. From this collection of articles, the following were noted down - year of publication, number of authors, name of the journal, reach of the journal, status of the journal, specialty of the first, state of origin and type of research. From this database, the performance of department of Public Health Dentistry was analyzed. Results: The number of articles published by Public Health Dentists (PHD) was 46. Among them, 28 were published in Indian Journal of Dental Research and Indian Journal of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry. . Majority of the articles published were based on the original research done by the authors. Nearly 79% of the published articles were from Public Health dentistry affiliated to institutes in Karnataka, followed by Tamil Nadu (6.5%) and New Delhi (4.3%). Though the overall distribution of the publication trends seem to be constant from 1997 to 2004, there seems to be boom in the publication trend from 2005 onwards.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  614 38 -
Periodontal Status, Prosthetic Status and Prosthetic Needs Among Institutionalized Geriatric Individuals in Vadodara City, Gujarat - A Descriptive Study
Vrushali Thakare, CG Ajith Krishnan
January-June 2010, 8(15):153-158
Objectives: A cross sectional study was conducted to assess the periodontal status, Prosthetic status and prosthetic needs of institutionalized geriatric individuals in Vadodara city, Gujarat. Materials & Methods: All the geriatric individuals residing in three institutions of Vadodara were included in the study. A total of 141 individuals were surveyed of which 65 were females and 76 were males. The data was collected by using the WHO 1997 methodology. Results: It was noticed that 26.24% of the study subjects were edentulous. 17% of the study subjects had prosthesis at the time of examination, but the need for prosthesis was found to be 87.9%. 70.21% needed prosthesis in both jaws ,7.8% in upper jaw and 9.9% in lower jaw. Shallow and deep pockets (CPI scores of 3 and 4) were found in 38.4% and 14.4% individuals respectively. 43.2% of the study subjects were having calculus. 69.5% of the study subjects had loss of attachment, of which 51.06% had loss of attachment of 4-5mm, 11.34% had 6-8 mm and 7.09% had 8-11mm. Conclusions: It is concluded that the periodontal and prosthetic status of the institutionalized geriatric individuals in Vadodara city is poor with a greater deficit between the needs and services availability. Hence better care and attention to these individuals from the health care authorities is recommended.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  598 43 -
Prevalence and Site distribution of Oral Mucosal Lesions in patients attending outpatient clinics of Oxford dental college, Bangalore
GC Shivakumar, S Sahana, Sabyasachi Saha
January-June 2010, 8(15):69-73
Background and aims: The oral mucosa performs essential protective functions that significantly affect the general health of the patient. Besides dental caries and periodontal diseases, oral mucosal lesions are another significant problem of public health importance. This study aims to establish the prevalence and site distribution of oral mucosal lesions in patients attending out patient clinics of Oxford Dental College, Bangalore. Methods: The prevalence of oral mucosal lesions was determined by the clinical examination in a sample of 512 patients. Patients lesser than 10 years to greater than 60 years were included in the study. A single examiner previously trained in the diagnosis of oral conditions made all examinations. World health organization's Guide to Epidemiology and Diagnosis of Oral Mucosal Diseases was used as the diagnostic criteria. The Statistical software namely SPSS 11.0 and Systat 8.0 were used for the analysis of the data. Odds ratio (OR) has been used to find the strength of relationship between prevalence of lesions with the study parameters. Results: The overall prevalence of oral mucosal lesions reported was 11.33%. Tobacco related lesions composed 35(60%) and denture related lesions composed 16(27%) of all lesions. Conclusion: This study establishes the prevalence of Oral Mucosal Lesions (OML's) in patients attending out patient clinics of Oxford Dental College and demonstrates that smoking and increasing age is associated with greater odds of OML's.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  584 53 -
Influence of Salvadora persica (Miswak) And Mangifera indica (Mango) Extracts on Streptococcus mutans and Salivary pH - A Comparative Study
Garima Sharma, S Sunitha, CVK Reddy
January-June 2010, 8(15):116-120
Objectives: To study the effect of Salvadora persica (Miswak) and Mangifera indica (Mango) extracts on Streptococcus mutans and salivary pH and to compare between the two extracts. Design: A double-blind cross-over study. Participants: Twenty students (ages between 20-25 years) who volunteered to participate in the study were included. Method: Participants were randomly divided into two groups. Each group was allocated for one of the extracts being tested. Subjects were instructed to rinse with the prepared extract for two minutes. Salivary samples were collected at baseline (pre-rinse), 10 and 60 minutes (post-rinse). After a washout period of one week, the study was repeated with participants rinsing with alternative extracts. Main outcome measures: Salivary pH of the collected samples was measured. Microbiological analysis was performed for Streptococcus mutans. Results: Microbial reduction was seen in 85% of the participants after rinsing with Salvadora persica and in 65% of the participants after rinsing with Mangifera indica extracts. Compared with the baseline value, both the extracts showed a significant increase in salivary pH (p < 0.000).
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  583 41 -
Effect of sugar containing and sugar free Chewing Gums on Dental Plaque re-growth
Amit V Mahuli, GM Prashant, GN Chandu
January-June 2010, 8(15):28-30
Title: Effect of sugar containing and sugar free chewing gums on dental plaque re-growth. Background: Tooth brushing is one of the mechanical methods for dental plaque removal. Need exists for adjunctive methods of mechanical plaque removal that are simple, inexpensive, and convenient for use of patients. Chewing gums are one such adjuvant. With the introduction of sugar free chewing gums there is a new hope in alternative mechanical plaque control method. Objective: To compare the dental plaque re-growth using sugar containing and sugar free chewing gums. Methodology: Randomized clinical trial consisting of eight subjects of 21-28 years were selected and divided into two groups consisting of sugar containing and sugar free chewing gums. Subjects were instructed to chew gums 4 times a day, at least for 30 minutes each time for 4 days and refrain from all other oral hygiene measures. Examination with Modified Quigley Hein index for plaque re-growth was done on 4th day. Results: Sugar containing chewing gums showed more plaque re-growth than sugar free chewing gums. Conclusion: Sugar free chewing gums may be an adjuvant for mechanical plaque removal
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  574 46 -
Microbial contamination of dental unit water lines: Evaluation, disinfection and recurrence
Sudhanshu Saxena, GN Chandu, GM Prashant, VV Subba Reddy
January-June 2010, 8(15):14-23
Background: Several studies have shown presence of microorganisms in Dental Unit Water Lines (DUWLs) above the recommended standard of American Dental Association (ADA). Objectives: (i) To evaluate the microbial contamination of DUWLs of departments of College of Dental Sciences, Mobile Dental Van (MDV) and Private dental clinics of Davangere city. (ii) To compare efficacy of Sterilex Ultra & 0.2% Chlorhexidine Gluconate (CHX) mouthwash. (3)To check whether source of water (tap water or sterile distilled water) makes any difference in the process of disinfection. Methods and Materials: Water samples were collected from dental units of departments of College of Dental Sciences, MDV and 15 Private dental clinics at base line and after disinfection either with Sterilex Ultra or 0.2% CHX for a period of 21 days. Two types of microbial analysis were performed: (i) Coliform count (ii) Colony Forming Unit (CFU) count Statistical analysis: Mean, standard deviation and range was calculated and comparison was done with ADA standard. Results: At base line CFU/ml was higher than the ADA standard. After disinfection either with Sterilex Ultra (three consecutive days then weekly) or 0.2% CHX (daily) dental unit water met ADA standard in College of Dental Sciences and MDV. Conclusion: ADA standard for DUWLs can be achieved with use of sterile distilled water and cleaning of DUWLs either with Sterilex Ultra (three consecutive days then weekly) or 0.2% CHX (daily).
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  576 42 -
Dental Public Health - A Journey Towards Excellence (A Review)
R Kesavan, Navin Anand Ingle
January-June 2010, 8(15):36-40
Public health was defined in the Acheson report (1988) as the 'science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through organised community efforts.' Although the speciality of dental public health evolved from organized dentistry, the philosophy regarding development and implementation of dental programs to serve the public is often different between the two. There are four elements which are considered to be indispensable in dental public health's journey towards excellence. They are Dental Health Education, Dental Care Programs, Dental Care Centres, and Dental Research. Health education is fundamentally a learning process, which aims at favourably changing attitudes and influencing behaviour with respect to healthy practices. Dental health care programs are aimed at delivering dental treatments to the community especially in the rural areas where people have limited access. Primary dental care should be based on the model of primary health care where in dentists are located in primary health centres. Research encompasses a systemic work involving careful search for specific domains to unearth newer information or clarify conceptual puzzles. One may conclude that the time is favourable for effective and adequate programs for dental health to be developed and implemented.
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  566 50 -
Dentist Vs Quacks
Siddhartha Varma Alluri, Nagaraj B Kalburgi, Arati C Koregol, Sarthak Bhola
January-June 2010, 8(15):212-214
The distribution of dentists across the map is grossly uneven. This is leading to surfacing of quacks who are donning the role of dentists. "Oral Health for All" by 2010-is it a realistic objective. Are people still ignorant? Is a dentist still out of reach of a common man?
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  573 34 -
Comparison of Gingival Health Status Among Orthodontic and Non-orthodontic Individuals
A Dodamani, Patil Sameer, VK Prashanth, V Kerudi
January-June 2010, 8(15):100-104
Background and Objectives: The periodontium is a structure of vital importance to orthodontists, efficacy of orthodontic treatment depends upon the response of periodontal tissue. The study was coducted to determine and compare the gingival health status among normal individuals and those who are undergoing fixed mechanotherapy. Methodology: Randomly 50 children with orthodontic and 50 non orthodontic aged 12-15 years were included, self designed performa which included information regarding oral hygiene practices & Gingival index was used to record gingival status then the data was subjected to statistical analysis (SPSS). Results: Study group had mild to moderated gingivitis with mean score of 1.150+0.274 and control group had absence to mild gingivitis with mean score of 0.598+0.538, which shows statistically significant difference. Interpretation and Conclusions: Since plaque is a major etiologic factor in the development of gingivitis and orthodontic appliances tends to encourage development of plaque, so atmost professional and self oral hygiene care has to be taken during orthodontic treatment.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  573 30 -
Oral Health Status of Visually Impaired Individuals of Bhopal City, India
Neeraj Chauhan, Ajay Bhambal, Pankaj Goel, Sudhanshu Saxena
January-June 2010, 8(15):159-163
Background: Oral health and quality oral health care contribute to holistic health, which should be a right rather than a privilege, and that is why individuals with disabilities deserve the same opportunities for dental services as those who are healthy. Visual impairment is a condition that might limit an individual's ability to perform all the functions to the fullest extent with his or own efforts. Aim & Objective : The study was instituted to investigate the oral health status of institutionalized visually impaired individuals in Bhopal city, India. Material & Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in all the visually impaired institutes in Bhopal city. Data was obtained by using two methods, interview and clinical examination. An interview was conducted using a proforma, in which age, sex, gender, oral hygiene practices, sugar intake of the participants, visit to dentist were recorded. Clinical examination was done using WHO oral health assessment form (1997). Results: A total number of 92 subjects, whose age ranged from 8 to 26 years were interviewed and examined. Majority of participants used a toothbrush (93%) and toothpaste (85%).On clinical examination 59% subjects had carious teeth with mean DMFT/dmft 1.82(2.431)/0.14(0.806). Calculus was present in 61% of the subjects. Conclusion : Study showed poor oral health among institutionalized visually impaired individuals.
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  564 37 -
Dental Informatics; New age dentistry - An overview
Sanjay Kumar Singh, G Nagaraja Rao, Sabyasachi Saha, S Sahana
January-June 2010, 8(15):61-68
Background: Dental informatics is a relatively new field that has significant potential for supporting clinical care. Most dentists are unaware of what dental informatics is, what its goals are, what it has achieved and how they can get involved in it 7. Dental informatics is the application of computer and information sciences to improve dental practice, research, education and management. Numerous applications that support clinical care, education and research have been developed. Dental informatics is beginning to exhibit the characteristics of a discipline: core literature, trained specialists and educational programs. Conclusion: Dental informatics presents possible solutions to many longstanding problems in dentistry, but it also faces significant obstacles and challenges. Its maturation will depend as much on the efforts of people as on the collective efforts of the profession. Practical implications: Dental informatics will produce an increasing number of applications and tools for clinical practice. Dentists must keep up with these developments to make informed choices.
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  537 63 -
Prevalence of Early Childhood Caries [Ecc] Among 2-5 Years Old Children Visiting Paediatric Outpatient Department of Government Hospitals in Bangalore City, India
Mahesh K Chandra, HL Jayakumar, N Vanishree
January-June 2010, 8(15):221-228
Background: Early childhood caries [Ecc] is a serious socio-behavioural dental problem that afflicts toddlers and children. Aims: The purpose of the study was to gather data on caries frequency, its distribution and to determine possible association with feeding habits and oral health care practices among this selected population. Methods and Material: A sample of 385 children aged about 2-5 years visiting the government hospitals were randomly selected for the study. An interview with the parents/care giver was conducted using a structured questionnaire by the investigator regarding socio economic status, child's feeding habits, oral hygiene practices along with the oral health knowledge and attitudes. The interview was followed by a clinical oral examination of the child using a sterilized mouth mirror and explorer under artificial illumination. The data on caries was recorded using defs index (A.O Grubell, 1944). The statistical analysis with regard to the association between carious status and single variables was carried out using Chi-square test and Fisher exact tests. Results: The prevalence of Ecc was 77.4% among the study group. The children belonging to the lower socio- economic group showed a higher prevalence of caries experience. Ecc was higher among the children who were breast fed and bottle fed for a longer duration of time. Conclusions: This study has revealed that Ecc is prevalent in considerable percentage of young children between the ages of 2-5 years. The Ecc was more frequently associated with prolonged bottle feeding, lower socio-economic status and increased weaning age. These observations indicate an urgent need to recognize Ecc as a public health problem. The use of fluoride, utilization of preventive dental services and oral health education programs need to be advocated for prevention and control of Ecc.
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  565 32 -
Oral Health related study among dental Paramedical Students in Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai -116
Navneet Ranjan, V Shivakumar, L Kannan
January-June 2010, 8(15):215-220
Background: The burden of oral health diseases is still a burgeoning problem in many developing countries as well as developed country for which KAP significantly contributes. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the Knowledge, Practice, Behavior and Management of Oral health and Dental care as well as to evaluate the factors that determine these variables. Materials and Methods: The study Participants (n=311) were the first year students of the Dental & Paramedical Colleges at Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai, India. Data were collected by means of self administered questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 16.Statistical significance was determined by chi-square test, and the level of significance was set at P<0.05. Results: The study reveals that 56 % of study participants having knowledge about more than two dental problems. Approximately 80% participants agree that dental problems can be prevented. The participant's oral hygiene habits (such as tooth brushing) were found to be regular. The study population showed approximately 46% have not visited anywhere for their dental treatment. More than 60% of participants have seen or heard about oral health education programme. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that student's attitude towards oral health and dental care needs to be improved. Comprehensive oral health educational programs are required to achieve this goal.
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  553 38 -
Infection Control and Biomedical Waste Management Among Private Dental Practitioners of Tumkur City
JV Bharateesh, Chandan R Agali
January-June 2010, 8(15):164-172
Objectives: 1. To know the methods of infection control & biomedical waste management among private dental practitioners of Tumkur city. 2. To suggest measures for proper infection control & biomedical waste management. Materials & methods: A list of names and address of private dental practitioners was obtained from Sri Siddhartha Dental College and IDA (Tumkur branch). All 81 dentists were requested to answer the pre-designed structured questionnaire. Statistical Analysis: Data was analyzed using SPSS software and Chi-square test was used. Results: 81 dentists responded. Among them percentage of dentists, wearing gloves was 100%, mouth mask 100%, protective eye glasses 33.2%. 98% of the dentists were vaccinated for Hepatitis B. As a method of sterilization 48.1% were using boiling water and 27.1% autoclave. Only 29.6% of dentists are disposing bio medical waste through specialized agency. Conclusion: Awareness should be created among dentists regarding infection control and bio medical waste management with the help of local IDA and Dental Colleges. Safe disposal of bio medical waste should be made mandatory by concerned authorities.
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  559 32 -
Fluoride ion Concentration in Saliva Following use of Fluoridated Dentifrice / Rinse - A Comparative Study
Darshana Bennadi, S Sunitha, CVK Reddy
January-June 2010, 8(15):110-115
Objective: To compare the levels of fluoride ion retention in saliva over 24hr period following use of fluoridated dentifrice, fluoridated mouth rinse and their combination. Methodology: A single blinded study consists of 10 volunteers aged 18-25yrs having DMFT = 0-1 were randomly selected and subjected to four experimental groups. Group I - Nonfluoridated dentifrice (NFD) Group II - Fluoridated dentifrice 1000ppm (FD) Group III - Nonfluoridated dentifrice and 0.05% sodium fluoride mouth rinse (NFD + FR) Group IV - Fluoridated dentifrice 1000ppm and 0.05%sodium fluoride mouth rinse (FD+FR).Participants were provided with nonfluoridated dentifrice to brush their teeth for one week prior and during the study. On the day of study, saliva samples were collected prior to brushing or rinsing, immediately(0 min), 15min,30min,1hr,2hr,8hr, 15hr after brushing or rinsing and 24hrs samples were collected next day morning before brushing or rinsing. Results: Nonfluoridated dentifrice and fluoridated rinse group showed highly significance in retention of fluoride ion concentration at different intervals of time compared to NFD, FD groups. FD + FR group showed highly significant difference in retention of fluoride ion concentration at different intervals of time compared to FD group. There was no statistical significance was there in retention of fluoride ion concentration in saliva among NFD + FR group and FD + FR. Conclusion: Fluoride retention was equally effective in FD + FR and NFD + FR groups. Fluoride rinse was more effective way of delivering topical fluoride than fluoride dentifrice. Use of fluoride at bed time resulted in longer retention than daytime application.
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  557 34 -
Relationship between Dentition status and Body Mass Index among 5 to 15 years old age group children of an orphanage in Nellore city
K Sudhakar, P RSharath, M Shanthi, Nusrath Fareed, KM Sudhir
January-June 2010, 8(15):45-48
Aim: To determine the relationship between caries prevalence and body mass index-for-age among children of an orphanage in Nellore city. Introduction: Childhood exposure to environment factors during the post natal life, primarily via dietary intake, will slowly begin to condition adult susceptibility to disease both positively and negatively. Thus, the claimed eating pattern may be a risk factor in common for weight and dental caries. Here an attempt is made to investigate the association between caries frequency and body mass index-for-age in children. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was undertaken among 5-15 year age group children (n = 134) of an orphanage and were examined for dentition status using WHO oral health assessment form 1997; and their body mass index was calculated by measuring weight and height. Statistical analysis was done by using SPSS 14. Results: Mean values of DMFT and BMI for 5-15 year age group children were 1.39 1.88 and 19.12 3.46 respectively. Mean DMFT scores for boys was 1.51 2.17 and for girls was 13.1 1.67 and Mean BMI values for boys was 18.7 2.65 and for girls was 19.58 4.15. Correlation between the DMFT and BMI for entire sample was negatively correlated (r = − 0.12). Negative correlation between DMFT and BMI for girls was found (r = − 0.14), similarly boys also showed negative correlation (r = − 0.10). Conclusion: Although it was hypothesized that body mass index would be associated with increased caries, this association was not found. Rather a negative correlation was found between mean BMI and mean DMFT. No significant differences in body mass index as well as dental caries between boys and girls were observed.
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  524 59 -
Estimation of Fluoride Concentration in Community Water Supply and Packaged Drinking Water sold in Vadodara City- A Comparative Study
M Parkar Sujal, CG Ajithkrishnan
January-June 2010, 8(15):105-109
Aim: To determine and compare the fluoride concentration in community water supply and packaged drinking water sold in Vadodara city. Material and Method: A total of 5 water samples were purchased directly from the production sites of packaged drinking water in the Vadodara city. 7 water samples of community water supply were collected from the overhead tank located in the limit of Vadodara Municipal Corporation after getting permission from the City Engineer, Vadodara Municipal Corporation. Fluoride concentrations were determined by standardized Colorimetric method. The Student t test was used to compare the mean fluoride concentration of community water and packaged drinking water at 5% level of significance. Results: Out of 5 samples of packaged drinking water the level of fluoride is present in only two samples while the remaining 3 samples had no fluoride content. The mean fluoride concentration was 0.05 mg/L. The fluoride concentration of community water supply ranges from 0.1 to 0.26 mg/L with mean fluoride concentration of 0.18 mg/L. The difference observed between the means of two samples was found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: The result emphasized that the fluoride concentration was low in both community water supply and packaged drinking water sold in Vadodara city. The periodic sample collection of the water must be carried out to control and maintain the fluoride concentration enforced by the sanitary surveillance agency.
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  535 46 -
A Pathway to Excel in Dental Public Health - Outreaching to the Needy (A Review)
S Srinidhi, Navin Anand Ingle
January-June 2010, 8(15):41-44
One of the primary goals of public health dentistry is to deliver dental services to the community especially in the rural areas and to the underprivileged. The world wide prevalence of dental disease is a constant reminder of the almost universal need for effective dental health education programmes. A major barrier to dental care in rural areas is lack of accessibility/availability of dental services. A solution to major barrier is by delivering dental treatments to the community through organized dental health camps. In an educational camp individual, group or population are educated for factors which cause and the ways of preventing dental caries, periodontal disease, oral cancer and malocclusion. Screening camps are conducted for screening of diseases like dental caries, periodontal disease, precancerous and cancerous lesion and also malocclusion which when detected early can prevent a disability. Mobile dental units are used to offer an out reach program in the rural areas and outskirts of cities to meet the needs of the people who cannot afford or find a dentist. Hence camps must be organized meticulously and appropriate care must be ensured. Dental camps can be a ray of hope for a bright oral health care service for all the under privileged groups and population of different communities.
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  544 36 -
A Trial of Use of Electro- Acupuncture Analgesia in Dentistry
N Vijayakumar, MR Shankar Aradhya
January-June 2010, 8(15):149-152
Aim: To find out the effectiveness, limitations and acceptance of Electro acupuncture analgesia in three different routine dental treatment procedures. Materials and methods: Twenty randomly selected out-patients of Government Dental College, Bangalore. Information regarding patients' complaint, history, previous treatment, diagnosis and description of pain as well as details about the actual electro-acupuncture analgesia procedure were recorded in a specially designed record form. Results: Out of 20 patients 10 adults and 2 children were subjected to Exodontia procedure, 4 for crown and restoration work, 4 underwent periodontal surgical treatment procedures. 17 of them did not feel any pain at all, 2 of them experience very slight pain and 1 of them slight pain and the acceptance for the treatment was good for all the groups. The limitations were cost of the equipment was high, required trained acupuncturists as well training courses in India.
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  538 37 -
Effect of Fluoridated and Non Fluoridated Dentifrice on Salivary ph and Salivary Streptococcus Mutans-A Randomized Clinical Trial
Ashok Mohapatra, Nagarajappa Sandesh, Ashish Singla
January-June 2010, 8(15):202-208
Aims and Objectives: The present study was conducted to study the effect of fluoridated and non-fluoridated dentifrice on salivary pH and salivary Streptococcus Mutans Materials and Methods: The randomized triple blind clinical trial was conducted in preselected 28 hostel inmates (girls=14, boys=14). The study subjects were randomly allocated to test group (n=14) and control group (n=14). The test group was instructed to use the fluoridated dentifrice for the period of 15 days and the control group - the non fluoridated dentifrice. Stimulated saliva was collected from each group at three intervals (before brushing, immediately after the brushing and 1 hr after the brushing) at the end of intervention and tested for salivary pH and Streptococcus Mutans count. Results- It was seen that the salivary pH values recorded before brushing were 6.88 0.09 in the fluoridated group and 6.43 0.06 in the non-fluoridated group. Immediately after the brushing, there was rise in the salivary pH in both the groups (fluoridated group = 9.03 0.11, non- fluoridated group=8.35 0.07). The pH values fell to lower values in both the fluoridated group (8.27 0.07) and non fluoridated group (7.67 0.09) 1 hour after the brushing. The difference in the salivary pH between the two groups was statistically significant at all the three intervals (p<0.05). For the streptococcus mutans it was observed that count in the fluoridated group (6.73 1.76, 2.20 0.58, 4.43 1.15) was lower at all the three intervals as compared to the non-fluoridated group (10.00 2.96, 4.19 1.15, 7.45 2.22) and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05)
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  519 51 -
An unusual case report of superolateral dislocation of mandibular condyle with lateral dislocation of contralateral condyle
S Gandhiraj, GL Anitha
January-June 2010, 8(15):209-211
Mandibular condyle fracture from trauma is extremely common but not dislocation. Among the four types of dislocation, anterior, posterior, superior and lateral, the lateral dislocation is rarest. The subtype of lateral dislocation-superolateral dislocation is extremely uncommon with only 16 cases being reported in literature. In this article we report an unusual case of superolateral dislocation of intact mandibular condyle of right side into the temporal fossa, lateral dislocation of left condyle associated with left parasymphysis fracture. The literature is reviewed and the mechanics behind this clinical presentation is discussed.
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  537 26 -
Prevalence and Impact of Dental pain on Quality of life among 12 year old School Children of Nellore District, Andhra Pradesh - A Pilot Study
Kiran D Kumar, Nusrath Fareed, M Shanthi, KM Sudhir
January-June 2010, 8(15):49-52
Aim: To assess the prevalence and impact of dental pain on quality of life among 12 year old school children of Nellore District, Andhra Pradesh. Introduction: Dental pain is a common outcome of untreated dental diseases. However, despite the high prevalence of untreated dental caries, there is surprisingly little research on the prevalence and severity of dental pain in children. The traditional normative approach using clinical measures alone to assess oral health and oral health needs has serious inadequacies in understanding the reason for not seeking oral health care which influences on quality of life. Only a few attempts have been made to determine the prevalence of dental pain and its impact on children and these studies have been mainly confined to child populations from developed countries. This study assessed the prevalence of dental pain and impact on daily life activities. Material and Methods: A cross sectional study was undertaken to assess the prevalence and impact of the dental pain among 12 year old school children from two randomly selected schools one from urban and one from rural areas of Nellore District. Pain and its impact on daily life activities were assessed using a self administered questionnaire prepared in English and Regional language. The statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS version 14. Results: A total of 148 children participated in the survey, of which 65% were boys and 35% were girls. 34% visited dentist because of their pain. Conclusion: Approximately 50% of the surveyed children suffered from pain in past one month, 66% experienced difficulty while eating/drinking and 76% experienced difficulty in maintaining their oral hygiene. 34% visited dentist due to their dental pain.
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  524 34 -
Oral Health Status of Children by Different Socio-Economic Classes in Bangalore City
DP Narayan, Nagarajappa Sandesh
January-June 2010, 8(15):135-137
Socioeconomic inequalities in oral health are a major challenge for health policy. Methods: 6,820 primary and middle school children aged 6 to 12 years old of Bangalore city were examined for dental caries, oral mucosal lesions, fluorosis, soft deposits, calculus and gingivitis. Kuppaswamy's scale was employed for socio-economic classification. Results: Dental Fluorosis was seen in Upper Lower Class (9.66%). Highest prevalence of DMF Index was encountered in Upper Class children (1.22). Calculus was highest (89.82%) in Lower class children. Conclusion: caries experience is directly proportional to the social status of the children. Soft deposits, Calculus and Gingivitis showed an increasing trend from upper class to Lower class children.
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  527 30 -
The comparison of dental arch parameters among 3-5yrs old children on the basis of their feeding habits
Pradeep S Tangade, TL Ravishankar, Amit Tirth, Anamika
January-June 2010, 8(15):177-181
Objective: The comparison between dimensions of dental arch parameters of children (3-5yrs) age according to feeding habits. Method: 15 bottle feed and breast feed babies age (3-5yrs) were selected randomly according to their feeding habits attending private dental clinic. Impressions for both upper and lower arches were taken. Study models were then assessed for dental arch parameters directly using Verneer Caliper's. Results: No statistically significant difference found between the dental arch parameters for two groups except for arch lengths, for breast feed babies, and is more for mandibular arch. Conclusion: Only the length of dental arches have effect on them which is mainly considered due to muscular activity. The reason for not getting significant findings in other parameters could be due to small sample size, shorter duration of the study. But results can be considered as a preliminary indicator for the given age cohort.
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  531 25 -
Microbial contamination of daily used tooth brushes and affordable methods to diminish the microbial contamination
Ashok Mohapatra, Jitender Solanki, Nagarajappa Sandesh
January-June 2010, 8(15):196-201
Background: Depending upon storage conditions regularly used tooth brushes can become heavily contaminated with microorganisms and serve as reservoir for reintroduction of potential pathogens such as streptocoocus mutans and porphyromonas gingivalis. An attempt was made to find the predominance of various microorganisms, and to find an affordable method to eliminate or diminish the said microorganisms. Methods: Thirty subjects were selected having similar lifestyle and dietary habits on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criterion. Daily used tooth brushes were collected from them and cultured to find the predominance of microorganisms. The subjects were then given similar tooth brushes and were divided into three groups A, B, C. Group A was asked to wash their tooth brush and store it as usual. Group B was asked to thoroughly wash the tooth brush under running water before and after storing it. Group C was asked to thoroughly wash the tooth brush with luke warm salt water. All tooth brushes were collected and cultured with anaerobic blood agar, nutrient blood agar, mutans sangvis bacetracin agar and incubated for 48 hours. The colonies were then identified and counted. Result: Various pathogens such as streptococcus stahylococcus, e.coli, yeast, bascilli, and diplococcus were observed. Streptococcus and staphylococcus were found in all most all the tooth brushes. Among the three groups there was reduction in count of pathogens in the tooth brushes which were rinsed with tap water and warm salt water. The effect of cleaning tooth brush and diminished pathogens was observed. Conclusion: Rinsing with warm saline or tap water can be adopted as affordable and cost effective methods for reducing the microbial counts. Warm saline showed better results than tap water rinsing even though there was no statistically significant difference between the two methods.
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  524 31 -
Antimicrobial Mouth rinses and Periodontal Disease: A Review
Nitin Khuller, Nikhil Sharma, P Basavaraj
January-June 2010, 8(15):53-60
There is a two-fold rationale for daily use of antimicrobial mouthrinses: first, given the inadequacy of mechanical plaque control by the majority of people, as a component added to oral hygiene regimens for the control and prevention of periodontal diseases; second, as a method of delivering antimicrobial agents to mucosal sites throughout the mouth that harbor pathogenic bacteria capable of recolonizing supragingival and subgingival tooth surfaces, thereby providing a complementary mechanism of plaque control. The daily use of an effective antiplaque antigingivitis antimicrobial mouthrinse is well-supported by a scientific rationale and can be a valuable component of oral hygiene regimens. This article emphasizes the incorporation of effective antimicrobial mouthrinses into a daily oral hygiene regimen along with mechanical plaque control methods. The authors also review studies demonstrating the essential etiologic role of a pathogenic dental plaque biofilm in the development of gingivitis, as well as studies indicating that most people fail to maintain a level of mechanical plaque control sufficient to prevent disease.
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  521 28 -
Prosthetic status and needs among 65-74 years individuals of Piparia Village, Vadodara district, Gujarat
Parkar M Sujal, CG Ajithkrishnan
January-June 2010, 8(15):96-99
Aim: To assess the prosthetic status and needs among 65-74 years of individuals of Piparia village, Vadodara district, Gujarat. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 84 subjects having age ranging from 65-74 years. Out of 84 subjects, 73 elderly individuals (40 males and 33 females) were examined at their homes under standardized conditions and prosthetic status and needs were recorded according to WHO 1997 methodology. Results: The study results reveals that, only 5.48% of study subjects possessed full dentures and no subject possessed partial denture. Over 93% of these subjects needed some form of prosthetic treatment. Some form of prosthetic treatment needed by male subjects was 87.5% and 100% by female subjects was found statistically insignificant (p>0.05). Conclusion: The results illustrated poor prosthetic status and showed extremely high need for the prosthesis for the elderly individuals.
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  507 33 -
Periodontal Treatment Needs in School Children in the age Group of 12-16 Years in Panchkula District of Haryana, India
Nanak Chand Rao, Abhishek Mehta, Supriya Ebenezer
January-June 2010, 8(15):187-195
Oral health is fundamental to general health and well being. Dental caries and periodontal diseases are two major chronic diseases affecting mankind from centuries causing tooth mortality and loss of function. Whereas much effort has been put to prevent and control dental caries, such seriousness in not observed in case of preventing periodontal diseases. A cross sectional survey was conducted on 12-16 year old school children residing in Panchkula district of Haryana state, India. In total 800 children were examined for their periodontal status and treatment needs by using CPITN index. A questionnaire was also prepared for recording oral hygiene habits and dental services utilization of children. Results of the study showed high prevalence of periodontal diseases and treatment needs. The prevalence was increasing with age but their was no difference in gender. Rural children had high prevalence of periodontal disease as compared to their urban counterparts. To conclude, it can be stated that periodontal health of this population is poor and a major public health problem. Hence, there is a need of implementing comprehensive school dental programme focusing on prevention and control of periodontal diseases.
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  510 28 -
Practical Approaches to Holistic Health: Yoga Way of Living
DP Narayan, Nagarajappa Sandesh
January-June 2010, 8(15):138-141
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  445 36 -
Assessment of Knowledge and View of dental patients about Education, qualification and Practice of dentists in Bangalore city
Vinay Kumar Gupta, SS Hiremath
January-June 2010, 8(15):126-132
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  398 34 -
Concept of Holistic Health
DP Narayan, Nagarajappa Sandesh
January-June 2010, 8(15):133-134
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  395 29 -