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   2011| January-June  | Volume 9 | Issue 18  
    Online since October 22, 2015

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Oral health status and treatment needs amongst prison inmates of Nellore District in Andhra Pradesh
Muni Kumar Sode, Nusrath Fareed, M Shanthi, KM Sudhir
January-June 2011, 9(18):1-3
Aim: To assess the oral health status and treatment needs with special emphasis to oral mucosal lesions and wasting diseases among prison inmates of Nellore district in Andhra Pradesh. Methods: Data regarding oral health status was recorded on a WHO oral health assessment form 1997 using mouth mirror and CPI probe. WHO criteria for recording oral mucosal lesions were included in the form and wasting diseases were recorded using Smith & Knight index. Results: The inmates were suffering from periodontal disease with a Mean Number of Sextants for bleeding 1.3 ± 0.06, calculus 1.1 ± 0.7. Leukoplakia was found to be prevalent among 2.2% and Erythroplakia in 3.3% of study population. Wasting disease especially attrition was highly prevalent in the study population. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the standard of past oral health care for prison inmates is low. There is a need to be more attentive to oral health promotion as eventually respondents will be returning to the community.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  830 947 -
Reasons for choosing public health dentistry as a career option in M.D.S among the students pursuing masters in public health dentistry in State of Karnataka
Gurmukh Singh, SS Hiremath, Amandeep Kaur
January-June 2011, 9(18):5-11
Background: 'Destiny is decided' No doubt about it but the almighty has given us wisdom and knowledge to share and apply in a particular circumstance. One such difficult circumstance is choosing a career in dentistry in tertiary education for eg. Public Health Dentistry. The aspirations and reasons for foraying in to a particular specialty by an aspiring candidate in turn contributes a lot for the future of the particular specialty. Aim: To find out reasons for choosing Public Health Dentistry as a career option in M.D.S among the students pursuing Masters in Public Health Dentistry in state of Karnataka. Materials and methods: A questionnaire study with a cross section design, comprising of 85 students pursuing their career in Masters in Community Dentistry in all three years in state of Karnataka were included in the study. The questionnaire tries to extract information pertaining to various motives to enter in to the specialty, ranging from, financial stability, prior interest and knowledge of the prospects of subject to current status and interest in the subject and perceptions and plans of the students pertaining to their career in foreseeable future. Results: The primary reason for choosing Public Health Dentistry as a career option in M.D.S was, prior interest in the subject by 29%of repondentents. And again the favorite subject of choice before counseling was Public Health Dentistry by 27% of respondents. Teaching job 22.4 % as a frontline choice as future plans after M.D.S by respondentents is not a very encouraging trend. Conclusion: A sizable proportion of the students quoting job security as a reason for the choice of specialty is not a very encouraging trend in a long term. Many students are not aware of the future prospects the subject. There is a need to create awareness and inculcate interest among the students during their graduation. Teaching job as a preference for maximum number of candidates points towards the dearth of opportunities for dental public health professionals at the first place.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,478 167 -
Assessment of dental myths among dental patients in Salem City
N Saravanan, R Thiruneervannan
October 2011, 9(18):359-363
Introduction: Dentistry is an art and science which helps in maintaining proper oral health status in the society. As with many health care fields, many myths have grown the field of dentistry, while many of these are harmless, others lead people to take inadequate care of their teeth, or cause them to avoid visiting the dentist regularly. Ignoring dental care or avoiding dentist can lead to serious problems, many of which can only treated by dentist. To avoid unnecessary pain and expense by learning the truth about the dental myths regarding dental care. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the dental myths among dental patients in Salem city. and suggest possible measures to learning truth about dental myths. Materials and methods: New patients attending outpatient department of Vinayaka Mission's Sankarachariyar Dental College, Salem participated in the present study. The study involved completion of the predesigned questionnaire and the data was analyzed by using statistical package SPSS 10 version. Results: A total of 863 dental out patients were participated in the present study. The study population according to gender, 501 (58.05%) were male and 362 (41.95%) were female. according to age groups, 15-24 yrs-172 (20%), 25-34 yrs-229 (27%), 35-44 yrs-227 (32%), 45-54 yrs-88(10%), 55yrs and above 97 (11%). according to education, illiterate 156 (18%), School 395 (46%), College 208 (24%), Others 104 (12%).according to occupation, employed 190 (22%), unemployed 251 (29%), skilled 276 (32%), professional 17 (2%), others 129 (15%). Discussion: In the present study, The age of dental patient range from15-69 years and mean age 33.4 years, among the study population 395 (46%) of them have school education level. and 276 (32%) of them skilled workers. The detailed analysis of our study revealed that, the maximum number 532 (61%) of respondents think that teething will leads to dysentery. whereas only 26 (3%) of them think that dental infections results from god' s curse.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,079 231 -
Ozone therapy: A new horizon in preventive dentistry
Benley George
October 2011, 9(18):549-552
With the emergence of a new era in dentistry, ozone therapy has been established as a safe andeffective method for preventing and treating dental caries. Unlike conventional methods, which are highlyinvasive, this novel treatment approach promotes caries reversal and the remineralization of teeth withoutdamaging their structure. The goal of treating carious lesions with ozone is to reduce the causativemicrobiota and contributing risk factors, to halt the caries process and to stimulate remineralization, andthis goal is achieved markedly. Ozone began with its application in medical field and currently is acornerstone in dental care. The strong oxidizing ability of ozone has lead to its widespread application indentistry.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,020 179 -
Green dentistry
Vittaldas Shetty
November 2011, 9(18):891-893
As the planet is getting warmer by the year due to burning of fossil fuels, the level of green house gases in the atmosphere is high endangering the livability on our planet. So it is the need of the hour what every one of us in the dental profession can do our bit to reduce green house gases in our day to day dental practice by practicing green or eco dentistry.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  902 168 -
From the President's Desk
RK Bali
January-June 2011, 9(18):0-0
Full text not available  [PDF]
  160 910 -
From the Editor's Desk
MB Aswath Narayanan
January-June 2011, 9(18):0-0
Full text not available  [PDF]
  160 908 -
A study to assess the oral health status and treatment needs of fishermen population in coastal region of Tamil Nadu
N Saravanan, CVK Reddy, DJ Veeresh
January-June 2011, 9(18):266-277
Objectives: To assess the oral health status and treatment needs of fishermen population in coastal regions of Tamil Nadu. To suggest possible measures to improve their present oral health status. Materials and methods: The study was conducted in Karaichuthuvari coastal village of Thirunelveli district of Tamil Nadu was selected by multistage sampling method. Prior permission was obtained from president of concern village and secretary of fishermen co-operative society. All the available 297 population in which 144 fishermen and 153 Non-fishermen were examined with their consent. Information regarding demographic details, dietary habits, oral hygiene habits, personal habits and past dental visits was obtained by using pre-designed questionnaire. The oral health status was recorded on the WHO oral health assessment form 1991 (modified) and the examination was carried out under natural light by using mouth mirrors and CPI probe. Results: Significant observation was that (52.7%) of the fishermen had oral mucosal lesions compared to Non-fishermen (37.9%). The prevalence of dental caries high among fishermen (54.9 %) compared to Non- fishermen (44.4%) The different stage of periodontal disease was higher among the fishermen (93.1%) than the Non- fishermen (83%). 43.1% of the fishermen had loss of periodontal attachment compared to non-fishermen (28.8%). The treatment needs for fishermen were extraction 39.6%, filling 20.8%, pulp care 11.8%, prosthetic upper 30.5%, and prosthetic lower 37.5% for Non-fishermen extraction 35.5%, filling 18.3%, pulp care 15.6%, prosthetic upper 27.4%, and prosthetic lower 30.7%. Conclusion: Oral health status of fishermen was relatively poor with high caries prevalence (54.9%) poor periodontal health (93.1%) and high prevalence of oral mucosal lesions (52.7%) when compared to Non-fishermen. High prevalence of dental caries may be due do their high sweet consumption (75.7%) and poor oral hygiene practice (84.7%). High gutka (31.3%) and pan chewing habits (38.9%) might be the reason for higher oral mucosal lesions among fishermen. Treatment needs like extractions 39.6%, filling 20.8% and prosthetic rehabilitation were required for fishermen.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  917 144 -
Biomimetics: A new paradigm in dentistry
N Vanishree, S Naganandini, V Chaithra
November 2011, 9(18):712-717
Biomimetics is the field of scientific endeavor which attempts to design system and synthesize materials through biomimicry also known by various names such as bionics, biognosis. This concept has been applied in dental materials, for the regeneration of the dental structures from the stem cells through tissue engineering, has its final evolution in the field of endodontics and also in, implant dentistry to achieve faster osseointegration.Hence this paper reviews the history, current concepts of biomimetics applied in dentistry, scope of biomimetics in the future and biomimetics in india.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  875 183 -
Chitosan in dentistry
Aishwarya Singh, Ajay Bhambhal, Vrinda Saxena, Sudhanshu Saxena, Vidhatri Tiwari
November 2011, 9(18):808-814
Chitosan is derived from chitin which is present in skeleton of crabs, shrimps and cell wall of fungi. Chitosan possesses properties which makes it beneficial to dentistry Chitosan mainly exerts antifungal, antibacterial, antiprotozoal, anticancer, antiplaque, antitartar, hemostatic, wound healing,and inhibits the growth of cariogenic bacteria. It is used mainly in the form of rinses; chewing gums and toothpastes. The applicability of chitosan in the field of preventive dentistry should be further explored. The present article highlights properties and effects of chitosan on oral diseases which might be advantageous in the field of public health dentistry.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  882 158 -
Effectiveness of dental health education - A systematic review
R Kesavan, A Vinita Mary
October 2011, 9(18):345-350
Health Education of the general public is an integral part of a prevention oriented approach to health and disease problems. Health education can bring about changes in life styles and risk factors of disease. Oral disease continues to bother mankind in spite of great advances made in the field of oral health. In order to reduce the level of dental diseases and to improve oral health in populations; oral health workers, government departments and NGO's have embarked on oral health education (OHE) programmes as a means to achieve this goal. The different target groups in dental health education are: School Children, Adults, Chronically ill & Geriatric people and emotionally ill people. Oral health education is the need of the hour in spite of advances made in the direction of prevention of oral diseases. Dental health education programs should be applicable to all segments of the population and should be developed through appropriate program planning and implementation criteria. One may conclude that the time is favourable for effective and adequate programs for dental health education to be developed and implemented.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  863 156 -
Fluoride supplements: Current effectiveness, side effects and recommendations - A review
S Naganandini, Jaspreet Singh Tuteja, N Vanishree
November 2011, 9(18):771-777
The objective of the review is to evaluate the scientific evidence of the effectiveness and side effects related to fluoride supplements and to update the clinical recommendations on the prescription of fluoride supplements for caries prevention. The use of fluoride supplements for preventing dental caries first started in late 1940's and was intended as a substitute for fluoridated water for children in non- fluoridated areas. The fluoride supplements come in the form of tablets (chewable or non-chewable), drops and lozenges The effectiveness of fluoride supplements in reducing caries is stated by many studies in the past; although these were questioned by many authors. The evidence supports fluoride's systemic mechanism of caries prevention when it is incorporated into the tooth pre-eruptively. Also, ingested fluoride can exert a topical mechanism of action when it is redistributed to the oral environment by the means of saliva. The ingestion of fluoride by means of supplements may be associated with increased risk of developing enamel fluorosis. The increase in exposure of fluoride from other sources like ingestion of water, toothpastes, beverages, foods and professional dental products may also cause enamel fluorosis. It is concluded that fluoride supplements should be used as directed to maximize their caries-preventive benefit and should be prescribed only to children who are at high risk of developing caries and whose primary source of drinking water is deficient in fluoride. The recommendations when prescribing fluoride supplements emphasize the need for caries risk assessment and consideration of total fluoride intake.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  875 139 -
Dental fluorosis among school children in Tumkur District, Karnataka - A survey report
KM Shwetha, K Pushpanjali
January-June 2011, 9(18):40-42
Aims and objectives: (i) To assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis among the school children (ii) To estimate fluoride level in drinking water source in Enjilgere village known for endemic flourosis. (iii) comparison of two indices measuring dental fluorosis. Study subjects and Methods: 125 school children of government school were included. Demographic data was collected followed by general and oral examinations. Prevalence of dental fluorosis was assessed using Deans Fluorosis index (T.H.Dean, 1942) and Severity was assessed using Tooth Surface Fluorosis Index (TSIF)(Horowitz, 1986). Water samples were collected and fluoride in water was assessed in Public Health Institute. Results: The overall prevalence of dental fluorosis was 69.3%. The mode of Dean's Score for Dental Fluorosis was 2, highest score was 4 and for TSIF score was 2 but the severity assessed by TSIF was score 7. The fluoride content of the drinking water samples ranged from 1.57-2.22 ppm Conclusion: Increase in fluoride concentration in the drinking water, resulted in increased prevalence of Dental Fluorosis in this village and TSIF was more sensitive index for assessing dental fluorosis .
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  883 128 -
Propolis - A natural remedy for oral health care
Rohit Agrawal, Vrinda Saxena, Ajay Bhambal, Sudhanshu Saxena, Shanthi Amit
October 2011, 9(18):580-585
Currently the use of natural products as an alternative to the conventional allopathic formulationsavailable for the treatment of various diseases is in focus. Propolis, a natural remedy is a resinous yellowbrown to dark brown substance that honey bees collect from tree buds, sap flows, shrubs or other botanicalsources to seal unwanted open spaces in the hive, defending it from outside contaminants. The mainchemical classes present in propolis are flavonoids, phenolics and other various aromatic compounds.Flavonoids are well known plant compounds that have antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant andanti-inflammatory proprieties. Different commercial propolis products are available in market. Propolis hasbeen used in dentistry for various purposes and has a promising role in future medicine as well as indentistry. This paper is an attempt to review various uses of this compound in dentistry.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  921 83 -
Effect of indigenous neem mouthwash on common microbial flora of mouth
Sabyasachi Saha, GV Jagannath, Minti Kumari, Shafaat Mohamed, Paramjeet Singh
January-June 2011, 9(18):193-197
Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate clinically the efficacy of the Neem mouthwash on common microbial flora of mouth. Materials and Method: This was double-blind, randomized, parallel study design. Ninety subjects were randomly assigned in to three groups. (30-Neem, 30-Chlorhexidine and 30-Distilled water). Interventions consisted of a 15 days therapy of the 25% Neem mouthwash, 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate (positive control) and distilled water (negative control) respectively. The subjects were supervised to rinse approximately 15ml of mouth rinse for 30 seconds, twice per day for 15 days. The microbial assessment for saliva responsible for dental caries and periodontal disease was assessed before and after treatment. Results: The data shows that a mouthrinse based on the Neem is equally effective in reducing microbial flora responsible for dental caries and periodontal disease. Conclusion: Microbial analysis indicates that 25% Neem mouth wash has significant role in reducing the common microbial flora (responsible for dental caries and periodontal diseases).
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  886 106 -
Oral health promotion in India rhetoric or reality
C Oswal Kunal
January-June 2011, 9(18):22-25
The Ottawa charter, an important milestone in Health Promotion practice worldwide, defines Health Promotion (HP) as the process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health. Five key strategies for HP action in the charter were developed. Most people in the developed countries enjoy all the determinants of good health, adequate income, nutrition and education, sanitation, safe drinking water and comprehensive health care. These areas are still in infancy in the developing countries. In a developing country like India, principles of Alma Ata of Primary Health Care are still followed. The urban centric style of healthcare delivery has created major health equity in our country. The essence of prevention has always been neglected in a clinical setting. A lack of adequate orientation to the upcoming graduates coupled with insufficient incentives generated through preventive model makes any health promotion in the country a difficult task. Further the health promotion programs are never evaluated due to its questionable effect. The purpose of the articles is to explore the practical applicability of the principles laid down in the Ottawa charter in India. The article stimulates discussion by setting examples and analysing the need to adapt principles of Ottawa charter
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  838 133 -
Antifungal activity of three commercially available mouthwashes against C. Albicans: In vitro study
Puneet Gupta, Nupur Gupta, Pankaj Verma, Imran Mohammed Khan, Himanshu Punia
October 2011, 9(18):333-336
Aim: The current study aimed at testing the various mouth washes commercially available in the market against Candida albicans, at full strength, in-vitro. Methodology: "Well diffusion" method was used for antifungal susceptibility test using Candida albicans (ATCC 10231) strain and three commercially available mouthwashes, namely 0.2% Chlorhexidine, 3% Potassium Nitrate and Listerine. The maximum zone of inhibition was measured at 24 hrs and 48hrs respectively, to know the antifungal effects. Results: Out of the 3 mouthwashes used, only chlorhexidine proved to be effective against Candida albicans. The other two mouthwashes did not show any antifungal action against the test organism. Conclusion: Despite the antifungal effects of Chlorhexidine, more investigations on different strains of C. albicans are required before recommending its clinical application.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  809 122 -
Oral health status and treatment needs of match-box factory workers in Gudiyatham Taluk, Vellore District
M Raj Kumar, Navin Anand Ingle, Preetha Elizabeth Chaly, V Chandrasekhara Reddy
October 2011, 9(18):525-535
Aim: To assess the oral health status and treatment needs of match-box factory workers inGudiyatham taluk of Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: The survey was conducted among the match-box factory workers inGudiyatham taluk of Vellore district. Following the pilot study, the sample size of 948 match-box factoryworkers was needed for this study. The cluster sampling methodology was used to select the samples. Theclusters (match-box factories) were randomly selected one after the other to get the required sample size.The source of data was primary, which consisted of a clinical examination (WHO Oral Health AssessmentForm - 1997). Results: The prevalence for bleeding on probing, calculus, shallow pocket and deep pocket by highestscore was found to be 36.2%, 37.6%, 9.6% and 6.2% respectively. Mean number of sextants code 3 orhigher and code 4 increased with age and was statistically very highly significant. 20.6% had cariouslesions and mean DMFT was 2.842.05. The mean DMFT increased with age with the highest, being6.262.99 in the age group =55 years and it was statistically significant. The more commonly neededtreatment modalities were one surface restoration and two surface restorations being in 67.1% and 23.5 %of subjects respectively. 20.3% and 23.1% of subjects required prosthesis in upper and lower jaws,respectively. Conclusion: The match-box workers in Gudiyatham, suffer from the common dental diseases likedental caries and periodontal diseases. As observed in the present study the working environment does notseem to have an effect on their oral health.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  827 101 -
A study to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices towards oral health among Anganwadi Workers of Mysore City
K Poornima, CVK Reddy, BN Shivakumar, M Vidya
January-June 2011, 9(18):167-170
Objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practices towards oral health among Anganwadi workers. And perceived role of anganwadi workers in promoting oral health. Methodology: A total of 104 Anganwadi workers of the Mysore City, Urban were interviewed at their monthly meetings and the purpose of the study was explained. A specially designed, close ended questionnaire was used to assess their knowledge, attitude and practices towards oral health. For the purpose of analysis, an ordinal scale was developed by using Hamilton and Coulby (1991) formula. Results: Only 16.7% of Anganwadi workers had good knowledge, 51% had a favourable attitude towards oral health. A majority i.e. 94.1% of the workers were using tooth brush and paste. Only 18% of the workers were brushing twice daily and 60% of the workers had gone for dental consultation. Conclusion: Since, the subject of oral health is not included in the training curriculum, the Anganwadi workers lack knowledge about oral health. There is a real need to educate them on oral health in order to reach children at an early and receptive age.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  793 134 -
Assessment of oral health status and treatment needs in institutionalized elderly in Bengaluru City
KF Imran Mohammed Khan, TL Ravishankar, MR Shankar Aradhya
January-June 2011, 9(18):26-31
Objectives: To determine the oral health status and treatment needs of the Institutionalized elderly people of Bangalore city and to suggest plan to meet their treatment needs. Methods: All the elderly people from 52 old age homes of Bangalore were Clinical examined by criteria describe by WHO basic oral health survey 1997. A total of 1536 elderly population were examined with the age ranged from 65 to 96 years. Results: Total of 1536 elderly people was examined, their mean age for females 77.7 ± 7.22 yrs and for males 75.7 yrs ± 5.24 yrs. Subjects with gingival bleeding and calculus were 28.13% and 26.11%. Percentage of inmates with highest loss of attachment of 6-8 mm was in 17.60%, followed by 4-5 mm in 11.60%. More than 37% of the elderly people require some form of periodontal treatment and the total Mean DMFT per person was found to be 22.8. With respect to prosthetic status Number and percentage of subjects with full prosthesis were 7.3% in upper and 13.7% in lower jaw, partial denture were seen in 12.43% of upper and 12.83% in lower jaw, With respect to Prosthetic Needs Number and percentage of subjects requiring both upper and lower full prosthesis were 23.6% elderly people. Conclusion: The oral health of institutionalized elderly people in Bangalore is poor. Special training of dentists and caregivers who work in old age homes, and development of special care programmes must be evolved.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  807 119 -
Sugar consumption and dental caries experience in 12 and 15 year old children in Chennai
Akila Ganesh, Navin Anand Ingle, Preetha Elizabeth Chaly, Chandrasekhara Reddy
October 2011, 9(18):462-473
Dental caries is a very frequent oral disease and continues to be the most common infectious diseaseof childhood. Aim: To assess the dental caries experience and frequency of sugar consumption and to correlatethe relationship between the two factors in 12 and 15 year old children in Chennai. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional epidemiological study was conducted among 12 and 15year old children in Chennai. A 24 hour diet recall and the WHO 1997 dentition status and treatmentneeds were recorded. The sweet score was calculated based on the information from the diet chart. Results: Mean DMFT of the sample was 1.08. Overall prevalence of dental caries was 45.6%. Morethan 50%(906) children were caries free.249(15.6%) and 224(14%) had one and two carious lesionsrespectively. Only 46(2.9%) of children had no sugar exposures per day. Majority, 517(32.3%) had twosugar exposures per day. Sweet score was excellent in 270(16.9%) subjects, with a majority, 1001(62.6%)in the 'Watch out zone'. There was positive correlation between DMFT and the frequency of sugarexposures per day and sweet score with a statistically significant association between DMFT and frequencyof sugar exposures per day. Conclusion: As parents and schoolteachers are important informants in oral health of the children,their involvement should be considered in planning oral health education for children. The school mayserve as an effective platform for promotion of oral health in relation to children as well as families.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  819 106 -
Fluoride biomarkers - A review (Part - I)
Shilpa Gunjal, Santosh B Sakri, MM Rachappa, Triveni M Nalawade, GS Deepak Pateel
October 2011, 9(18):384-388
A biomarker is in general a substance used as an indicator of a biological state. The term biomarkerhas entered the epidemiological and environmental vocabulary as a short form for biological marker orbiochemical marker. It is a characteristic that can be objectively measured and evaluated as an indicatorof normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeuticintervention. A biomarker can also be used to indicate exposure to various environmental substances inepidemiology and toxicology.Fluoride is believed to be a major factor in the substantial decline in dental caries in the permanentdentition in many countries over the last several decades. It is also associated with dental fluorosis andhas potential health risks such as bone fragility if consumed in excessive amounts. A fluoride biomarkercan provide a cumulative record of exposures from birth and provide valid and reliable estimates of fluorideexposure amounts.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  807 108 -
Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding bioterrorism amongst the medical and dental interns in Dr. D.Y.patil Deemed University - A questionnaire study
Amit Chaudhari, Sahana Hegde Shetiya, Pradnya Kakodkar, Ravi Shirahatti
January-June 2011, 9(18):94-99
Aim/objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) regarding bioterrorism amongst the medical and dental interns of Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical and Dental College, Deemed University, Pune, Maharashtra (India). Materials and methods: A cross sectional study with validated self administered questionnaire was conducted amongst dental interns (n = 71) and medical interns (n = 64), who were present on the day of the survey. Pre-testing and internal consistency of the questionnaire was measured. Statistical analysis was done using chi-square test. Results: Almost 75% of medical and dental interns were aware of bioterrorism. But 87% of dental and 40% of medical interns were unaware of the highest priority pathogens, and 87% of dental and 59% of medical interns believed that dentists do have a role to play during bioterror attack. Conclusion: Medical interns had better knowledge, attitude and practice as compared to dental interns. But syllabi for both faculties are insufficient to provide basic information regarding bioterrorism. Hence there is need for curriculum reform as well as need for new training courses on preparedness against bioterrorism.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  796 117 -
Comparision of caries preventive effect of fluoride varnish and fluoride containing mouth rinse in 12-14 year old government school children in Bengaluru City - 18 month study
SS Hiremath, Gurmukh Singh
January-June 2011, 9(18):43-53
Back Ground and Objectives: Fluoride has been the corner stone and integral part of the preventive programs worldwide. The present study was undertaken with the objective to assess caries preventive effect, feasibility and cost of fluoride varnish and fluoride mouth rinse programs for preventing dental caries. Methods: 228 children in age group of 12 to 14 year were selected and are randomized in to three groups. Group 1 (77 children)-receiving fluoride varnish and placebo mouth rinse, Group 2 (75 children) - receiving fluoride mouth rinse and placebo varnish and Group 3 (76 children) - Control group. A double blind design was adopted. Caries diagnostic criteria given by Nyvad and Colleagues (1999) was adopted and caries was diagnosed clinically at both cavitated and non-cavitated lesion at 6 months, 12months and 18 months. Results: Fluoride varnish has an efficacy value of 33.26% where as efficacy of mouth rinse is 31.51% along with an increment of 13.7%DMFS in control group at the end of 18 months. A total of 66.86% (113/169) initial lesions in the varnish group and 66.25% (108/163) of the lesions in mouth rinse group healed at eighteen months compared to baseline. A total of 1.46 and 1.44 surfaces are saved per child in terms of noncavitated lesions at 18 months. There is substantial saving of costs in varnish group i.e four times than the conventional restorative treatment. Interpretation and Conclusion: Fluoride varnish and fluoride varnish are effective practical, feasible and cost saving procedures at primary health care level in school settings.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  800 111 -
Effect of short oral health education intervention on oral hygiene of 8-10 years old school children, Maduravoyal, Chennai
Navin Anand Ingle, V Chandrasekhara Reddy, Preetha Elizabeth Chaly, V Indra Priyadarshni
October 2011, 9(18):321-327
Introduction: The goal of health education is to improve knowledge, which may lead to the adoption of favourable oral health behaviours that contribute to better oral health. It is surprising that many oral health education programmes are not implemented as early as primary school children. Aim: To assess the effect of short term oral health education on oral hygiene status of 8-10yr old school children in Maduravoyal, Chennai. Material and methods: A community interventional trial was conducted. After the collection of the baseline data on oral hygiene status by Plaque Control Record (O' Leary T, Drake R, Naylor, 1972) (PCR %) a short computer based oral health education for 20 minutes was given to total of 120 students belonging to the third, fourth and fifth standard in this school. One month after the first visit, follow-up PCR% was taken. Results: A total of 117 students participated in this study in which 51(43.5%) were males and 66(56.5%) were females. Four weeks after the oral health education, children's PCR % changed from 90.59% to 82.76%, which was statistically very highly significant (p=.000). The difference in mean baseline PCR % for males and for females was statistically significant (p=.03). The difference in mean baseline and follow-up PCR% for males and for females was statistically significant (p=.03 and p=.04 respectively). Conclusion: Therefore it can be concluded that a single short education intervention is effective in bringing about oral health related behaviour change.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  781 124 -
Trace elements and oral health
Rekha PShenoy, K Prashanth Shenai
October 2011, 9(18):607-613
Trace elements are those which are present in only minute quantities in animal tissues, regardless of their abundance in nature. They influence susceptibility to oral diseases either by altering the resistance of the tooth itself or by modifying the local environment in the oral cavity. Trace elements also form an essential part of the cellular defense mechanisms against oxidative damage to the DNA. Nutritional guidance is one of the very important components of preventive dentistry today. Proper nutrition is important not only for the formation of sound teeth but also for the maintenance of oral health. Dietary recommendations made to aid in the control of oral disease are simultaneously optimal recommendations for improving general health.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  788 112 -
Dentition status and treatment needs among 12 and 15 year old school going children of Udaipur City, Rajasthan
Swati Sharma, Shivalingesh , Srinath Shetty
January-June 2011, 9(18):16-21
Dental Caries is an important public health problem. Its high morbidity potential has brought this disease into the focus of dental health professionals. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and treatment needs among 12 and 15 year old school going children of Udaipur city, Rajasthan, India. Methodology: The study population consisted of 1000 school children of both sexes (495, 12 year old & 505, 15 year old). A simple random sampling method was used to select the schools. Dental Caries was assessed using Dentition Status and Treatment Needs described by WHO (1997). Results: The prevalence of dental caries was 26.22 % among 12 year olds with 26.22% for males (mean DMFT = 1.79) and 18.51% for females (mean DMFT = 1.41) .In 15 year old children,caries prevalence was 30.80%, with 35.59% for males (mean DMFT = 2.08) and 26.02% for females (mean DMFT = 1.84). The evaluation of the treatment need revealed that the greatest need was for one surface filling followed by two or more surface fillings. Conclusion: It may be concluded that provision of oral health education in the schools and school based preventive programmes may thus help to reduce further caries prevalence in this state.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  780 105 -
Reasons for choosing dentistry as a career: A study involving dental students in V.M.S. Dental College, Salem
N Saravanan, R Thiruneervannan
October 2011, 9(18):412-419
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify reasons for choosing dentistry as a career and to consider the factors that had influenced their decision among dental students in V.M.S. Dental College, Salem. Materials and Methods: A self-completion Questionnaire which was distributed among both undergraduates and postgraduates dental students. Answers were then analyzed to find differences between the groups. Results: A total of 405 dental students were participated in the present study. Among the study population, only 74 (18%) of them from Dentistry background. about 231 (57%) of them choosing dentistry because of their own interest and 93 (23%) of them choosing dentistry because of unavailability of other courses. after completion of the course about 213 (53%) have opted for higher education, followed by 127 (31%) for private practice. To start practice 306 (75%) of them choose urban and 99 (25%) ) of them choose rural area. about 176 (43%) opted for private practice, after their graduation they interested to go abroad for further studies about 154 (38%) and182 (45%) for further practice. Among the study population, if they not dentist, 245 (60.5%) of them have opted professional course and 39 (9.7%) of them like to do business. About 320 (79%) of them consider dentistry as mainstream career. About 273 (67.5%) of them will suggest others to join dentistry. About192 (47%) of them think that dentistry suits both male and female. According to their post graduate subject choice 88 (22%) of them are interested in oral pathology, 78 (20%) of them are interested in oral surgery and oral medicine, equally. Among the study population74 (18%) of them say that scope of dentistry is excellent in India and 189 (47%) of them consider good scope.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  782 102 -
Difference in oral health and oral health behavior between individuals with high and low dental fear
Sudhanshu Saxena, Vrinda Saxena, Ajay Bhambal
October 2011, 9(18):436-439
Background: Numerous studies have demonstrated that dental fear is associated with poorer dental visiting, deteriorated oral health, low quality of life, and low self esteem. Objectives: (1) To assess the prevalence of dental fear among Indian adults (2) To explore the differences in oral health, oral hygiene and dental visit habits between individuals with high and low dental fear. Materials and Methods: A total of 2000 individuals aged 21 years and above were invited to participate in the study. The method of data collection comprised clinical measurements and self administered questionnaire. Dental fear was measured using the Corah dental anxiety scale. Oral health status was assessed by Simplified Oral Hygiene Index, Decayed, Missing, Filled teeth and; Filled and Sound teeth. Data was statistically analyzed by Student's t tests, Chi-square tests, and multivariate analysis. P value was considered statistically significant. Results: The percentage of individuals with high dental fear varied between from 3.9% to 7.8%. Dental fear had significant effect on filled and sound teeth when adjusted for the other variables. Conclusion: Dental fear is one part of the process determining oral health in different age groups. There is a need to identify and effectively tackle dental fear as an important step in improving oral health of the population.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  764 118 -
Prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs among 5-10 year old school children in Kadapa Mandal, Andhra Pradesh
KV VijayKumar, P Suresh, M Chandra Sekhar, R Vijaykumar
October 2011, 9(18):328-332
Objective: To obtain information on caries prevalence and treatment needs of children aged 5-10 years to plan appropriate dental care services. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 750 primary school children aged 5-10 years in the areas of Kadapa mandal, YSR district, Andhrapradesh. The study population was obtained by "cluster random sampling" of children from eight primary schools. Dental caries was assessed using diagnostic criteria recommended by WHO (1997). The chi-square test and two-way analysis of variance were used for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 750, 5-10 year old children were examined (369 boys and 381 girls). The prevalence of caries in primary dentition was 77.7% and in permanent dentition it was 35.1%. The mean dmft and decayed missing filted tooth (DMFT) scores were 1.27 and 0.78 respectively. Although the mean dmft scores were not statistically significant different for the two sexes, the mean DMFT score was found to be higher among girls than among boys. There was a strong need for single surface restorations (62%). Conclusion: The results of this baseline study revealed that dental caries is a major public health problem in this population and implementation of an active and effective program of comprehensive dental care is necessary to achieve optimal dental health in child population.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  777 104 -
A randomized, parallel study to evaluate the effect of three different bristle design of manual toothbrushes on plaque removal
Simarpreet Singh, Dolar Dosh, Peter Sequeira, N Anup
January-June 2011, 9(18):203-207
Purpose: To evaluate the effect of three different bristle designs (Zig-zag, Wavy, Flat-trim) of manual toothbrushes on plaque removal. Materials and Methods: The study was an investigator-blind, randomized three-visit parallel design study for 12 weeks. Three different types of commercially available manual toothbrushes with different pattern of bristle arrangement (Flat-Trim, Wavy pattern and Zig-Zag) were selected. 30 subjects were allotted in each group. The plaque was examined using Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman modification of the Quigley Hein plaque index. Plaque score were recorded at baseline and follow-up was done at 6 weeks and 12 weeks. The Mean Plaque Score (MPI) was determined for each subject. p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The baseline mean plaque scores were balanced between all the three groups with the mean score slightly higher in Group B (2.32 ΁ 0.32). Compared to the baseline scores, at the end of 6 weeks and 12 weeks, a significant reduction in the mean plaque scores was observed for all the three groups (p = 0.000). However, though there was a reduction in the mean plaque scores from 6 to 12 weeks, the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that all the three different bristle design of manual toothbrushes significantly reduced the plaque scores from baseline scores yet no significant differences were observed between the three groups
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  785 94 -
Travel and treatment: Dental tourism in India
Mohit Bansal, Nidhi Gupta, Nanak Chand Rao
January-June 2011, 9(18):261-262
Tourism and medicine have become synonymous in India. The latest one to join the bandwagon is our line of talented dentists. Holidaying in India has become all the more relaxing as the tourists are set to get a perfect smile, all at a much lower cost than other countries. Though dental tourism has a number of benefits, increased patient mobility comes with numerous risks. Inexpensive cost and quality care plays an important role in seeking dental care outside their local healthcare systems.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  776 96 -
Oral health related quality of life in pregnancy: A systematic review
M Pramila, Aditi Verma, Archana Krishna Murty, S Ranganath, Pallavi V Jugale
January-June 2011, 9(18):198-202
This study was conducted in order to identify the literature on pregnancy & oral health related quality of life, review the findings systematically, and assess the association between them. A literature search was performed of reports published till date, using three databases including Pubmed/ Medline & Cochrane library. Only studies that have assessed oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) in pregnancy with six validated generic OHRQoL instruments were selected. The reviewers evaluated selected articles independently and selected articles respectively with agreement out of 45 articles. All the four were cross-sectional studies, selected for review showed a significant impact of pregnancy on OHRQoL. Observational studies were concerned mainly with the number of permanent teeth, use and type of prosthesis, presence of untreated carious lesions, oral pain, periodontal health and gingivitis. Painful mouth, difficulty in eating, oral pain, cleaning teeth, bleeding gums contributed to reduce OHRQoL during pregnancy. Assessment of OHRQoL in pregnancy with validated instruments remains insufficient. The present findings suggest that pregnancy could affect OHRQoL in some settings, however further evidence is needed to support this interpretation.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  771 96 -
Prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs among 12 - 15 years old school children of Maduravoyal Area, Chennai
Chandrasekhara Reddy, S Hema Priya, Preetha Elizabeth Chaly, Navin Anand Ingle
October 2011, 9(18):591-598
Introduction: Malocclusion is as an occlusion in which there is a malrelationship between the archesin any of the planes or in which there are anomalies in tooth position beyond the normal limits. Aim and Objectives: To assess the prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needsamong 12 - 15 years old school children of Maduravoyal area, Chennai and to assess the relationshipbetween the oral habits and malocclusion. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 300 school children aged12 to 15 years and data was recorded using Dental Aesthetic Index and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Overall prevalence of Malocclusion was 73.7%. 26.3% had no abnormality, 36.7% haddefinite malocclusion, 27.7% had severe malocclusion, 9.3% had handicapping malocclusion. Thumbsucking and Tongue thrusting habit had a significant association with maxillary overjet and openbite. Conclusion: Oral habits if persist beyond the preschool age is commonly associated with thedevelopment of malocclusion.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  777 89 -
A comparative evaluation of different types of mechanical aids used for tongue cleaning
GV Jagannath, Sabyasachi Saha, S Sahana, Sanjay Kumar Singh
January-June 2011, 9(18):79-83
Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of different aids for tongue cleaning- Tongue scraper, Tooth brush, Back side of tooth brush head and Neem stick. Materials and methods: It is a double blind randomized clinical trial, in which 120 volunteers (paramedical students) were selected for the study and randomly allocated into 4 groups. The supervised tongue cleaning was done in the department. Before and after cleaning, the scores were recorded by a calibrated examiner according to Lee tongue coating index. Results: All the groups using tongue cleaning materials showed a significant reduction in tongue coating. The tongue cleaning efficacy was most in TS group followed by TB group, NS group and least was in BTB group. In inter group comparison there was no significant difference between the post scores of TB group and NS group. All the other differences were highly significant. Conclusion: All the materials used in the study to clean the tongue removed the tongue coating to a significant level and so might be helpful in reducing oral malodor.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  774 90 -
A tutorial on logistic regression in dentistry
Ramya Shenoy, Harsh Priya
October 2011, 9(18):337-339
The present paper introduces the application of binary logistic regression to data pertaining to dentistry for use in publishing article. This article provides a brief overview of the type of logistic regression tests that are available to analyze research data and determine association and predict the model of concern in detail.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  760 101 -
A tobacco free initiative - Milestone towards tobacco free Nation
Vrinda Saxena, Ajay Bhambal, Naveen Singh Yadav, S Sahana, G Shanti, Amrit P Kaur
October 2011, 9(18):340-344
Background: Tobacco use is one of the major challenges to public health today. Globally dentists acknowledge that helping tobacco users to quit the habit is a part of professional responsibility. With the above objective we opened Tobacco Cessation Clinic (TCC) in Department of Community Dentistry, People's College of Dental Sciences, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. This paper reflects the one year data of individual visiting our TCC and provides a platform for greater commitment of dentists in tobacco control initiation including advocacy and cessation program. Aims and Objectives: 1. To assess the prevalence and forms of tobacco use among patients visiting People?s College of Dental Sciences and Research centre, Bhopal. 2. To guide them to refrain from tobacco habit by orientation and regular re-enforcement. 3. Recommendation for tobacco free environment. Methodology: All the patients and accompanying persons visiting Tobacco Cessation Clinic from 1st June 2007 to 1st June 2008, addicted to tobacco use in any form were included in the study. A pretested proforma including oral examination was used for data collection. Results: Majority of subjects were male and in 21-30 years of age. Out of 146 subjects, only 5.47% subjects were refrained from tobacco habit, majority of them (49.31%) were totally unmotivated. Conclusion: The statistical data of Tobacco Cessation Clinic represents the overview of tobacco related health problems & use of tobacco within Bhopal district. There is a need for capacity building for smoking cessation and treatment of tobacco dependence.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  759 102 -
Oral hygiene and dental caries status among the residents of observation homes, Vadodara District, Gujarat
CG Ajithkrishnan, K Thanveer, Harsh G Shah
January-June 2011, 9(18):12-15
Background: There have been relatively few investigations of oral conditions of deprived children. Studies have noted that deprived children have higher level of caries and lower level of care. Objective: To assess the dental caries and oral hygiene status among the residents of observation home. To provide baseline data for developing dental health programmes to be implemented in future course. Method: A cross sectional survey was conducted on a sample of 86 residents of observation home. Specially designed proforma was used to collect the data about oral hygiene and Dental caries by using OHI-S and DMFT index, Results: 49.54% participants had decayed tooth and none of the subjects had filled teeth. Oral hygiene was found to be good. Conclusion: Results of the study are quite alarming. Immediate intervention is recommended for this group of children. Efforts must be made to encourage the authorities of observation home to promote and improve their oral health.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  757 104 -
Oral health knowledge, attitude, practices and oral hygiene status of factory workers
M Raj Kumar, Preetha Elizabeth Chaly, V Chandrasekhara Reddy, Navin Anand Ingle
October 2011, 9(18):541-548
Aim: To assess the knowledge, attitude, practices and oral hygiene status of match-box factoryworkers in Gudiyatham taluk of Vellore District, Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: The survey was conducted among the match-box factory workers inGudiyatham taluk of Vellore district. Following the pilot study, the sample size of 948 match-box factoryworkers was needed for this study. The cluster sampling methodology was used to select the samples. Theclusters (match-box factories) were randomly selected one after the other to get the required sample size.The sources of data were primary, which consisted of a clinical examination to assess the level of oralhygiene (Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified) and a questionnaire on oral health knowledge, attitude andpractices. Results: 42.9% perceived the appearance of their teeth to be good. 48.3% visited a dentist only whenthere is pain / discomfort. 82% stated that they brush their teeth once daily and around 16% have thehabit of consuming tobacco in some form. Among the study subjects 74.7% had fair oral hygiene, 24.9%had good oral hygiene and 0.4% had poor oral hygiene. Conclusion: There is a need for improvement in the oral health knowledge, attitude, practices amongthe match-box factory workers which could be brought about with the help of health education by dentistand primary health care workers. It has also been observed that the level of oral hygiene was fair amongmajority of the match-box factory workers.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  762 99 -
Prevalence of dental caries among 3-17 year old children studying in various government and private schools at Chandigarh
Abhishek Mehta, Jyoti Gupta, Sumati Bhalla, Rosy Arora, Ikreet Singh Bal
January-June 2011, 9(18):89-93
Oral health is an integral part of overall health and general well being. Untreated oral disease in children frequently leads to serious general health problems, significant pain, and interference with eating as well as lost school time. To plan for the optimum dental care facilities, it is essential to have a baseline data about the gravity of the problem in the existing system. The dental caries experience varies greatly among countries, even within a country and from region to region. In India, several studies have been carried out in the past on prevalence of dental caries and the treatment needs of varied populations. In the present study we have made an attempt to assess and compare the caries experience among government and private sector school going children in Chandigarh region.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  772 84 -
Contamination of aprons and protective effect of mouth masks of dental students in clinical setting
V Chandrasekhara Reddy, Navin Anand Ingle, Preetha Elizabeth Chaly, V Indra Priyadarshni
October 2011, 9(18):508-513
Introduction: The personal protective equipments like Doctor's apron & Mouth mask can serve asa potential source of cross-contamination. Aim: To assess the risk of spread of nosocomial infections from contaminated aprons and protectionprovided by face masks of dental post-graduate students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 25 Post-graduate students who were givendisposable surgical sterile aprons and masks at the starting of the working day (9.00 am) and asked tocontinue their regular clinical work. A mannikin which served as a control for protective effect of maskswas placed at a position opposite (2 'o' clock position) to the operator. After an exposure of 5 hours at2 pm, swabs were collected from chest area and sleeve cuff area of the aprons, inside and outside surfaceof masks worn by operator and manikin. Total CFU and the presence of potentially pathogenic andnon-pathogenic bacteria were done. Results: The mean CFU present in the chest area was more than sleeve area and high in the insidesurface of mask worn by post-graduate student and Manikin. The difference of mean CFU between insideand outside surface of manikin's mask was not significant, that is CFU is almost equal inside and outsideof the mask which indicates masks as not efficient filters of bacterial aerosols. Both gram positive &negative organism were isolated. Conclusion: The aprons are potential source of cross infection in dental setting and commonly usedmasks were found to be the least adequate filters of bacterial aerosols.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  757 97 -
Patient satisfaction with community and salaried dental services provided at the tower hamlets primary health care trust, London
DVR Raju, Nicola Pearson, B Srikanth Reddy
October 2011, 9(18):374-379
Objective: To determine the views, experiences and level of satisfaction with services provided by the Community and Salaried Dental Services of Tower Hamlets Primary Health Care Trust, London. Materials & Methods: A questionnaire survey was carried out to assess the patient satisfaction. The first part covered access and availability of care, and was further subdivided into four sub-groups with ten questions each. The second part dealt with aspects of care and had three sub-groups. The third section was about the overall satisfaction. The final section covered questions about demography, age, gender & ethnic group. Data was analyzed using SPSS software. Results: A total of 241 respondents participated in the study. Mean age of the study population was 36.61 years. 211 (87.5%) respondents found it to be easy to contact the dental surgery by telephone. Forty five respondents (18.6%) felt that it was difficult to get an appointment with the dentist of their choice. 198 (82.1%) respondents felt that receptionist explained things clearly to them. The principal reason for attending the clinic is 'attended clinic in the past', the convenient location i.e. 'nearest dental clinic' and thirdly referred by a 'health care professional'. 213 (88.3%) respondents felt that the dentist is sensitive to their needs. 218 (90.4%) felt that all the options were explained when decisions were made about their treatment. 231 (95.8%) respondents felt their dentist was skilled enough with their dental problems. 226 (93.7%) respondents indicated that they would use the dental clinic again, Conclusion: Though, the study has an overall satisfaction result, there were some comments by the patients, which might help to improve the existing system, and base the future policy decisions of the trust.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  771 81 -
Art and science of questionnaire development
K Pushpanjali, Renuka Piddennavar, Malu Mohan
January-June 2011, 9(18):154-158
Research process comprises of various steps in which the method of data collection is one of the important steps in the research process. Questionnaire is the frequently used tool in surveys for data collection. The two issues one has to consider in research are the accuracy and practicality. Basic steps involved in questionnaire development are listing the key variables, deciding on the information required, determining the sequence of questions, determining the types of questions, presenting and pretesting the questionnaire. Questionnaire development is both an art and a science. Presentation and layout forms the art part of questionnaire; formulating questions, sequencing questions and pretesting forms the science part of the questionnaire. To be a successful tool, researcher has to follow all above mentioned steps diligently followed by pretesting of questionnaire. Pretesting involves checking reliability, validity and practicality. Revisions are made accordingly before administering tool in main study.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  757 95 -
Oral health related quality of life among children with parents and those with no parents
Akanksha Goyal, Ashish Sharma, Sopan Singh, Rahul Patel
October 2011, 9(18):501-507
Objectives: To compare the oral health related quality of life (OHQRoL) and caries status betweenschool children living with their parents and orphan children and to assess the factors that influence theoral health related quality of life. Methods: Study sample consisted of 279 school children living with their parents and 257 orphanchildren thus making a total sample of 536 school children. Sampling frame comprised of 12-15 years oldchildren attending two upper primary public schools and two special schools for orphan children at Udaipur,India. Clinical examination for caries status and personal interviews on oral health related quality of lifewere conducted by a single trained and calibrated examiner. Results: Children without parents presented poor scores for OHQRoL items and a higher cariesexperience as compared to those having parents. Caries status was significantly related to OHRQoL andits domains. Subjects with no caries reported the good OHRQoL which deteriorated as the caries scoreincreased. Children who never visited dentist reported poorer OHRQoL than regular visitors and malesexperienced better oral health quality of life than females. Only two items of the five variables enteredthe step wise linear regression analysis and were responsible for a variance of 21.3% for OHRQoL (table3), however DMFT constituted the first best predictor which solely explained a variance 15.8%. @ABSTXT= Conclusions: Oral health related quality of life along with its domains differed significantly betweenchildren with and without parents. Furthermore, gender, dental visiting habits and caries status significantlyinfluenced the oral health quality of life.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  760 89 -
Journal club: A step towards evidence based practice
Anil V Ankola, Mamata Hebbal, Ratika
January-June 2011, 9(18):84-88
A Journal Club is a group of individuals who meet regularly to critically evaluate recent articles in scientific literature. Journal clubs are usually organized around a defined subject in basic or applied research. The general purpose of a journal club is to facilitate the review of a specific research study and to discuss implications of the study for clinical practice. There are many advantages of participating in a journal club, including keeping abreast of new knowledge, promoting awareness of current nursing research findings, learning to critique and appraise research, becoming familiar with the best current clinical research, and encouraging research utilization. Several factors are key in promoting a successful journal club, including promoting interest, attendance, and involvement. The value of a journal club is that it can promote a better understanding of the research process and an improved ability to critically appraise research
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  759 89 -
Dental erosion: Prevalence, determinants and management strategies
Ajay Bhambal, Sudhanshu Saxena, Vrinda Saxena, G Shanthi
October 2011, 9(18):364-373
Dental erosion has been defined as loss of tooth structure by chemical means that does not involve bacteria. Dental erosion is a condition of growing concern in the dental profession as it causes irreversible damage to the dentition. The aetiology of erosion is multifactorial and related to various chemical, life style and behavioural; and biological factors. To prevent further progression, it is important to detect this condition as early as possible. Dentists ought to know the clinical appearance, possible signs and symptoms of progression of erosive lesions and their causes so that adequate preventive and, if necessary, restorative measures can be initiated. However, many times it is difficult to differentiate from attrition and abrasion. The aim of this paper has been to review the past and current literature on prevalence, determinants and management of dental erosion.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  738 105 -
Prevalence of deciduous tooth wear in 5-10 year old school children in Lucknow and its relationship with potential explanatory factors - A cross sectional study
Sahana Shivkumar, Sabyasachi Saha, GV Jagannath, Ashish Choudhary
January-June 2011, 9(18):32-35
Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of deciduous tooth wear in 5-10 year old school children in Lucknow and its relationship with potential explanatory factors. Materials and Methods: A random sample of 210 children (5-10 years old) of Lucknow city was selected. Clinical examinations were carried out by one examiner, using Tooth Wear Index of Smith & Knight, 1984. A questionnaire addressing the etiological factors of tooth wear was applied to parents. Results: Wear on the Cuspids was diagnosed in 52% of the children; 34% presented wear in Molars and 14% in Incisors. A significant correlation was observed between consumption of beverages and occurrence of Tooth Wear (Chi-square test, p = 0.018). Conclusion: Tooth Wear was found in 81% of children. Wear on Enamel was highest, followed by Dentine, which was significant in children having carbonated drinks, children using hard bristled toothbrush and children exhibiting nail biting habit.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  748 89 -
Prevalence and treatment needs of dental caries among 12 and 15 years old school going children in Lucknow City
Shivanjali Grover, P Anuradha
January-June 2011, 9(18):105-111
Aim: The present study has been done with the aim to assess the prevalence and treatment needs of dental caries among 12 and 15 years old school going children in Lucknow city. Materials and Method: Total sample of 1040 children was randomly selected for the study. A total of 20 schools were selected by lottery method for the study. WHO proforma (1997) was used to examine the children. Results: The prevalence of dental caries in 12 years old children was 57.7% and in 15 years old children was 48.5%. The treatment needs assessed were 48.2% females and 52.1% males amongst 12 years required one surface filling and amongst 15 years 43.2% females and 48.2% males required one surface filling. Conclusion: As it was seen the prevalence of dental caries was high in the school going children of Lucknow city. Thus the need to impart knowledge about maintaining of oral hygiene is very important.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  739 98 -
An analysis of tooth size, arch length and palatal rugae pattern in monozygotic and dizygotic twins - A comparative study
S Aparna, M Shivakumar, PD Madan Kumar
October 2011, 9(18):496-500
Introduction: A twin is defined as one of two offspring born at the same birth. If a particular traitis correlated highly between monozygotic twins and less correlated between dizygotic twins, then there isa genetic contribution to variation on that particular trait. Aim and Objective: To analyse the tooth size, arch length and palatal rugae pattern in monozygoticand dizygotic twins and to compare these dental traits between the monozygotic co-twins and the dizygoticco-twins. Materials and Methods: The maximum mesiodistal and buccolingual dimensions of the crowns of28 permanent teeth, first incisor through second molar in each quadrant, of 9 pairs of monozygotic twinsand 21 pairs of dizygotic twins were recorded using calipers calibrated to 0.01 mm. The maxillary andmandibular arch length were determined by drawing a line from a point midway to the central incisorsperpendicular to the tangent touching the distal surfaces of the first permanent molars. The method ofrugae identification was based on the classification of Thomas et at (1983). This classification in includesnumber, length, shape and unification of rugae. Results: The monozygotic (MZ) twins showed greater correlation with respect to MesiodistalDimension MD (r = 0.928). Buccolingual Dimension BD (r = 0.904), maxillary arch length (r= 0.744),mandibular arch length (r=0.878), left rugae (r = 0.49) and right rugae (r = 0.592) than the dizygotic (DZ)twins. Conclusion: The remarkable similarity in the tooth size, arch length and palatal rugae pattern ofmonozygotic twins suggests a strong inheritability factor and that these may be useful as additional toolsfor zygosity determination along with other dental traits.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  751 86 -
Prevalence and reasons for tooth mortality - A hospital based study
JV Bharateesh, H Mythri, Darshana Bennadi
October 2011, 9(18):380-383
Background: Tooth loss is of major concern which can greatly affect the quality of life. As suchno data is available about prevalence of tooth mortality among Tumkur population; the present study wasconducted with the objective to know the prevalence and common reasons for tooth mortality. Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted for a period of one month among individualsaged 15-50yrs, reporting to the Out Patient Department of Sri Siddhartha Dental College & Hospital,Tumkur. Subjects were assessed by a combination of a questionnaire and clinical examination (Type III). Results: Prevalence of tooth loss in the study population was 32.43% with mean number of toothloss at 3.2"3.8. Socio-behavioural factors had significant influence on tooth loss. Among the reasons fortooth loss, dental caries accounted for 78.26% followed by periodontal disease. Ignorance (53%) andunawareness (28%) were the most common reasons for not saving the tooth. Conclusion: Tooth loss is a major dental health concern. Dental caries and periodontal disease werefound to be as a major cause for tooth mortality. Ignorance towards dental health was an important reasonfor tooth mortality, hence steps should be put forth to eliminate this darkness through oral health educationand preventive programmes on a larger scale.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  739 97 -
Prevalence of dental caries among 21-60 years-olds in Rural Punjab and its relationship to their oral hygiene and life style habits
Satpreet Singh, Rabinder Kaur, Sunil Chadha, Gurpreet Singh
October 2011, 9(18):447-451
Objective: Dental caries is among the most common dental problems affecting humans. The present study was aimed to assess the prevalence of dental caries in rural population in different age groups and their awareness about the general dental health. Methods: The current study was conducted on 251 subjects in the age groups of 21-30 years, 31-40 years and 41-60 years from the rural areas in the state of Punjab, India. Dental examination was performed and subjects were asked a questionnaire and the data was recorded and analyzed for the role of different factors in the occurrence of dental caries including dietary habit. Results: Caries prevalence (DMFT>0) was 76.36% in 21-30 years, 86.84% in 31-40 years and 87.69% in 41-60 years age groups. The number of decaying teeth was significantly higher than missing or filled teeth. Conclusions: A very high DMFT score was observed in these people from rural Punjab with number of decayed teeth significantly higher than missing and filled teeth thus indicating the lack of awareness about dental health in this group. A significant relationship was observed between dental caries and oral hygiene habits.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  768 68 -
Attitudes of staff to sounds of music in the operating room in hospitals of Delhi
Sumanth Prasad, Chandan Dhingra
October 2011, 9(18):389-395
Background: For many years doctors have openly used background music to help them stay relaxedand focussed during surgical procedures. So, the purpose of the present study is to evaluate the influenceof music on surgeons including oral and maxillofacial surgeons, anaesthetists, nurses, assistants,postgraduate students working in the operating room. Methods: A total of 107 (male = 43, female = 64) participants were included in the study. Datawas obtained by self administered questionnaire among the personnel working in the operating room atvarious hospitals of Delhi. Results: .73% (n=78) prefer music to be played during surgical procedures. Preferences for listeningto music was found to be higher among nurses and surgeons. 71% (n=54) considered low volume of musicto be appropriate and 48% (n=51) felt that music makes them calmer. Conclusion: According to the present study, music has a positive effect on the staff working in theoperating rooms.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  747 88 -
Prevalence of various types of malocclusion and treatment needs among high school children aged between 12-15 years in Udupi Taluk, South Karnataka - An epidemiological study
Jatinder Singh, Inder Preet Kaur, Peter S Sequeira
January-June 2011, 9(18):218-225
Aim: The purpose of this study was to obtain the prevalence of malocclusion traits in school children aged between 12-15 years using IOTN index and also ascertain a specific treatment need based on its severity. Materials and Methods: Assessment of the prevalence of malocclusion and treatment need was done by the examiner using the Dental Health Component (DHC) and Aesthetic Component of IOTN index. Data was fed into the computer and analysed using the SPSS 9.0 version and the Chi-square test. Results: On the whole, 21.6% had DHC Grade 1 and "No treatment" need 31.0% had DHC Grade 2 and "Little treatment" need, 23.8% had DHC Grade 3 and "Moderate treatment" need, 21.9% had DHC 4 and "great treatment' need and 1.7% had DHC Grade 5 and "very great treatment' need.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  744 90 -
Oral health knowledge, attitude and practices among nursing students of Sumandeep Vidyapeeth, Piparia, Vadodara, Gujarat
CG Ajithkrishnan, K Thanveer, Nisarg J Chaudhary
January-June 2011, 9(18):36-39
Aim: To assess the Oral health knowledge, attitude and practices of Nursing Students of Sumandeep Vidyapeeth Piparia, Vadodara, Gujarat Material & Methods: The study population comprised of 97 under graduate Nursing students. All the nursing students of Sumandeep Vidyapeeth were included. A self designed, pre-tested, close-ended questionnaire was developed for collection of data consisting of 23 questionsregarding oral health knowledge, attitude and practice and also to assess the oral health knowledge, attitude and practices of Nursing Students. Statistical analysis was done using chi-square test and p < 0.05 was selected in describing the level of significance. Result: Nursing student's knowledge regarding oral health was57.7% while attitude and practice were 67% and 53.6% respectively.92% of nursing students had positive attitude towards incorporation of oral health information in their study course while the main source of knowledge for the 72.2% of subjects was dentist. Conclusion: Nursing student's knowledge regarding oral health was satisfactory while attitude and practice were poor.The nursing student's were moderately informed regarding various issues pertaining to oral health. However, a few deficiencies were noticed in this regards and recommendations have been suggested.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  734 94 -
Nanodentistry - An overview
MB Aswath Narayanan, SG Ramesh Kumar, D Jayanthi
January-June 2011, 9(18):278-281
Nanotechnology, also known as molecular nanotechnology or molecular engineering, is the production of functional materials and structures in the range of 0.1 to 100 nanometers-the nanoscale-by various physical or chemical methods. Today, the revolutionary development of nanotechnology has become the most highly energized discipline in science and technology. Trends in oral health and disease also may change the focus on specific diagnostic and treatment modalities. Increasingly preventive approaches will reduce the need for curative or restorative interventions. Nanodentistry will give a new visionary to comprehensive oral health care. Nanodentistry will make possible the maintenance of comprehensive oral health by employing nanomaterials, biotechnology, including tissue engineering, and ultimately, dental nanorobotics. New potential treatment opportunities in dentistry may include, local anesthesia, dentition renaturalization, permanent hypersensitivity cure, complete orthodontic realignments during a single office visit, covalently bonded diamondised enamel, and continuous oral health maintenance using mechanical dentifrobots. This science might sound like a fiction now, but nanodentistry has strong potential to revolutionize dentist to diagnose, to treat disease in future. It opens up new ways for vast, abundant research work. Nanotechnology will change dentistry, health care and human life more profoundly than other developments.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  737 89 -
Retrospective analysis of hospital records at a cancer Institute in Nellore District, Andhra Pradesh
M Pavana Sandhya, M Shanthi, Nusrath Fareed, KM Sudhir, RVS KrishnaKumar
January-June 2011, 9(18):161-166
Aim: To find out the retrospective incidence of cancer patterns at a cancer institute in Nellore District of Andhra Pradesh over a period of one year. Methodology: Retrospective analysis of hospital records was undertaken to find incidence and distribution of cancer among patients attending an cancer institute during January 2009 to December 2009. Emphasis was given to age, gender and site distribution of oral cancer. Results: A total of 2435 cases reported to the institute with various cancers with male female ratio of 1:4. Breast cancer was the most common cancer reported. Oral cancer accounted for 5.6% of all cancers. Among Oral cancers, tongue was the most common site to be involved among males and buccal mucosa among females. Conclusions: Breast cancer was most common followed by cancer of Cervix and Stomach. Oral cancer was fourth in the order of occurrence. Buccal mucosa was the most common site followed by tongue. The least common site affected with Oral cancer was lip.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  748 77 -
Oral health status and treatment needs of Lambanis in Gadag District (an epidemiological study)
C Jyothi, CVK Reddy
January-June 2011, 9(18):112-116
Background: Dental caries has afflicted man since agriculture replaced hunting and gathering. Man became more dependent on plant food. However, the prevalence of caries was considerably less in ancient times that of today. Objective: To assess the oral health status and treatment needs of Lambanis and to suggest measures for improving their oral health status. Methods: All the available population were examined in their habitat. A total of 554 Lambanis and 205 Nonlambanis. Examination was done in natural day light using mouth mirror and CPITN probe. Data was recorded in printed WHO oral health assessment form (1997) modified. Information about oral hygiene practices, diet, and habits was collected through interviews. Results: The DMFT value was 0.79 in Lambanis and 1.55 in NonLambanis. The prevalence of periodontal diseases was 56.67% and 48.29% respectively. The difference was not statistically significant (p<0.05). The Treatment needs of both Lambanis and NonLambanis are high. Oral hygiene practice followed by NonLambanis was much better than Lambanis. It is interesting to find that 18.38% of Lambani females consume alcohol, which may be due to their cultural beliefs, customs and illiteracy.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  742 81 -
Influence of academic stress on gingival inflammation and oral hygiene behavior among students in dental institution in Bengaluru
Bhumika KBadiyani, Padma K Bhat, CN Aruna
January-June 2011, 9(18):241-245
Objective: Stress adversely affects various health behaviours. Oral hygiene behaviour, however has been rarely studied in this context. The present study aims to assess the effects of academic stress on oral hygiene behavior and gingivitis. Design: In a case control design 30 pairs of dental students,each consisting of 1 student participating in a major academic exam (case) and 1 student not participating in any exams (control) were studied. Methods: A professional tooth cleaning was performed 4 weeks prior to exams for obtaining Dental plaque score and gingival scores. Immediately prior to professional tooth cleaning and on the last day of exams plaque levels Dental plaque score and gingival scores were assessed.Self reported oral hygiene behavior was assessed using a multiple-choice questionnaire. Results: No group differences were observed at the beginning of the exam period; however significant higher rates of plaque (P<0.001) and gingivitis (P<0.001) were observed in exam students as compared with controls after exams. Group difference were observed in oral hygiene behavior also. Conclusions: The study illustrates the clinical significance of effects of stress on gingival inflammation and oral hygiene behaviour.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  732 91 -
The effectiveness of tooth brushing with dentifrice containing 0.3% triclosan on gingivitis - An experimental study
GK Umashankar, MK Vanishree, M Pramila, Pallavi Jugale, Aditi Verma
November 2011, 9(18):671-674
Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of self-performed mechanical plaque control with dentifrice containing 0.3% triclosan on gingivitis on routine and short term brushing. Method: An experiment was conducted on a group of 30 subjects with dentifrice containing triclosan 0.3%. The effect of triclosan on gingival health was assessed using gingival index at base line and at 4 weeks. Results: The results showed that there was a marked improvement between gingival health and short term use of triclosan dentifrice with mean gingival score of 1.45 + 0.26 at base line and 1.30 + 0.28 at 4 weeks period. Conclusion: It was observed that the use of triclosan 0.3% dentifrice in routine tooth brushing improves gingival health.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  754 69 -
Nanodentistry - An evolving modernistic technology
Benley George
October 2011, 9(18):431-435
Nanotechnology has brought about a revolution in medical and dental care. The application of nanotechnology in dentistry has created tremendous effects in dental care. The incorporation of nanotechnology in dental materials has drastically improved the properties of these materials. Nanodentistry could result in a simplified local anesthesia procedure, dentition renaturalization, permanent hypersensitivity cure, complete orthodontic realignments during a single office visit, covalently bonded diamondised enamel and oral prophylaxis using mechanical dental nanorobots. Nanodentistry would play a vital role in dental treatment worldwide in the near future.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  720 102 -
Prevalence of oral submucous fibrosis among people in Periurban Areas of Lucknow City, U.P.
P Anuradha, Gaurav Mishra
January-June 2011, 9(18):121-130
Objectives: The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of oral submucous fibrosis among people in periurban areas in the city of Lucknow, aged 15 years and above. Material & Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted to access the prevalence of oral submucous fibrosis in peri-urban areas of Lucknow city, among 1000 subjects using a multistage random sampling technique. Subjects were interviewed with the help of a pretested proforma. The clinical diagnosis of OSMF was made when patient showed characterstic features of OSMF, including intolerance to spicy foods, blanching and stiffness of the oral mucosa, presence of palpable bands in the buccal or labial mucosa and difficulty in mouth opening and protruding the tongue. The statistical analysis was done with SPSS software version I1.5. Results: The prevalence of oral submucous fibrosis in the study population was 4.2%. Maximum numbers of oral submucous fibrosis diagnosed subjects were males 34(81.0%). In the study population, 62 (6.2%) had difficulty in tongue mobility, 69 (6.9%) had difficulty in mouth opening, 48 (4.8%) had blanching & stiffness of oral mucosa and 42 (4.2%) had presence of fibrous bands. Among the 42 subjects dignosed with oral submucous fibrosis, all the symptoms were present. Conclusion: The observations and findings of the study clearly indicate that prevalence of OSMF among study population of the peri-urban areas of Lucknow is on the rise. Preventive measures like awareness programs should be started as early as possible.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  726 95 -
Comparison of oral health status between brass industry workers and non Industrial workers of Moradabad City
Amit Tirth, Pradeep Tangade, Anmol Mathur, BK Srivastava, N Ramesh, TL Ravishankar
November 2011, 9(18):742-745
Introduction: Today metals are abundant in drinking water, air and soil. It is very difficult to avoid exposure to any of the harmful metals that are so prevalent in our environment where we are living or working. Methodology: It is a comparative study to evaluate the oral health between brass industry workers and non industrial workers belonging to similar socioeconomic strata of Moradabad city. A total of 500 workers from each group aged 30-50 with 5 years working experience were selected through random sampling. To compare the proportion chi-square test was used. Mean values were compared using students t-test. SPSS version 15.0 was used for statistical analyses. Results: It was seen that mean no. of decayed teeth in non-brass group (2.542.00) was significantly higher as compared to brass group (1.861.78). Among the non-brass workers bleeding sextant is most prevalent. Pockets more than 6mm are not prevalent among any of the age groups from brass and non-brass workers. Conclusion: The Oral health status of Brass Industry Workers was relatively poor with poor periodontal health when compared to General Population. Further studies of oral occupational disease should be conducted in order to check or confirm previous reports and to discover possible manifestations arising in new industries.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  740 80 -
Burnout among the dental practitioners of Bengaluru City
Nusrath Fareed, D Kiran Kumar, PR Sharath, K Sudhakar
January-June 2011, 9(18):100-104
The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of Burnout and its relation to various factors among Dental practitioners of Bangalore city. All practicing dentists of Bangalore city aged 30 years and above were included in this study. The names and addresses of the dentists were obtained from the voters list of the Karnataka State Dental Council, Maslach's Burnout inventory was adopted for the measurement of Burnout. The study revealed that the overall prevalence of Burnout in the population studied was 40%. Age of the subjects was found to be strongly associated with Burnout (42.2 ± 5) years compared to non Burnouts (39.85 ± 6) (P <0.01) and statistically significant difference in the proportion of burnout was observed among males and females [p 0= 0.43 males and p = 0.30 females (,Z,= 1.96, P<0.05].
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  714 103 -
Geographic tongue : Report of two cases of pediatric age group and literature review
Hemamalini Rath, Ratna Renu Baliarsingh
January-June 2011, 9(18):182-186
Geographic tongue is a very descriptive name for one of the most common medical conditions of the tongue. This is manifested as several large, red, slightly depressed, usually smooth patches on the dorsum of the tongue. The etiology and pathogenesis of geographic tongue are still poorly understood. Geographic tongue is commonly reported in adults but both of the cases reported here belong to pediatric age group. As a red and white lesion, geographic tongue may produce cancer anxiety in patients.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  746 71 -
Case control study on caries rampant adult patients in India
P Srinivas, V Sudhakar, B Praveen, S Sudhakar, MPV Prabhat
January-June 2011, 9(18):187-192
Background: Rampant type of dental caries is observed in healthy adult patients who have no relevant medical or drug history which involves more than 1/3rd of the dentition. Objective: To assess the various risk indicators associated with dental caries in caries rampant adult patients who are visiting outpatient department of St Joseph Dental College, India. Methods Design: Case-control study. Setting: Out patient department of St Joseph Dental College, Eluru, India. Participants: A sample of 224 patients out of which 112 were cases and 112 were controls. Method of data collection: Data collected by using a questionnaire for preliminary data, clinical examination and blood investigation. Results: The mean DMFT for cases and controls is 20.38 and 3.2. Among the factors considered in this study, Significant associations with dental caries experience was found with only two factors such as stimulated salivary flow rate and haemoglobin levels Conclusions: Stimulated salivary flow rate and haemoglobin levels are inversely proportional to caries experience. Well designed longitudinal follow up study is needed to confirm risk factors for rampant type caries in this population groups.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  732 85 -
Mindfulness and dental professionalism - A review
Shivalingesh , Swati Sharma
October 2011, 9(18):351-358
The quest to achieve and improve professionalism is a never-ending one. One such attempt is introducing mindfulness practice into dental curriculum. The qualities cultivated through mindfulness closely resemble the global attitude of professionalism. Professionalism and mindfulness are broad overlapping constructs with a common professional aim: letting go of selfish, short-sighted rewards and promoting the long-term common good. This article reviews the role of mindfulness in higher education as well as clinical practice.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  717 99 -
Evidence based dentistry an evolving concept
Shelja Vashisth, Mohit Bansal, Nidhi Gupta, Nanak Chand Rao4
January-June 2011, 9(18):226-228
Evidence based dentistry is an emerging concept in the practice of dentistry. The practice is becoming more complex and challenging because of the continuous changes in dental materials and equipments. Therefore, there is a need to provide best quality care based on the current evidence. Evidence-based practice integrates the best available evidences with clinical experience and what a patient prefer in making clinical decisions. The use of evidence-based dentistry may help in the reducing the variations in patient care and outcomes.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  724 88 -
Knowledge, attitude and treatment need for periodontal disease and dental caries in 15 to 19 years individuals in Coimbatore City, India - An epidemiological study
M Senthil, Ravi Kumar
January-June 2011, 9(18):282-302
Background: Adolescence is a period of intense physical development, it is also the stage in psychosocial development in which a unique personal identity is acquired. With increasing social development in the adolescence there is a strong desire to look attractive and mouth is being the center of face takes a significant importance to the teenagers vanity. In the oral cavity, periodontal diseases and dental caries are the most predominant diseases. Hence, by understanding, the knowledge and attitude towards these diseases in adolescence and by analyzing their treatment needs will help in future planning, to promote health in general and the oral health in particular. Coimbatore a textile city (Manchester) of south India situated in the western part of Tamilnadu state. Industries like small scale, electrical motors, pumps, automobile spares, iron and steel, aluminum casting form major exports from Coimbatore. New industries like software and information technology have started appearing in to the city. Hence, Coimbatore is second fastest growing city in Tamilnadu next to Chennai. The growth of a city mainly depends on adolescence and hence the general health of young adult is an important factor. Oral health is an integral part of general health. Objectives: 1. To assess the knowledge, attitude and treatment needs for periodontal diseases and dental caries in 15 to 19 yrs individual. 2. To find out the factors of knowledge and attitude, which can influence the level of periodontal diseases and dental caries. Methodology: A cross sectional point prevalence questionnaire study of 1806 subjects of 15 to 19yrs were selected using stratified cluster random sampling in coimbatore city. A series of questionnaire was given to assess the knowledge and attitude, out of which some questions are to assess the knowledge of oral hygiene practice, type of brush and paste, to identify early signs of dental caries and periodontal diseases and its prevention. Specific questions were asked to assess the attitude towards dental attendance and barriers towards regular attendance. The treatment needs was assessed by clinical examination under natural light with sterile mouth mirror, explorer and CPITN probe. CPITN index and dentition status, treatment index were used to find out the disease level. Results: The study reveals females have good knowledge on oral health when compared to males. Periodontal diseases and dental caries prevalence increases with age. 99.8% brush teeth daily, 40% of them brush their teeth for 3 minutes, 50% of them rinses their mouth after every food and sweets, 40% of adolescents didn't have the habit of consuming sweets, 70% didn't know what kind of toothpaste they use, 70% of them used medium tooth brush, 70% changed their brush once in 3 months, 60% didn't know what is bleeding gums means, 50% will meet the dentist immediately when they have gums bleeding, 50% of adolescents will visit dentist only when they have pain, 65% of adolescents have visited dentist when they had problem,60% thought regular dental visits are not necessary. 86.5% (p < .000) is the prevalence rate of periodontal diseases and 69.8% (p < .000) is the prevalence of dental caries with a mean DMFT of 2.5. In chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis it has found that periodontal diseases and dental caries level can be influenced by regular dental visits, barrier to dental visits, frequency of brushing, frequency of having sweets, knowledge on gum diseases and tooth decay, type of tooth paste and brush and frequency of changing tooth brush. Conclusions: As the age advances the periodontal diseases and dental caries increases, knowledge level also increases but good oral hygiene habits and attitude decreases. So the increase in disease level with age might be influenced by poor oral hygiene habits and attitude of the individual. A community oriented health education program should be implemented for parents, teachers and adolescents.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  734 74 -
Integrating e-health education in the public health dentistry curriculum
Pradnya V Kakodkar, Sushma S Nayak, Aswini Y Balappanavar, VP Ramprasad, Vartika Kathuria
January-June 2011, 9(18):234-240
Aim: Firstly, conduct a survey in all the dental colleges in India to collect information of the health education activities undertaken in their respective Public health dentistry department and Secondly, to review the literature, to know the applicability of IT for health education and recommend e-health education methods which can be included in the dental curriculum. Material and Methods: A multi-centre study was conducted among the 291 dental colleges in India. 7 item structured questionnaire was used and data was collected by telephonic interview. Pubmed search was initiated to obtain information on the applicability of IT in health education. Results: Of the 291 dental colleges, survey was completed in 193 colleges. The most common location for health education was schools. Lecture and demonstrations were widely used methods and visual and audio visual aids were used for health education. Only 21.2% reported of selecting urban location for health education. 77% always targeted lower class for health education. Literature review showed that CD-ROMS, Computer games, Internet and mobile phone applications and teledentistry can be successfully used by the dental students for health education. Conclusion: Keeping abreast with the developing advances in IT, the dental students should be given assignments based on e-health education methods
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  721 83 -
Oral health status of 9-11 year old government school children of Bengaluru City - A cross sectional survey
CN Aruna, SS Hiremath, K Pushpanjali
January-June 2011, 9(18):131-136
Background: Oral diseases are highly prevalent among children and their consequences are harsh resulting in chronic pain, missed school days, poor nutrition and poor self esteem. Hence the present study was conducted to assess the oral health status of school children which would help in planning and implementing necessary preventive measures. Aims and Objectives: Aim of the study- To assess the oral health status of 9-11 year old government school children of Bangalore city. Objectives- To assess the prevalence of dental caries, gingival status, plaque accumulation and dental fluorosis among school children using DMFT and deft indices, Loe and sillness index,. Modified Quigley-hein plaque index and Dean's fluorosis index respectively. Material and Methods: A school based survey was conducted using stratified random cluster sampling technique among 8 government schools of Bangalore city. Study population comprised of 1217 school children aged 9-11 years. Results: Overall caries experience was 64.9% with no gender predilection. Mean GI score was 1.58 and PI score was 1.63 & children with oral hygiene practices like use of toothbrush & twice daily brushing had significantly lower Gingival and plaque index scores. Only 12% of the children had dental fluorosis. Conclusion: It can be concluded that there is great need of oral health assessment and providing dental health education at an early age including school based preventive programmes, which would help in improving dental behaviour and attitude which is beneficial for lifetime.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  729 75 -
Oral malodour: A systemic review
Mohit Bansal, Nidhi Gupta, Nanak Chand Rao
January-June 2011, 9(18):65-71
Oral health is an integral part of general health. There are a number of diseases of the oral cavity which affects the oral health. Oral malodour also reflects the condition of the oral cavity. It is associated with a number of factors, conditions and diseases. Periodontal diseases commonly results in bad breath. Oral malodour is an important sign and symptom while it is usually due to benign disorders it may be the first manifestation of a serious or even fatal disease. Therefore, a proper diagnosis and determination of the etiology of oral malodour is important for its proper treatment. Hereby, the knowledge regarding malodour is of high public health importance.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  727 76 -
Reasons for extraction of permanent teeth among age group of 15-50 years in Bangalore City
Shamala Rajesh, KH Shaik Hyder Ali
October 2011, 9(18):599-606
Background: This study evaluated the correlates for tooth extraction among patients between the age group 15-50 years Method: A cross-sectional hospital based survey in Bangalore city, India was conducted among patients attending four major Government Hospitals during April 2005 and November 2005.A total of 2014 patients participated in a clinical examination and completed interviews. Results: A total of 2314 teeth were extracted among 2014 patients. Majority of them were females who constituted 56% (1134) and 880 (44%) were males. Among both the sexes in all age groups, dental caries and periodontal diseases contributed to 54.7% and 29.7% of tooth loss respectively. Impactions, orthodontic reasons, prosthetic reasons, trauma, pericoronitis, prior to radiation therapy and miscellaneous reasons contributed to 15.6% of tooth loss. On the whole, the tooth mortality rate per person in males was 1.25 and in females 1.27. This was statistically significant. (F-value 53.70, p = 0.000). The lower socioeconomic classes (upper lower and lower class) contributed to 55.57% of overall teeth lost where as the upper class had only 8% of the teeth lost. Females lost more number of teeth than males in orthodontic, pericoronitis, impaction and prosthetic groups. Due to traumatic reasons like falls and accidents, males lost more number of maxillary incisors and maxillary second molars. Conclusion: Caries was the principle cause of tooth loss and molar teeth were the teeth most commonly lost. The results are consistent with prevalence and extent of tooth loss due to caries and due to reasons other than caries being differently related to disease- and socio- behavioral risk indicators.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  726 77 -
Role of health practitioners in anti tobacco counselling and various techniques - A brief report
Meignana Arumugham, Joseph John, Srisakthi
October 2011, 9(18):614-617
In spite of strong evidence that counselling increases quit rates, it is sparsely followed by the health practitioners in practice. Behavioural counselling for tobacco users is based on the theory that learning processes operate in the development, maintenance and cessation of tobacco use. Certain core conditions such as empathy, unconditional positive regard, genuineness, immediacy, confrontation, reflective listening are necessary for successful counselling. Health professionals are in an ideal setting to serve as patient educators on the adverse effects of smoking on oral and systemic health, and to implement smoking cessation.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  717 85 -
Assessment of fluoride content in carbonated drinks
Vijaya Hegde, M Rajani George
January-June 2011, 9(18):159-160
Background: Excessive intake of fluoride from dietary sources increases the risk of dental fluorosis. Consumption of carbonated drinks has increased over the years. Some children may receive substantial intake of fluoride from soft drinks, but there is a lacunae in literature regarding the fluoride content in beverages. Objective: The objective of this study is to analyze the fluoride concentration in carbonated drinks which are from international brands and those manufactured locally. Materials and Methods: Samples of the carbonated drinks were analyzed using Fluoride ion specific electrode Results: The mean fluoride concentration of carbonated drinks from international brands ranged from 0.4ppm - 0.5ppm and those available locally ranged from 0.1ppm- 0.16ppm. Students-t test was used to find the significant difference between the groups. Conclusion: The findings suggest that it forms an additional source of fluoride exposure for the population
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  728 74 -
Assessment of oral health status, treatment needs, coverage and access barriers of patients reporting to a Rural Dental college in Northern India
Amaninder Kaur Randhawa, Koratagere Lingappa Veeresha, Ramandeep Singh Gambhir, Ramandeep Kaur Sohi, Vikram Bansal, Arun Dodamani
November 2011, 9(18):899-904
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the oral health status treatment needs, coverage of the oral health care of MMCDSR Dental College (a rural dental college) and various access barriers of the population in utilization of oral health services of MMCDSR dental college. Methods: A cross sectional hospital based survey was conducted in the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, MMCDS&R Mullana, Haryana, India, interviewing 1232 patients over a period of 10 months, from March 2008 to December 2008. The data was recorded on modified WHO format (1997). Results: A total of 1232 subjects were examined with mean age of 35.64. 66.6% (820) patients were from villages (rural), with 33% (406) of them coming from within 10 km radius around college. Lack of time as main reason for delay in seeking treatment was quoted by 32.14% (396). Prevalence of oromucosal lesions was 9.7% (120). 60% (733) patients had dental caries with mean DMFT of 8.47. Nearly 36.7% needed some kind of prosthesis in maxillary arch and 43.4% in mandibular arch. Nearly 48% of patients had some kind of periodontal problems. Conclusion: Oral health status has been found to be poor necessitating mass health education programmes to educate the people. Access barriers in form of lack of time and poor transportation can be removed by altering or extending the college timings the rural mass needs for effective delivery of oral health care.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  721 80 -
Assessment of complete denture satisfaction
K Jayaprakash, P Basavaraj, CL Dileep
January-June 2011, 9(18):251-256
Complete edentulism has great impact on a patient's life style and quality, several reports have been published evaluating patient's satisfaction with complete denture and to identify the reasons some patients are difficult to satisfy. Patients denture satisfaction questionnaire based on visual analogue scale was used to evaluate the patients satisfaction with their denture. 60 patients were treated with complete denture and results showed that 61.6% were moderately satisfied, 65% (retention) 65% (stability), 78.33% (ability to speak), 78.33% (comfort), 85% (comfortable in chewing soft food), 78.33% (comfortable in chewing tough food), 65% (comfortable in chewing hard food). Therefore, it is highly recommended that the technician and doctor should incorporate modification into their procedure for fabrication of denture as it reduces patient's dissatisfaction.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  716 84 -
Periodontal health and factors affecting it, among Indian school children
J Avinash, Anmol Mathur, N Naveen, D Prabu
October 2011, 9(18):575-579
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the periodontal health status and factorsaffecting it among school children of India. Methods: A total of 2670 children aged 12 and 15 years belonging to both sexes from urban andrural were included in the study. A proforma was prepared to record the information and indices with thehelp of WHO oral assessment form (1997). For the purpose of data analysis statistical package SPSS 11was used. The data has been processed by using Chi-square test for statistical significance. Results: Distribution of tooth brush with tooth paste is observed to be maximum practiced withinurban and rural communities with 96.7 and 58.4% respectfully. Highest reported score among both thepopulation is calculus with 73.0% and 78.5% among urban and rural population respectively. Conclusion: Higher calculus scores represent a significant diseased state among the children. Authorssuggest a cost effective mechanism which point out the preventive approach to deal with such diseases.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  734 65 -
Effect of antimicrobial pre-procedural rinsing on aerosols in the dental office and dental students knowledge and attitude towards aerosol contamination - An institutional study
Navin Anand Ingle, S Hema Priya, V Chandrasekhara Reddy, Preetha Elizabeth Chaly
October 2011, 9(18):564-574
Introduction: Many infectious agents can be transmitted from patients to dental professionals whenoral care is being provided. It is therefore critical for practicing professionals to adapt proper infectioncontrol measures to protect themselves and their patients. Aim and Objectives: To check the effect of Pre-procedural rinse on aerosols in the Dental officeand to assess the level of knowledge and attitude towards aerosol contamination among dental students'in Meenakshi Ammal Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, India. Materials and Methods: An experimental study was conducted to assess the effect of antimicrobialpre-procedural rinsing on aerosols in the dental office on 10 patients with mild to moderate gingivitisbetween the age group of 25 to 40 years which was followed by a questionnaire survey done among 193dental students to assess their level of knowledge and attitude towards aerosol contamination and isolation. Results: The reduction in the CFUs of aerosols after the use of antimicrobial mouth rinse wasstatistically significant {p<0.003}. Among the 193dental students, 51 (26.4%) had low level of knowledge,131 (67.8%) had acceptable level of knowledge and 11 (5.8%) had high level of knowledge. The levelof knowledge gradually increased with the year of study {p<0.001}.Conclusion: In our study we observed that Antimicrobial Pre - procedural mouthrinse containing 0.2%Chlorhexidine gluconate was effective in reducing viable bacteria in oral spatter and the level of knowledgeamong the dental students regarding aerosol contamination and isolation gradually increased with the yearof the study.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  726 71 -
A study to assess the dental caries status and treatment needs of sportspersons in Mysore City
K Poornima, CVK Reddy, BN Shivakumar
January-June 2011, 9(18):257-260
Objectives: To assess the dental caries status and treatment needs of sportspersons in Mysore city and to suggest suitable measures to improve their existing oral health status. Methodology: A total of 549 sportsmen who were active in sports and the same number of individuals with same age and sex selected randomly from the respective schools and colleges of the sportsmen, who are not active in sports, were examined. Information regarding age, sex, education, visit to dentist, oral hygiene practices, dietary habits and sport activities were collected using a predesigned structured questionnaire. Data regarding dental caries and treatment needs was recorded using WHO Performa 1997 modified. Results: The mean DMFT of sportspersons was found to be 1.641.35 when compared to non-sportsmen 1.031.12 and it was found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: The sportsmen had more number of DMFT which may be associated with high consumption of sweets and soft drinks.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  716 81 -
Dentition status and treatment needs and association with socio-economic status, gazetted status and oral hygiene practices of State Government employees in Shimla City, Himachal Pradesh
VK Bhardwaj, KL Veeresha, KR Sharma
January-June 2011, 9(18):72-78
Objectives: To assess dentition status and treatment needs and association with socioeconomic status, gazetted status and oral hygiene practices among state government employees in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh in India Design: Cross-sectional study. Participants: This study was conducted on 1008 dentate subject 705 (69.9%) males and 303 (30.1%) females out of 10908 government employees. Data regarding dentition status and treatment needs was recorded on a W.H.O. format 1997. Type III examination was conducted under good illumination by the investigator himself. Results: Total teeth examined were 29575 out of which 14.84% were decayed. Overall mean DMFT was 3.29 (1.86). Females were reported significantly higher (p<0.05) DMFT 3.49 (2.31) than males 3.12 (1.42).Subjects with higher SES had lesser mean DMFT than lower SES. Employees who brush their teeth once a day presented with higher DMFT than those who brush once daily. The difference was highly significant (p < 0.001).Gazetted officers had significantly lower (p<0.05) mean DMFT than non gazette employees. 'D' component presented the major proportion of the caries index. Conclusions: A preventive and curative oral health policy for the government employees in Shimla city needs to be planned and implemented to maintain their commitment in their official work.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  729 68 -
Knowledge, attitude and oral hygiene practices amongst studens of management institutes in City of Lucknow
Shivanjali Grover, P Anuradha, Shweta Singh
January-June 2011, 9(18):54-59
Aim: The present study has been done to assess the level of knowledge, attitude and oral hygiene practice amongst the students studying in Management Institutes in city of Lucknow. Materials and Method: The colleges included in the study have been chosen by simple random sampling method from which a sample of 1470 students was taken. A questionnaire was filled which contained 30 close ended questions. Result: The study showed weak positive correlation between Knowledge and Attitude (r = 0.328) while weak positive correlation was also observed between Attitude and Practice (r = 0.377). The correlation between Knowledge and Practice was very weak and almost negligible (r = 0.197). All the correlations were statistically significant (p<0.01). Conclusion: On assessment of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice level of oral hygiene amongst the students studying in Management institutes in city of Lucknow, it was seen that knowledge level scored the minimum whereas level of attitude amongst the students scored the maximum
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  724 73 -
Avulsed permanent incisor: Knowledge and attitudes of school teachers towards early management of dental injuries among school children in Davangere
Veeranna Ramesh
October 2011, 9(18):396-401
Introduction: Dental injuries are common in childhood. The combination of curiosity, immature motor skills, and lack of judgment renders school children particularly susceptible to falling. It is accepted within the dental profession that avulsed permanent incisors in children should be replanted if possible. The prognosis for replantation of avulsed incisor teeth largely depends on the knowledge and early emergency management. So the study aimed to assess knowledge and attitudes of school teachers prior to the child's initial contact with oral health care system. Materials and Methods: A total of 207 available school teachers constituted the study population. A 14 item, multiple choice, close ended questionnaires was used to assess the knowledge. Results: Majority of school teachers were unsatisfied with their knowledge which they self assessed as poor. Over 94% schoolteachers were unaware of emergency treatment available for dental injuries. Conclusions: From the present study, it appeared that oral health educational programmes would be necessary to improve school teacher's lack of awareness for the early management of traumatized avulsed teeth including storage media, critical timing for replantation of avulsed teeth, early referrals and other precautionary measures.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  722 73 -
Knowledge, attitude and practices towards oral health among school teachers of Kanakapura Taluk, Bengaluru Rural District
BS Chandrashekhar, N Vanishree, HL Jayakumari, ANJ Mohan, Nishi Gupta
October 2011, 9(18):654-659
Background: School teachers play an important role in the all round development of children. Quiet often they play a major role as health educators in the school set up. To discharge this responsibility they must be aware of the facts related to health in general and oral health in particular. Objectives: To asses the Dental awareness, attitudes and oral health practices among school teachers of Kanakapura. Also to compare the level of knowledge between higher primary and high school teachers. Methodology: The list of all higher primary and high schools was obtained .and by random sampling about 250 school teachers were selected for the study. The study was a self administered questionnaire survey. The questionnaire had 30 questions pertaining to knowledge, attitude and oral health practices. ttest and Chi square tests are used for statistical analysis. Results: The study group consisted of 250 school teachers. Among them most of the teachers 161(64.9%) had average knowledge about oral hygiene. About 194(78.2%) had positive attitude about oral health and around 191(77%) teachers were practicing the correct oral hygiene methods. Conclusion: Teachers require being educated through effective media so that they acquire improved awareness on oral hygiene, positive attitude and healthy oral hygiene practices. This would in turn help them to create total awareness among school children's.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  712 83 -
Influence of environmental fluoride on eruption of teeth - A cross sectional study
HG Raju, T Mahantesh, Uma B Dixit, PR Rajesh
January-June 2011, 9(18):263-265
Background: Few studies reported the relationship between concentration of fluoride in drinking water and eruption of permanent teeth. Aim and Objectives: The aim of the present study was to find the relationship of fluoride concentration of drinking water supply and prevalence of dental fluorosis in permanent teeth, eruption of permanent teeth. Materials and Methods: The present survey was carried out in three villages of Hungund Taluk, Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India, with the fluoride concentration of 1.36 ppm, 0.381 ppm and 0.136 ppm. The children aged between 9 and 15 with the permanent teeth present in the child's mouth were examined for dental fluorosis using Dean's index according to WHO criteria. Number of primary and permanent teeth were recorded in the survey questionnaire. Result: Results from present study revealed that percentage of children with severe fluorosis increased with the increase in concentration of drinking water. No statistical significant difference were found in the eruption of teeth between the groups. Conclusion: In our study we did not find any significant effect of concentration of fluoride in drinking water on eruption of permanent teeth or exfoliation of deciduous teeth.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  718 74 -
Awareness of HIV/AIDS among the patients visiting a tertiary care multispecialty hospital in Chennai
AV Rajesh Ebenezar, A Vinita Mary
October 2011, 9(18):635-641
Background: Acquired Immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has been the most dramatic disease event of the second half of the twentieth century. The majority of those infected have been in the most productive years of their life, causing a secondary economic impact beyond the cost of caring for them and creating a new cohort of orphans. Aim: To assess to awareness of HIV-AIDS among the patients of a multispecialty hospital in Chennai city. Materials and methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted among the patients visiting the hospital. Results: The results of the study showed that 100% of the subjects were aware of HIV/AIDS. For most of them the major source of information about HIV/AIDS was television. Females had significantly higher knowledge than males (p = 0.0001). Conclusion: Though the entire study population was aware of HIV-AIDS, there was a lacuna in the mode of transmission of the disease.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  726 65 -
Knowledge of emergency management of orofacial trauma among physical education students - A questionnaire survey
SR Uma, MR Shankar Aradhya
October 2011, 9(18):646-653
Objectives: To assess the knowledge of emergency management of orofacial trauma among physical education students of Bengaluru university. Methodology: A cross sectional descriptive questionnaire survey was undertaken to assess the knowledge of emergency management of orofacial trauma among all the available physical education trainees undergoing Bachelors in Physical education course (II year) in the colleges under Bengaluru university. Questions regarding mild to complicated orofacial trauma were included to evaluate the knowledge of the students in management of such injuries. Results: Among the 251 subjects, 209 were males and 42 were females. 210 (83.7%) had undergone first aid training. 195 (77.7%) of them felt that immediate treatment of a broken tooth was necessary. 156 (62.1%) of them were aware of the immediate action to be taken in case of a bleeding lip injury. When asked about the identification of permanent tooth 139 (54.9%) identified it wrongly and 113 (45.1%) of the respondents identified it correctly. For an avulsion injury, only 63 (25.1%) of them chose the correct action. 230 (91.6%) felt that information on emergency management of trauma was necessary, only 21 (8.4%) thought it was not important. Conclusion: Present study shows that the knowledge of the students was substantially good in managing injuries but there was significantly very low knowledge of management of an avulsed tooth.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  721 69 -
Dietary supplements role in cancer prevention - Review
Y Pradeep, Babburi Suresh
October 2011, 9(18):663-666
Chronic diseases such as cancer and other non-communicable diseases are fast replacing communicable diseases in India and other developing countries. Tobacco is the most important identified cause of cancer followed by dietary practices, inadequate physical activity, alcohol consumption, infections due to viruses and sexual behavior. Diet is now considered a major weapon against cancer. Recent research indicates that what you eat may help to significantly reduce your cancer risk. Nutrition education is important for increasing public awareness, promoting good health and for control of cancers. A combination of foods in a predominantly plant based diet interact in ways that boost their individual anticancer effects.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  702 87 -
Asymptomatic third molar - Wait and treat approach
I Nanda Balan, M Shivakumar, PD Madan Kumar
October 2011, 9(18):536-540
The number of 'Asymptomatic Third Molars' selected for prophylactic removal varies widely amonggeneral dental practitioners and oral surgeons. Several reasons are given for the early removal ofasymptomatic or pathology-free impacted third molars such as cyst, tumours, infections, damage to adjacentteeth. However, the justification for prophylactic removal of impacted third molars is less certain and hasbeen debated for many years. Hence prophylactic removal should only be carried out if there is goodevidence of patient benefit which is reviewed in this paper.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  722 67 -
Dentition status and treatment needs of engineering college students in the City of Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh
P Anuradha, Pooja M Sinha
January-June 2011, 9(18):148-153
Aims: The present study was done to examine caries prevalence and treatment needs among 19-25 year-old Engineering students of Lucknow city, Uttar-Pradesh. Methods and Material: The engineering colleges included in the study have been chosen by random sampling method and a sample size of 505 was drawn symmetrically from these colleges. The clinical assessment of dental caries and treatment needs was done by Dentition status and Treatment needs index according to (W.H.O 1997) criteria. Statistical analysis used: The differences in proportions were tested by using Chi-square test. Evaluation of mean DMFT among different age groups was done using ANOVA while comparison of mean DMFT between two genders was done using Student "t"-test. The p-value was considered to be significant. All the analysis was carried out using SPSS -15.0 version. Results: In the present study overall caries prevalence was among 56.5% and 53.4% of male and female students respectively. Higher percentage of decayed teeth were seen in males of all age groups (72.1%) as compared to females (71.6%).Similarly mean DMFT was higher for males as compared to the females. One surface restoration and two-surface restoration was treatment of choice for both the males and females.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  711 77 -
Self-reported oral health attitudes and behaviour among students in a dental institute in Hyderabad
B Srikanth Reddy, Dolar Doshi, Suhas Kulkarni, P Karunakar
October 2011, 9(18):485-490
Objective: To evaluate self-reported oral health attitudes and behaviour among dental students in adental institution in Hyderabad city using the modified HU-DBI and to compare oral health attitudedifferences between years of study and gender. Materials & Methods: A modified English version of HU-DBI survey questionnaire was employedin the study. All undergraduate dental students at Panineeya Institute of Dental Sciences, Hyderabadparticipated voluntarily in the study. p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Internal consistency as calculated by Cronbach's alpha was 0.57 and the validity of thequestionnaire was 0.74. The mean age of the entire study population was 19.80 + 1.28; 84 males (25.7%)and 243 (74.3%) females participated in the study. Males and females exhibited no significant differencewith the levels of oral health attitudes and behaviour (p < 0.37) whereas significant difference was seenamong various years of study (p = 0.000) with the fourth year students having the highest percentage. Conclusion: Oral health attitudes and behaviour among this group of Indian dental students was foundto be good and improved with increasing year of study.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  720 66 -
Ethical dilemmas as faced by postgraduate students of a dental institution during management of dental patients
Deepti Vadavi, Anil V Ankola, Mamata Hebbal
January-June 2011, 9(18):137-142
Aim: To describe the ethical issues that postgraduate dental students perceive while doing clinical practice in dental college. Method: 107 postgraduate students in the dental college participated in the study. A self designed 7 itemed open ended questionnaire that provided opportunity for students to present their perceived ethical dilemmas perceived during their BDS or MDS course including how they might handle the situation should they encounter a similar circumstance in future was given to the postgraduate students to fill. Fifty randomly selected papers were reviewed in order to develop preliminary categories for the ethical issues described by the students. Twenty five different papers were then selected for a trial consensus coding. All data were entered using Microsoft Excel 2007 and frequency data were calculated using SPSS 15.0. Results: The most often identified ethical issue were financial constraints (22.43%), truth telling or disclosure (19.63%), patient/parent refusal of treatment plan (17.76%). 36 % responded that they would change their plan to the ideal treatment plan for that case and 28 % of the students reported that they would be truthful to the patient if a similar situation arises in their practice in future. Conclusion: Ethical dilemmas are a part of the student life and though students may deviate from the path of ethics at certain circumstances, the majority of them assure that they will not deviate from the ethical principles if a similar situation arises in the future.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  711 74 -
A new era of dentifrices
Vishakha Sarang Patil, Abhijit Ashok Hoshing, Rohini Mali, Priya Lele, Darshana Dalaya, Arjun Panikar
October 2011, 9(18):420-425
In this era, even though major research has been made in advanced treatment modalities the basic requirement of prevention has not changed. This aspect has a major role to play for success of advanced treatment. This is possible because a thought has also been given to provide aids and agents for prevention of dental and periodontal diseases. Dentifrice is one such important tool which can help patients in attaining required level of prevention. Recently many ingredients have been added to the routine components of dentifrices which increase their effectiveness and functionality. Thus we are now made available with more advanced toothpastes. This article will make aware the dental professionals about the different antiplaque/antibacterial, anticaries, anticalculus, antihypersensitivity, antihalitosis and antioxidant agents used in dentifrices and tried and found to be effective. This article will facilitate easy selection of dentifrices as per patients require.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  707 77 -
Overcoming barriers to access dental care for the disabled children - A rising public health issue
S Sahana, Ajay Bambal, Vrinda Saxena, G Shanti, GC Shivakumar
October 2011, 9(18):553-556
Oral health care for disabled children is a health care area that has received scant attention. It isestimated that one out of two children with a significant disability cannot find a professional resource toprovide appropriate and necessary dental care. Lack of access to dental services for this growing segmentof our population is reaching critical levels and is public health issue of growing concern.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  722 62 -
Occupational hazards in dentistry - A review
Hidayathulla Shaikh, S Shankar
October 2011, 9(18):642-645
Dental personnel and their patients are susceptible for number of occupational hazards. These cause the appearance of various ailments, specific to the profession, which develop and intensify with years. In many cases they result in diseases and disease complexes. The noise of suctions, saliva ejectors, turbines, engines, amalgamators, compressors, etc., causes impaired hearing. Dental medicaments and materials as well as disinfectants used in dental surgeries cause allergies and skin diseases. Strained posture at work destabilizes the osteoarticular system and causes overburdening of the spine. The overburdening also affects certain groups of muscles and joints. This brings about diseases of the musculoskeletal system and of the peripheral nervous system. Also, the functioning of the respiratory, cardiovascular and alimentary systems is disrupted. Close contact with the patients, with their saliva and blood, exposes the dentist to occupational biohazards, mainly of the contagious kind. The adverse effects of mercury and nitrous oxide are well-known, less so those of visible blue light. Many clinical situations may be a source of stress for the dental practitioner. Moreover, a limited surgical area and its artificial lighting results in eye strain, conjunctivitis, blurred vision or shortsightedness. Hence relying on literature the present paper discusses some selected occupational hazards.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  712 72 -
Risk of needle stick injury in dental health care workers - A pilot study
Shamaz Mohamed, M Chandramohan, S Murali, Sivakumar Kailasam, S Shankar, M Kruthika, Bibi Halima Shamaz, K Anuthama
October 2011, 9(18):407-411
Introduction: The occupational diseases are constantly on rise and one of the most neglected causes is the risk of the needle stick injuries which occur on regular basis in day today routine of hospital and healthcare setups. The aim of the study was to determine the risk of needle stick injury in dental health care workers. Methodology: The present study was conducted in a private dental college (name not disclosed for privacy) in Karnataka State of India for duration of 3 days. All the staff members including staff nurses and cleaners, post graduate students and interns of the dental institution who were present during the study period were interviewed. Questions regarding times of injury, part affected, type of injury, and when it was injured were asked. The questionnaire was then analyzed for results using SPSS version 16 software and the results were as follows. Results: The present study analyzed descriptively the responses from the participants and found out that of 175 subjects 74 had a needle stick injury in their past one year which is of much concern. Conclusion: The under reporting or not reporting of these incidents may mislead us to the fact that similar kind of injuries are not present to cause a concern which very much evident from the present study.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  709 74 -
Early childhood caries and feeding habits of preschool children in Guntur City in Andhra Pradesh
C Madhavi Padma, C Ravi Kumar, K.V.N.R. Prathap, P Mallika, GM Naidu
November 2011, 9(18):784-787
Background: Early childhood caries (ECC) is one of the earliest diseases affecting pre school children. Objective: The purpose of this study was to find out the feeding habits and to determine the prevalence of ECC among pre-school children of Guntur city. Methodology: A cross sectional study consisting of 100 pre-school children aged 30-70 months who were accompanied by their mothers were selected. Assessment was done using questionnaire for the accompanied mothers and dental examination of their child. Later the data was subjected to statistical analysis using. Conclusion: It was observed that there was increased risk of developing ECC with bedtime feeding habits and among those children weaned after 12 months of age.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  716 66 -
Dental caries status of tribal children in Javadhu Hills (Tamil Nadu)
Pralhad L Dasar
November 2011, 9(18):718-721
Background: Their have been relatively few investigations of dental caries among the tribal children. Several investigations have noted that the tribal children have higher level of dental caries and a lower level of care taken. Objective: To determine the Dental caries status in tribal children of Javadhu Hills (Tamil Nadu). Methodology: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted to determine the Dental caries status in tribal children of Javadhu Hills (Tamil Nadu). A study conducted in a sample of 292 children of 6-20 years of age. A specially designed survey proforma was prepared to collect the data. The dental caries was recorded by using DMFT Index. Results: Showed that the mean DMFT score for the 6-10 years age group was found to be 21.23% with the mean DMFT of 1.92, in 11-15 yrs age group the total DMFT score was 57.33% with the mean DMFT of 1.76 and In 16-20 yrs age group the total DMFT score was 21.44% with the mean DMFT of 1.57. The total mean DMFT was 1.75. Conclusion: The present study reported the mean DMFT of 1.75. The decayed 'D' and missing component 'M' was major contributor to mean DMFT in the tribal children of Javadhu Hills (Tamil Nadu). There was no contribution of 'F' (Filled) component.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  708 74 -
Knowledge and perceptions of dental practitioners towards their geriatric patients
BR Chinmaya, BV Smitha, KH Shaik Hyder Ali, K Pushpanjali
January-June 2011, 9(18):208-212
Background: The elderly population in India has been growing steadily since the last century. Certainly, the improving living conditions, advances in medicine and the biomedical sciences have been major factors in the increase of life expectancy. It is known that good oral health is a critical factor in maintaining general health which is no exception in older people. Despite this, geriatric oral health has not been regarded as important in our country. Objectives: Hence the objective of this study was to explore the private dental practitioners' knowledge and perceptions about aging, psycho-social influencers and oral health care of their geriatric patients. Methods: This is a descriptive study based on a questionnaire. The questionnaire consists of 30 structured questions about the aging, health problems of older people and social concerns that may influence the oral health care requirements of elderly patients. It was conducted among randomly selected 200 private dental practitioners in the Bangalore city. Results: The results showed that the 55% of the practitioners have moderate to high correct response rate regarding the knowledge of aging. 80-90% of practitioners believe that transportation, financial and family problems are the top three barriers in causing the older patients to miss their appointments. Existence of a serious illness is the major mental health factor which influences the oral health of older adults. Being independent is the major physical factor influencing the oral health and among the social factors isolation is the most influential. Conclusion: The knowledge regarding aging was found to be moderate among the dental practitioners. The results indicate a need to include geriatric dentistry in curriculum.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  702 80 -
Tobacco habits: A knowledge, attitude, behavior study in the age group of 19-25 years on cigarette smoking among students of Dayananda Sagar Institutions
V Gopikrisna, YS Prasanna Kumar, Afra Naushad
January-June 2011, 9(18):303-307
Background: Tobacco habits exist amongst various age groups, societies, cultures and communities and have been a subject of great speculation amongst researchers, health officials and epidemiologists. Similar studies have been undertaken at length, done and dealt with time and again. Perhaps the desire to do a study at Dayananda Sagar Institutions has never been greater, given the fact that we come from an expansive campus of more than 10,000 students amongst whom smoking has been casually observed as a rampant behavior, especially in light of the recently passed smoke-free policies, requiring due attention. Hence, an attempt was made to assess the knowledge, attitude and behavior on the habit of cigarette smoking amongst the students. Aim and Objectives: To assess knowledge, attitude, behavior on the habit of cigarette smoking amongst Dayananda Sagar Institution (DSI)students in the age group of 19-25 years Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire containing 28 questions on knowledge, attitude was administered randomly to a sample size of 500 students belonging to various branches at DSI campus. Data analysis was done using SPSS software. Results: 59% of the total study population was in the habit of cigarette smoking.The main reason for initiation of the habit seems to be social acceptance into friend's circle (15%) followed by casual experimentation (13%), and personal problems (8%).Parental influences on the habit of cigarette smoking stand at 13.43%. Conclusion: The habit of cigarette smoking appears to be considerably high among the campus students. Social pressures and personal problems appear to have a significant role in one picking the habit. There seems to be a dire need of provision of a counseling cell at the campus premises for handling such similar issues and implementing health awareness programmes.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  699 83 -
Oral health related knowledge attitude and practices among the residents of Saraswathi Nagar, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh
Nusrath Fareed, M Shanthi, KM Sudhir, M Samatha
January-June 2011, 9(18):117-120
Objectives: The present study was conducted to assess the oral health knowledge, attitude and practices among the residents of Saraswathi nagar Nellore. To educate them on common oral health problems, methods of prevention and on self referral for the treatment of common oral health problems at the earliest. Methodology: A Descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among the 392 house holds. One person in each house hold was involved in the study. A specially designed closed ended questionnaire consisting of 18 questions to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice toward oral health was used. Results: About 92% of the total respondents felt that good oral health maintains general health. 65.5% of the total respondents knew that regular visit to dentist keeps away dental problems but about 43.87% of the respondents didn't visit dentist regularly, when asked related to attitude of participants towards dental treatment 29.34% of total respondents felt that cleaning teeth results in loosening of teeth and about 33.6% felt that removal of teeth results in loss of eye sight. 85% of the respondents cleaned their tongue regularly, 52% of the total respondents did not massage their gums after brushing. Conclusion: Findings of this study showed that there was no proper utilization of dental services and significant misconceptions regarding dental treatment among the participants'.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  710 70 -
Knowledge and attitudes towards evidence based dentistry among postgraduate students of two dental Colleges in Davangere City
Sowmya Anaberu Rajshekar, K Sunder Kote, Lakshminarayan Nagesh
November 2011, 9(18):761-765
Objective: To assess knowledge and attitudes of post-graduate students towards evidence based dentistry (EBD). Materials and methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using self-administered questionnaire. The study sample (255) consisted of all I, II and III year post-graduate students of the two dental colleges in Davangere. In addition to general information, the questionnaire consisted mainly of closed questions and five-point likert scale was used to evaluate the responses. Results are expressed in percentage of responses. Results: The response rate was 95.5%. 36% of the students had some understanding of the concept of EBD and were able to apply, 13% had understanding but were unable to apply, 35% knew and 16% were unaware of the concept. Majority of the students favored that EBD improves patient care and is a better approach to clinical-decision making than tradition-based care. 20% of the students had been on EBD course. Conclusion: Though majority of the students had the knowledge of and positive attitude towards EBD, it is not a concept every student is accepting and familiar with. So, it is now the time to make the students aware and utilize the concept whenever and wherever sound evidence is brought to light.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  703 77 -
Periodontal status of 12 and 15 years old urban and rural school children of Lucknow - A cross sectional study
Minti Kumari, Sabyasachi Saha, GV Jagannath, Shafaat Mohamed
January-June 2011, 9(18):171-176
Aim: To assess and compare the periodontal health status of 12 and 15 years old urban and rural school children of Lucknow. Materials and Method: A cross-sectional study was designed on 1198 school going children aged 12 and 15 year. The study consisted of 2 parts; the first part was a questionnaire which consisted of demographic informations, educational status, oral hygiene practices, habits related to oral cavity, adverse habits and dietary pattern. The second part consists of clinical assessment using Gingival index, Oral Hygiene Index -Simplified, Community Periodontal Index. Result: Statistically significant difference was noted in urban and rural on the basis of OHI-S, Gingival index and CPI scores. Genderwise there was no significant difference. Conclusion: School children attending urban Schools had significantly better periodontal health than rural children.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  706 73 -
Quadrant wise repetition and frequency of lip patterns in South Indian population
N Gaikwad Rahul, R Yashoda, SS Hiremath, AM Salma
January-June 2011, 9(18):229-233
Human identification is a universal process of certification of death and for personal, social and legal reasons. Lip prints are unique and do not change during the life of a person. So it can be taken as one of the person identification tool. The present study was aimed to find out whether there are any peculiar / common lip patterns found among males and females and to determine the frequency and repetition of different lip patterns in each quadrant of lip among the same subject. The present study was conducted among 210 subjects, aged 5-70 years. The lip-imprints were taken by researcher 1 and analysis of different lip patterns was performed by researcher 2. Results showed that 91.4% males and 89.4% females were positively identified. It has been found that Type I, I-, II patterns were most commonly found in females, while Type III and Type IV lip patterns in males. As per the quadrant wise analysis the most frequent lip pattern in males and females in upper right quadrant was Type III (53.3%) andType II (52.2%), in upper left quadrant Type III (65.7%) and Type II (44.8%), in lower right quadrant Type IV (47.6%) and Type II (45.7%) and in lower left quadrant it was Type III (65.7%) and Type I (33.3%) respectively. The study concludes that, quadrant wise determination of the lip patterns may aid in confirmation of the sex of an individual.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  709 70 -
Utilization of lip prints as an investigating tool in forensic dentistry
Ajay Bhambal, Swati Balsaraf, Vrinda Saxena, Venugopal Reddy, Abhinav Singh, Sudhanshu Saxena, Bharthi Purohit
October 2011, 9(18):402-406
The wrinkles and grooves on labial mucosa forms a characteristic pattern called as lip prints and the study of which is referred to as cheiloscopy. This is unique to an individual just like the fingerprints. This study aims to ascertain the use of lip prints in identification and sex determination. A total of 120 subjects, 60 males and 60 females were included in this study. The materials used to record lip prints were lipstick, bond paper, cellophane tape, a brush for applying the lipstick, and a magnifying lens. The lip-print was then analyzed and interpreted to determine the sex of individuals. The most predominant pattern was Type II (33.33%). In males, Type III (36.66%) lip pattern was predominantly reported whereas Type II (43.33%) lip pattern was commonly found in females. Statistical analysis (applying Z-test for proportion) showed significant difference for type II and III lip patterns (P < 0.05) in males and females. This study showed that lip prints are reliable for recognition of the sex of an individual and can also serve as very important tool in the identification of a person based on the characteristic arrangement of lines appearing on the red part of the lips.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  708 71 -
Knowledge, attitude and practice of oral health among chicken-kari workers of Lucknow
P Anuradha, Gaurav Mishra
January-June 2011, 9(18):60-64
Aim: The present study has been done to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of oral health among chicken-kari workers of Lucknow city. Material and Method: The sample size of 1500 workers was conveniently selected by simple random sampling method. The city of Lucknow was geographically divided into five zones. The data collection was done with a close-ended pre-tested questionnaire which comprised of 25 questions. Result: Majority of the chicken-kari workers had fair knowledge about number of permanent teeth (70.1%), types of teeth (72.4%) but they had poor knowledge about causes of dental caries (21.3%) and fluoride tooth paste use (35.8%). The chicken-kari workers had poor attitude about daily brushing (30.7%) and rinsing mouth after meal (30.4%). Only 31.6% of the chicken-kari workers had the opinion that dentist should be consulted for regular check up of their teeth. ONly 36.1% of the chicken-kari workers went to dentist in case of problem in teeth. It was alarming to note that 71.5% of the workers had adverse habit of chewing tobacco/pan masala. Conclusion: On assessment of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of oral health among chicken-kari workers of Lucknow city, it was seen that education should be provided to chicken-kari workers in overcoming their few short comings with special practices such as use of fluoridated toothpaste, maintenance of oral hygiene by a dentist and regarding the ill effects of chewing tobacco/pan masala. Health authorities should develop community oriented, oral health care programs for further improvement of oral self care practices, regular dental visiting habits among the chicken-kari workers and thus pave a secure way in establishing oral health.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  711 66 -
Spiritual care in health system - A literature review
H Mythri
October 2011, 9(18):631-634
Background: Health care system involves holistic approach to tackle the patients especially who are in critical care. This adds to the gaining importance of spiritual dimension & approach now-a-days. As critical care involves overall aspect it becomes important to know in brief about spiritual care in health system.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  706 70 -
Nanodentistry - Small wonder in dentistry
B Smitha, Sachin Naik, Naganandini
November 2011, 9(18):701-705
Nanotechnology has been part of mainstream scientific theory with potential medical and dental applications since the early 1990s, Nanoparticles, nanospheres, nanorods, nanotubes, nanofibers, dendrimers and other nanostructures have been studied for various applications to biologic tissues and systems. Nanodentistry will make possible the maintenance of comprehensive oral health by employing nanomaterial's, including tissue engineering, and ultimately, dental Nanorobots. Nanotechnology carries a significant potential for misuse and abuse on a scale and scope never seen before. However, they also have potential to bring about significant benefits, such as improved health, better use of natural resources, and reduced environmental pollution.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  708 67 -
Fluoride and remineralization dynamics - A review
Jatinder Singh, Inder Preet Kaur, Nidhi Gupta
November 2011, 9(18):678-682
After undergoing many periods of demineralization and remineralization the matured tooth surface is less soluble and more resistant to caries challenges. When incorporated into mineral crystal structure as tooth bound fluoride, it is in a highly stable form and is not released into the solution except under extremely acidic conditions. Remineralization is enhanced by providing low levels of calcium and phosphate in conjugation with minimal amounts of fluoride. Fluoride continues to be considered the most important therapy available today to promote lesion remineralization.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  704 67 -
A cross sectional study of awareness of dental hygiene among the school adolescent children in Chennai
V Gopinath, V Shiva kumar, R Saravana Kumar, V Anitha, M Shanmugam, I Kannan
November 2011, 9(18):690-696
Background: Dental awareness has been inborn issue among the developed and developing countries and the prevalence varies considerably in different countries, geographic locations, and age groups. With the lifestyle of the Indian school children's people changing significantly over the decades, dental erosion has begun to receive more attention. However, the information about dental awareness among south Indian school children is scarce. The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence of dental awareness and associated risk factors in 11-14-year-old school children in Kendra Vidyalaya Government School located in Adayar, Chennai. Methods: This cross-sectional survey was performed by trained, calibrated examiners. A simple random sample of 11-14 year-old children (210 girls and 192 boys) from Kendra Vidyalaya Schools was examined for dental awareness using the diagnostic criteria of Standard questionnaire was applied to record the distribution of knowledge, attitude and practice of dental hygiene. Data on the socio-economic status, health behaviors, and general health involved in the etiology of dental awareness were obtained from a self-completed questionnaire. The analyses were performed using SPSS software and Epi info 2000 (trend analysis). Results: In this study a sum of 210 girls (52.2) and 192 boys (47.8) were taken. The overall prevalence of dental caries was found to be 190 (47.3) in these individuals and these association was found to be significant.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  698 72 -
Dental surgeons as public health professionals in India under the guidance of medical officers - The need to learn basics in epidemic management
Satpreet Singh, Pushpinder Singh, Neha Syal
October 2011, 9(18):557-563
India is a huge country and face diverse health care problems. India is facing an acute shortage ofHealth Professionals including Public Health professionals. It is important for all health care professionalsto have a fundamental knowledge of dealing with outbreaks so that they can act fast and prevent as muchdamage as possible. The dental surgeons in India can be a great source of motivation in public healthcare because now they form a sizable chunk of health care professionals and a basic knowledge in epidemicmanagement for them can definitely help in timely intervention and prevent any further loss in emergencysituations. India is adding 23000 dentists annually and approximately 1.8 lakh dentists are registered withstate dental councils.The threats from all diseases and bio-terrorism are real and we should be prepared for any eventuality.An effective public health system in place can prevent as well as control an outbreak. Epidemiologyprovides the scientific basis, the systematic approach, and the prevention orientations that are needed. Bythis paper, we seek to provide basic information in a simple way to all health care professionals includingDentists in their fight to prevent and control of an outbreak. We are requesting policy makers at all levelsin India to work on legislation to mandate Dentists as Public Health Professionals in emergencies workingdirectly under Medical Officers posted in PHC's. In addition, it will create more oral care awareness also.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  700 70 -
Prevalence of tobacco smoking in a group of software professionals in Bengaluru City
Mayur Nath T Reddy, DP Narayan, Ajitha Kanduluru, Deepti Vadavi
November 2011, 9(18):870-873
Background: There has been an alarming increase in smoking among young adults since the early 1990s. Tobacco smoking among adults is of public concern. Occupational stress and lifestyle patterns may be important factors associated with smoking among professionals. Aim of the study: To determine the prevalence of tobacco smoking among software professionals in a company in Bangalore city, India. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted among software professionals working at a software company, Bangalore. The questionnaire was close ended, multiple choice consisting of seven questions. The questionnaire consisted of questions related to smoking tobacco and the participants' interest in tobacco cessation counseling. Results: Response rate in this study was 74%. The prevalence of smokers was 51% which includes both male and females. The major factor for the development of the habit of smoking among males was curiosity and style and fun among females. More than 50% in both the genders were not interested in tobacco cessation counseling. Conclusion: It is therefore, important to target this population; tobacco control and tobacco cessation activities continue to remain important public and personal health issues.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  701 69 -
Assessment of tobacco use amongst dental students in Bengaluru City, Karnataka
Anitha R Sagarkar, SS Hiremath, R Yashoda
October 2011, 9(18):440-446
Tobacco is the second major preventable cause of death in the world. With this perspective, dental health professionals not only serve as providers of care for their patients, but also are expected to model the advice they impart. Hence, this survey was undertaken to assess the tobacco use amongst the dental students. Methodology: The questionnaire Global Health Professional survey (GHPS) from WHO and CDC was utilized, to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of Tobacco. Results: Life-time prevalence of cigarette smoking for third year dental students in Bangalore was 12.1%. Over 80 % of current cigarette smokers felt like having a cigarette within 30 minutes of awaking in the morning. Three - quarters of students surveyed had some knowledge on pharmacotherapy for tobacco-use Cessation. Conclusions: It was observed that the most of the dental students had this grave habit; hence this problem should be first tackled before the common man is focused on, as they play a major role in helping the patients who rely on the dental health profession for quitting this habit to an extent.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  692 77 -
Ideal management practices for dental health care wastes - A review
R Kesavan, A Vinita Mary
October 2011, 9(18):586-590
Hospital waste refers to all waste, biologic or non- biologic that is discarded and not intended forfurther use. Medical waste is a subset of hospital waste; it refers to the material generated as a result ofdiagnosis, treatment or immunization of patients and associated biomedical research. Hospital wastemanagement has been brought into focus in India recently, particularly with the notification of the BMW(Management and Handling) Rules, 1998. The rule makes it mandatory for the health care establishmentssegregate, disinfect and dispose their waste in an eco-friendly manner. Hospital wastes are classified intohazardous and non-hazardous wastes. Hazardous wastes constitute about 85% of the waste generated inmost healthcare set-ups. This includes waste comprising of food remnants, fruit peels, wash water, papercartons, packaging material etc. Safe and effective management of waste is not only a legal necessity butalso a social responsibility. Lack of concern, motivation, awareness and cost factor are some of the problemsfaced in the proper hospital waste management. Proper surveys of waste management procedures in dentalpractices are needed.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  702 65 -
Prosthetic status and treatment needs of institutionalised elders of age 60 years and above in Chennai
S Prabhu, Joseph John, S Saravanan, I Meignana Arumugham
October 2011, 9(18):426-430
Objective: To assess the prosthetic status and treatment needs of institutionalised elders in Chennai. Materials and methods: A cross - sectional study was conducted among 289 residents of old age homes in Chennai. Demographic information was collected followed by clinical examination of Prosthetic status and treatment needs using a section of WHO oral health assessment form (1997). Results: 88.2% of the subjects had no prosthesis in the maxillary arch, 90.3% subjects had no prosthesis in the mandibular arch, there was a significant difference between the prosthetic status and gender in maxillary arch (p = 0.04) while there is no significant difference between prosthetic status and gender in mandibular arch (p = 0.2). The need for full prosthesis was highest and it increased with age, followed by multi -unit prosthesis (23.9%) in maxillary arch and need for a combination of one and / or multi - unit prosthesis in mandibular arch (28.7%), there was very highly significant difference between prosthetic needs and gender in both maxillary and mandibular arch (p = 0.001). Conclusion: The findings of the study demonstrated a high unmet prosthetic treatment needs among the institutionalized elderly population surveyed.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  692 74 -
Tobacco - To chew or not to chew!
R Siddana Goud, Shoba Fernandes, Siddhartha Pujari
October 2011, 9(18):514-516
Tobacco has been referred to by several derogatory names. The extensive destruction in every aspectof human life, body mind and emotion caused by the use of tobacco is widely documented. Potential oftobacco having a curative side is presently being explored through research into plant sources. This articlepresents some possibilities in this innovative area of study.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  705 60 -
Assessment of oral hygiene practices and deleterious habits related to oral health among students studying in dental institution in Bengaluru
Amit Kumar, Padma K Bhat, CN Aruna
January-June 2011, 9(18):213-217
Objectives: To assess oral hygiene practices and deleterious habits related to oral health among students studying in dental institution in Bangalore, India. Materials and methods: In a cross-sectional study, 294 dental students (156 males and 138 females) were surveyed using a self structured close ended questionnaire including 18 questions. The data was subjected for statistical analysis. Results: Among first year students, 84.1% of them were brushing once daily whereas 56.9% of the interns were brushing twice daily. Almost 98% of the first year students were not using floss whereas approximately 22% of the interns were using floss. Among first year students, 42.7% participants and 35.1% among second year were smokers. Smoking habit was less among final year participants (21.1%) and interns (29.4%). Consumption of Smokeless tobacco was maximum by second year students (14%) and least by 11.8% interns. Very few students (10.6% of third year and 5.9% of interns) had habit of alcohol consumption. Conclusions: Besides the positive changes revealed in the oral hygiene practices and deleterious habits related to oral health among the students passing through the undergraduate curriculum from first to final year of dental studies, preventive behavior among the students could still be improved, which can bring positive changes in oral health of these students and their society.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  698 64 -
Prevalence of dental fear in children belonging to low socio-economic status - A cross sectional study in Bengaluru City
Archana Krishnamurthy, S Ranganath, M Pramila, B Chandrakala, SV Sreekanteshwar
January-June 2011, 9(18):177-181
Despite advances in both pain control and patient management, dental fear remains a serious issue for patients and dental clinicians. Associations have been found between dental fear and less frequent dental visiting, poorer oral health, and greater functional impairment with the subject ending up as a dental cripple. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of dental fear reported by a group of 12 - 15 year old high school children belonging to low socioeconomic status (SES) and to explore the relationship between dental fear and age and gender. Using Prasad's social classification, only children of low SES were included. A group of 1452 children with a mean age of 13.56 1.04 years from 8 government high schools in Bangalore city took part in this study. The dental fear was assessed using the single item Dental Anxiety Question. The prevalence of high dental fear was found to be 23.6%. Though dental fear did not show any correlation with age, it was significantly higher among females when compared to males. Given the high prevalence of dental fear in children of low SES, there are clear clinical implications for oral health professionals in terms of both fear identification and treatment.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  688 74 -
Evaluating the anti-plaque efficacy of two herbal dentifrices - A triple blind controlled trial
Puneet Gupta, Nupur Gupta, Anup Nagaraj, Imran Mohammed Khan
January-June 2011, 9(18):308-310
The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti- plaque efficacy of commercially available two herbal dentifrices using a randomized, triple blind, parallel design method. A total of 32 subjects were selected. All the subjects (aged 13- 54 years) were given the test dentifrices, packed in plain white colour coded tubes. The subjects were instructed to brush their teeth twice daily for two minutes with the allocated dentifrice. The total study duration was 4 weeks. Plaque scores were recorded at the baseline, 2 weeks and 4 weeks respectively, using the Turesky modification of the Quigley Hein Plaque Index. The results of the in-vivo study reported that there were significant differences in the reduction of plaque by the herbal dentifrice on intra-group and inter-group comparison. It was concluded that further research is required to know the dental benefits of herbal products being incorporated in to the commercially available dentifrices.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  693 67 -
Dental caries and prosthetic status among patients 12 years and above, attending H.P. Govt. Dental College and Hospital, Shimla - A cross - sectional study
Poonam , KL Veeresha, KR RSharma
October 2011, 9(18):517-524
Aim of the study: The study was done to assess the oral health status in terms of dental cariesprevalence, prosthetic status among the patients above 12 yrs attending H.P. Govt. Dental College &Hospital Shimla. Materials and method: It was cross sectional study. Data was recorded on a structured format.DMFT index and Prosthetic status and prothetic need indices were used to collect information regardingcaries and edentulism. The collected data was analyzed using the SPSS, statistical software (SPSS version11.05) Result: The mean DMFT was 6.5 prevalence of caries was found 80.5%. Mean value of decayedteeth, missing teeth, and filled teeth was 2.7, 3.0. and 0.8 respectively. 19.4% (119) subjects had 0 decayedteeth and total DMFT was 0 in 7.2% (44) subjects. 3.4% subjects were wearing some kind of prosthesesin maxilla and 5% in mandible. 27% (166) of subjects needed prosthesis in maxillary and 37.7% (230)needed prosthesis in mandibular arch. Conclusion: prevalence of dental caries was found considerably high (80.5%). Even prosthetic needwas also common in this population. These people should be educated to maintain oral hygiene and shouldbe motivated to take care of their teeth and come to Dental Hospital at beginning of the disease only.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  696 64 -
Womens oral health in todays times - A forgotten issue in dentistry
N Vanishree, S Naganandini, P Aman, Chaithra
November 2011, 9(18):722-727
Women may be more susceptible to oral health problems because of the unique hormonal changes they experience. Hormones not only affect the blood supply to the gum tissue, but also the body's response to the toxins (poisons) that result from plaque build up. As a result of these changes, women are more prone to the development of periodontal disease at certain stages of their lives as well as to other oral health problems. Women's oral health depends on their different stages of life. For many women, these changes are directly related to surges in sex-hormone levels, such as in puberty, menstruation, pregnancy, lactation and menopause. Women are also more likely to be diagnosed with TMJ, myofacial pain and eating disorders. Together, a patient and his or her dentist can create a treatment and prevention plan that specifically meets their needs
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  682 76 -
Emergence of permanent teeth amongst school children in Mysore City - A cross sectional survey
GK Umashankar, CVK Reddy, MK Vanishree
January-June 2011, 9(18):143-147
Objective: To know the emergence of permanent teeth among school children of Mysore city. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on a sample of 525 school children from schools of Mysore city. Data was collected in Performa for the gingival emergence of all the permanent teeth both in maxilla and the mandible except for third molars. Data was analyzed using SPSS statistical package for social sciences version 10.0 software packages. Results and Conclusion: Maxillary Central incisors, lateral incisors, canine, first and second molars emerged earlier in girls when compared to boys. For boys central incisors lateral incisors canine first molar and second molar emerged earlier in mandible compared to maxilla and the Sequence of eruption for girls was M1 I1 I2 C P1 P2 M2 and for boys was M1 I1 I2 P1 P2 C M2.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  687 68 -
Enhancing public private partnership in oral health care
Pankaj Sehgal, S Lal
November 2011, 9(18):923-924
Full text not available  [PDF]
  646 109 -
Dental caries experience and periodontal status of the female inmates in Yerwada Prison, Pune, Maharastra
Vittal Das Shetty, Vikram Garcha
November 2011, 9(18):865-869
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of dental caries and periodontal conditions of the female prison inmates. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Female yerawada prison, Pune, Maharashtra. Method: Participants underwent a structured interview and dental examination. Results: 32.7 % had no history of caries, 67.6 % had caries. None of the inmates had completely healthy periodontium. Maximum number of subjects had calculus. Conclusion: This survey emphasises the need for oral health care services and programs to improve the oral health of prisoners.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  691 63 -
Multiple natural pontics - A boon or bane?
Bhavana Jha Kukreja, Nitin Khuller, Rajnanda Ingle Khuller, P Basavaraj
November 2011, 9(18):706-711
Sudden loss of anterior teeth is a catastrophic event for a patient. The missing anterior teeth have implications in how one presents themselves to others and the psychological effects of how we feel about ourselves. Sudden tooth loss in the esthetic zone of the anterior region can be due to trauma, periodontal disease, or endodontic failure. If the teeth are intact, it is easiest to use them as natural pontics and bond it to the adjacent teeth with fiber reinforcement ribbon and adhesive composite resin. When the teeth are not usable a denture teeth or a composite resin pontics can be shaped to fit the space of the missing teeth.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  676 78 -
Overview of statistics used in dentistry
Ramya Shenoy, Harsh Priya
November 2011, 9(18):778-780
The present paper introduces the general philosophy behind hypothesis testing, importance of P values and confidence intervals with the use of published article. This article provides a brief overview of the type of statistical tests that available to analyze research data and the most commonly used statistical tests are presented in detail.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  681 73 -
Permanent first molar caries status and treatment needs among school going children aged 6-14 years in Tenali, Guntur (DT) - A cross sectional study
T Devaki
October 2011, 9(18):455-461
Material & Methods: The study population comprised a representative sample of 700 school children aged 6 to 14 years, with 345 males and 355 females. The data about the status of first permanent molar was assessed by clinical examination and findings were recorded on a pre tested Proforma. The two stage sampling was done, in the first stage random sampling of Tenali Schools, and in the second stage cluster sampling of 6 to 14 years School children. Results: The result showed that the prevalence of dental caries in first molars for the study population was 47.42%. Out of 2662 first molars examined, 798 (30.39%) were decayed in the study population and this decay varied in males (38.23%) and females (22.92%). Out of the 37.29% of the children who required treatments, 18.86% first molars needed one surface filling, 12.71% needed two or more surface fillings, 2.86% needed pulp care, 3.43% needed extraction and 1.57% needed replacement. Conclusion: It can be concluded from the study that the occurrence of caries of first molars increased in mixed dentition period. Caries was significantly higher in males (52.58%) when compared to females(47.42%). Recommendations: It is recommended from the study that emphasis should be given in periodic screening and provision of dental services for initial lesions at an early age.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  684 68 -
Is periodontal disease a risk factor for myocardial infarction?
Namita Shanbhag, SS Hiremath
October 2011, 9(18):476-484
Background: The belief that conditions affecting the mouth could have implications on peripheraltissue and organs has been held from the very earliest medical recordings. The role of the "classic"cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, however, does not explain all clinical and epidemiologicalfeatures of CVD. The hypothesis that oral infections, especially periodontal infections, have potentiallyserious systemic implications is now gaining credence. Based on the clinical impression that periodontaldisease is common among patients with myocardial infarction, this study is taken up to assess theperiodontal health status among these patients and to know the association between periodontal diseaseand acute myocardial infarction. (AMI). Material and methods: The study groups comprised of a total of 102 (50 cases and 52 controls)subjects at Narayana institute of cardiac sciences, Bangalore. The cases with proven clinical and laboratorydiagnoses of a first attack of AMI event and age matched controls without any history of AMI . All thesubjects under went a complete periodontal examination using Community periodontal index, lipid andblood glucose profile tests, weight and height, Blood pressure checkup and a questionnaire on sociodemographic and life style conditions. Statistical analysis: Chi square test and t test were used for significance of any difference inproportions and means respectively. To estimate the association, Logistic regression analysis was used toasses the relation of periodontal disease risk for AMI. Results: Univariate analysis showed statistically significant results between males, aged patients,smoking, hypertensive, diabetics and alcoholics. these risk factors were further forced into the regressionmodel to adjust for their impact on AMI and the significant variables were current smokers, hypertension,and CPI code 4 were (with p value <.05)statistically significant. Conclusions: Severe periodontitis was found to be more common in patients with AMI and supportsthe previously reported association of periodontitis as a risk factor for AMI.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  686 65 -
Non-respiratory problems (dental problems) associated with asthmatic drugs - A review
G Shanthi, Amit Vanka, Ajay Bhambal, Vrinda Saxena, S Sahana, Neeraj Chauhan
October 2011, 9(18):474-475
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory condition that causes the airways to constrict and produce excessmucus, making breathing difficult. The reported prevalence of childhood asthma is increasing worldwide.Surveys undertaken during the past 20 years using similar methods throughout have found a consistentincrease in the prevalence of asthma. Many medications used to treat asthma have effects on the mouth,teeth and throat. This article reviews the correlation between asthma and oral health. Common OralProblems due to Asthma Medications may be Candidiasis and dry mouth. Asthmatic medications can placethe patient at risk of dental erosion by reducing salivary protection against extrinsic or intrinsic acids. Theeffect of asthma on oral health is the subject of debate among majority of the dentists. Increase frequencyof dental visits with your dentist or hygienist to prevent oral problems.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  680 70 -
Assessment of oral signs, symptoms and lesions in Patient suffering from chronic renal failure
K.V.N.R. Prathap, Madhavi Padma, P Mallika Mahalakshmi
November 2011, 9(18):683-689
Background: Chronic renal failure is defined as a progressive decline of the renal function associated with the reduced glomerular filtration rate and the incidence of this global threat to health has been on rise in the recent past in the developing countries like India. The life expectancy of these patients has increased as a result of the better medical support available and such patients demand a better oral health care. Objective: To assess the oral signs, symptoms and lesions in the patient suffering from chronic renal failure among the general population of the Guntur District and the time dependent changes in the oral manifestations. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional assessment was conducted among the general population of the Guntur district and 100 persons were evaluated. Random samples were collected and standard performa was prepared in order to elicit the details of the oral manifestations among the patients with this disease. Results: Among the 100 study sample, the prevalence of the oral signs and symptoms of higher incidence were 67% with uremic fetor, 65% with xerostomia and 62% with unpleasant taste. The various oral lesions prevalent were 73% patients were reported with dry, fissured lips, 23% were showing different types of candidiasis, 32% showed saburral tongue. 22% of the patients were detected with enamel hypoplasia and 98% of the patient showed low carious index. Conclusion: The patient with chronic renal failure had high prevalence of uremic fetor, xerostomia, unpleasant taste along with dry, fissured lips, saburral tongue and candidiasis and such patient also showed a poor oral hygiene with low caries index.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  694 56 -
Prevalence of Dental caries amongst 12-15 years old school going children in Warananagar, Kolhapur, Maharashtra
HV Amith, Audrey Madonna D'Cruz
November 2011, 9(18):887-890
Objectives: (i) To determine the prevalence of dental caries amongst 12-15 years old school going children of Warananagar, Kolhapur. ii) To assess the oral hygiene practices of 12-15 years old school going children of Warananagar, Kolhapur. Materials and methods: The study population consisted of 594 school going children (368 males and 226 females) aged 12-15 years, from Warananagar, Kolhapur. The children were interviewed and data on their oral hygiene practices were recorded. This was followed by a clinical oral examination to record DMFT/DMFS index using standardized procedures. Results: The overall dental caries prevalence was 64.98%, with a mean DMFT of 1.92 and DMFS of 2.85. Decayed component formed the majority of the caries index. Only 61.95% of the subjects used toothbrush to clean their teeth. Rest of them used their fingers. Only 38.72% of the children brushed their teeth twice a day. 79.12% used tooth paste, 20.37% used tooth powder. Conclusion: The results of the present study revealed that dental caries is prevalent in considerable percentage of the 12-15 years old school going children of Warananagar. This population requires school dental programs with emphasis on oral hygiene practices and to increase awareness and knowledge of teachers, parents and care givers regarding oral health.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  684 65 -
Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis among 12-15 years old school going children from Kanakapura Taluk, Bengaluru Rural District
BS Chandrashekar, N Vanishree, HL Jayakumar, A.N.J. Mohan
November 2011, 9(18):880-886
Purpose: To analyze levels of Fluoride in different sources of drinking water; its relation with severity of dental fluorosis among study population of 12-15 year old school going children from selected administrative areas of Kanakapura taluk. Method: A cross sectional, school based, epidemiological study was conducted to know the prevalence and severity of Dental Fluorosis among 1621 school going children taken from 14 villages among 43 villages of 6 hoblis in Kanakpura taluk. Study population was selected by stratified cluster random sampling, About 250 children were randomly selected from the schools of villages in each hoblis. Subsequently the samples from the sources of drinking water were collected for the estimation of Fluoride ion concentration in the water. A pilot study was carried out on field settings on randomly selected 100 students and changes were implemented where ever required, during the study. A WHO type III examination was conducted by the single examiner and findings recorded by a single trained assistant. Chi square analysis, odds ratio and Karl pearson's co-relation was used to analyse the results. Results: Of 1621, 12-15 year old school children 565 (34.9%) had fluorosis; among these, about 289 (17.8%) had questionable fluorosis, 158 (9.7%) very mild, 84 (5.2%) mild, 28 (1.7%) moderate and 6 (0.4%) severe fluorosis and CFI score ranged from 0.172-0.5319. Conclusion: The prevalence of fluorosis in Kanakapura is in negative range of public health concern.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  684 63 -
Depigmentation: A cornerstone in gingival esthetics (case series)
Sakshi Ahuja, Komal Arora, Nitin Khuller, P Basavaraj, Vidya Dodwad
November 2011, 9(18):894-898
Statement of problem: Genetically determined hyper pigmentation of melanin in dark skin individuals is due to hyperactivity of melanocytes, creating a major esthetic problem Purpose of study: This case series demonstrates a simple and effective surgical depigmentation technique that does not require sophisticated instruments or apparatus, yet yields esthetically acceptable results along with patient's satisfaction. Materials and methods: Fifteen (males-twelve, females-three) cases were selected with diffuse blackish discoloration of gingival. With the use of surgical excision and round bur, the sites were depigmented and evaluated for six months. Results: Esthetically pleasing results were seen, with no repigmentation notice in a span of six months. Also, no side effects and ease performance made this method still a gold standard in a population like India. Conclusions: It is simple, easy to perform, cost effective method and gives esthetically pleasing results; made it a treatment of choice.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  680 67 -
Knowledge and perception of oral health among diabetic patients
Sudhanshu Saxena
November 2011, 9(18):697-700
Background: Diabetes mellitus has been increasing at an alarming rate worldwide. Despite the universal recognition of the dangers of diabetes mellitus, diabetic patients' awareness of and attitudes toward their heightened risk for oral diseases has not been fully addressed. Objectives: 1. To assess the knowledge and awareness of diabetic patients of their risk for systemic and oral diseases as complications associated with diabetes, 2. to assess their attitudes toward maintaining good oral health through proper oral hygiene and regular dental check-ups. Materials and Methods: Seven hundred self-administered questionnaires were distributed among diabetic patients in a private hospital of Bhopal city (M.P.). The questionnaire contained questions related to participants' age and sex, tobacco use, prosthetic status, type and duration of diabetes, and their awareness for systemic and oral diseases as complications associated with diabetes, attitudes toward maintaining good oral health. Completed questionnaires were used in the current study for data analysis. Results: A majority of the participants had type 2 diabetes (63%). Diabetic patients had low awareness of their increased risk for oral diseases. Sixty seven percent of the participants brushed their teeth once daily and none of them had ever used dental floss. Conclusion: Diabetic patients have little knowledge of their increased risk for oral diseases. In order to promote oral health and to reduce the risk of oral diseases, there is a need to develop programs to educate the public about the oral manifestations and complications of diabetes.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  675 71 -
Antibiotic prescribing practices among dentists in Davangere City
R Siddana Goud, Nagesh Lakshminarayan, Shoba Fernandes
November 2011, 9(18):832-838
Context: The theme of "World Health Day 2011" is " Combat drug resistance-No action today, No cure tomorrow" is very applicable, as the present study emphatically demonstrates the current issues related to the overwhelming concerns regarding indiscriminate use of antibiotics, leading to a bleak tomorrow where cures may be few. Aim: To know the prescription pattern of antibiotics for various dental procedures by dental practitioners Materials and Methods: A pretested questionnaire was used. Questionnaire contained two sections pertaining to prescription of antibiotics for healthy and medically compromised patients during various dental procedures, with therapeutic and prophylactic considerations. Results: Questionnaire Response rate of 66.6%.was observed. Amoxicillin emerged as the most preferred antibiotic for dental procedures both as a therapeutic as well as a prophylactic drug. 50% of the Endodontists and 40% of the general dentists opted to prescribe antibiotics during root canal therapy where ideally operative intervention would suffice. Overuse of antibiotics for routine scaling and extraction was observed. Conclusion: The dental profession as a whole needs to acquire a deeper understanding of the global effect of superfluous antibiotic prescription. Antibiotics when judiciously used are precise life-saving drugs.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  681 63 -
Dentist's opinion towards treatment of pregnant patients in Guntur (A.P.)
C Madhavi Padma, C Ravi Kumar, K.V.N.R. Prathap, P Mallika Mahalakshmi, GM Naidu
November 2011, 9(18):766-770
Introduction: The aim of this study was to survey the treatment choices that the dentists in Guntur had regarding dental care for pregnant patients. Material and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on management choices of the pregnant dental patient such as dental treatment practices and therapeutic choices of dentists and also their socio-demographic and practice characteristic. Results: Total of 26 questionnaires were collected. Most of the participants were general practitioners and some are attached to dental college for teaching, with 1to25 year's clinical experience and practicing in town, only 38.5% of the participants will take dental x-ray for a pregnant patient who has pain from a tooth with doubtful diagnosis or would extract a non-restorable painful tooth. Mostly all the surveyed dentists would extract a non-restorable painful tooth during pregnancy. 73.1% of the participating dentists would replace a missing molar with a fixed partial denture during pregnancy. The majority of the participants (98%) would give oral hygiene instructions, 92.3% prescribe a mouthwash and 92.3% do scaling and root planing for a pregnant patient with gingival bleeding and calculus deposits. Five antibiotic choices were surveyed; Amoxicillin, Clindamycin, Tetracycline, Metronidazole and Cephalosporines. The majority of the dentists (84.6%) would prescribe Amoxicillin to a pregnant patient. Four analgesic agents were surveyed; Paracetamole, Ibuprofen, Aspirin and Codeine. By far Paracetamole was the most popular analgesic agent (92.3%). The choice of four types of local anesthesia agents during pregnancy was surveyed. The majority of the dentists (57.7%) would use xylocaine with Adrenalin. Conclusion : This survey showed that there is a clear lack of knowledge about appropriate management of the pregnant dental patient among the surveyed dentists regardless of their socio-demographic and practice characteristics necessitating continuous education on the dental management of pregnant dental patient.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  687 56 -
Prevalence of dental caries, dental fluorosis and its relation in water fluoride levels among school children in Markapur Mandal, Andhra Pradesh
S Ranganath, S Naganandini
November 2011, 9(18):746-751
Background and Objectives: Dental caries is a major public health problem. Many studies indicated a negative association between drinking water fluoride levels and dental caries. But there are studies, which showed the association to be positive or none. This study was conducted to assess prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis at different water fluoride levels in Markapur mandal of Andhra Pradesh. Method: A cross sectional analytical study was conducted among the permanent residents of Markapur mandal. A total of 2100 school children aged 5-16 years were selected by random sampling from the schools in the different villages of the mandal with different levels of natural fluoride concentrations in drinking water. Dental caries was recorded using DMFT and deft indices. Dental fluorosis was recorded using Dean's classification of fluorosis. Results: Males were more than the females. The mean deft/DMFT gradually increased from the below optimal category to optimal category and to the above optimal category. 85.4% were affected with fluorosis in the permanent teeth and the percentage increased as the fluoride levels increased. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Chi Square and multiple regression analysis were done for the statistical analysis. Conclusion: There was a direct positive relationship between water fluoride levels and prevalence of dental caries and fluorosis. Fluorosis was also seen even in areas with below optimal and optimal fluoride levels in school children of Markapur mandal.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  659 83 -
Knowledge regarding personnel protection barrier's among dentists in Bhopal City, Madhya Pradesh
Vidhatri Tiwari, Vrinda Saxena, Ajay Bhambhal, Sudhanshu Saxena, Aishwarya Singh
November 2011, 9(18):675-677
Introduction: Dentistry is a prominent field of surgery, involve exposure to blood and other potential infectious material, therefore require high quality infection risk control. The population at the risk of infection is of all ages, genders, social classes & practitioners. Aim: To evaluate knowledge of personnel protection barriers among dental practitioner in Bhopal City, Madhya Pradesh. Material and Method: Self-administered structured, coded questionnaire was distributed to 200 private practitioners and teaching staff in all the dental colleges in Bhopal city. Result: Fifty three percent of the dentists use gloves, 79.8% always used facemask and headcaps were less frequently used during treatment procedures. Conclusion: There is need for creation of awareness and continuous education about the prevention of cross contamination and used of self protection methods.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  679 62 -
Comet assay for DNA damage and repair
Rizwan M Sanadi, Nitin Khuller, P Basavaraj, Rahul Hegde
November 2011, 9(18):921-922
The Comet Assay, also called single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE), is a sensitive and rapid technique for quantifying and analyzing DNA damage in individual cells. This is one of the techniques used in the area of cancer research for the evaluation of genotoxicity and effectiveness of chemoprevention. Ostling & Johansson developed this technique in 1984 . The Comet Assay can be used to detect DNA damage caused by double strand breaks, single strand breaks, alkali labile sites, oxidative base damage, and DNA cross-linking with DNA or protein. The Comet Assay is also used to monitor DNA repair by living cells. It has been reported that smokers have higher level of DNA damage in nasal epithelial cells and buccal cells. Comet assay is an excellent screening test for exposures that may be DNA damaging even in the oral cavity.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  679 62 -
Oral health knowledge, behaviour and status among nursing students of Davanagere City, Karnataka
B Naveen Kumar, N Ramesh, TL Ravi Shanker
October 2011, 9(18):491-495
The oral health awareness and status of nursing students were studied in Davanagare city. 150 subjectsunderwent two components of assessment: questionnaire assessing oral health knowledge and behaviour,and clinical examination for oral health status. Indices used are Plaque index, Community PeriodontalIndex of treatment needs (CPITN) and Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth index (DMFT). More than 70% ofthe subjects were reported to brush their teeth once daily and very few used supplemental cleaning tools.They also knew the importance of healthy oral condition, the various causes and prevention of tooth decayand gum diseases. Although majority (81.9%) visited the dentist only when they feel it is necessary to doso. Clinical examination showed mean scores of 1.22 forplaque index; Code 2 of the CPITN Index wasthe highest (70.3%) among the subjects. The total mean DMFT was 1.92, and the decayed componentwas the highest (D=158 teeth). These findings suggest that the subjects have acceptable oral healthawareness, and also reasonable existing oral health status.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  669 71 -
Dental erosion, dental caries experience and periodontal status among battery factory workers of Ghaziabad
P Basavaraj, Nitin Khuler, Mohit Dadu, Rajnanda Ingle Khuller
November 2011, 9(18):827-831
Background Occupational exposure to sulfuric acid mists has been described in association with dental erosion and ulcerative mucosal lesions explained by the high irritant and corrosive acid effects that damage the enamel structure, cause inflammatory and immune reactions and reduce the salivary pH that can also compromise resistance to infections in the oral cavity. Aim and Objectives To assess the Dental erosion, Dental caries experience and periodontal status among battery factory workers of Ghaziabad. India Material & Methods Study was conducted in 8 randomly selected battery factories of Ghaziabad. All the subjects present in these factories on the days of examination were included. A total of 562 (Male - 386, Female - 176) aged between 25-58yrs were examined. Results The results show 351 subjects (62.5%) had Dental caries experience The Overall periodontal condition was poor with 85.1% of the subjects showing some or the other signs of periodontal disease. The periodontal health deteriorated with increasing working experience of the workers 1-5 years - 14.3%, 5-10 years - 23.5%, 10+ years - 36.2% showed the pocket depths of 4-5mm. 98.8% showed some degree of dental erosion. 23.7% of the workers with more than 10 years of working experience showed 3rd degree of Dental erosion compared to 0% from 1-10 years and the difference was found to be statistically significant. Conclusion The present study revealed that chronic exposure in the working environment significantly affects oral health condition among exposed workers It can be concluded that the most common adverse effects on dental health of exposed workers were the significant increase in the prevalence of periodontal diseases, dental erosions and in the prevalence of decay.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  680 58 -
Oral health status and treatment needs among institutionalized elderly in Ghaziabad
Sumanth Prasad, Ipseeta Menon, Ruchi Nagpal, Roshni Dupare
November 2011, 9(18):910-914
Objective: A cross sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of periodontal status, oro mucosal lesions, prosthetic status and needs among institutionalized elderly of Ghaziabad. Materials and Method: All the subjects present in the institution at the time of examination were included. The assessment was carried out for periodontal status, oro mucosal lesions, prosthetic status and needs among the institutionalized elderly population of Ghaziabad using WHO oral health survey 1997. Statistical package SPSS 18.0 was used to analyze the data. Results: A total of 203 subjects were examined with the mean age of 68.276.39 years. 56.8% reported discontinuing a toothbrush. Around 45.5% had no functional teeth. 83.7% did not visit dentist in the past 3 months, 12.8% had leukoplakia, mostly affecting the buccal mucosa, 34.5% of the individuals wore prosthesis. Conclusion: Education for maintenance of oral hygiene and regular dental checkup should be stressed upon with focus on prosthetic care.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  680 57 -
Casein phospho-peptides-amorphous calcium phosphate
Vidhatri Tiwari, Vrinda Saxena, Ajay Bhambhal, Sudhanshu Saxena, Aishwarya Singh
November 2011, 9(18):757-760
Casein phospho-peptides-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) products have been widely used in the field of preventive dentistry. Casein phospho-peptides exerts its main effect through binding and stabilizing calcium and phosphate ion at amorphous non-crystalline state where they can enter enamel and enhance remineralization. The following article presents a background on these products, in addition to the scientific rationale behind its various useful effects on oral cavity.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  671 65 -
The optimum serum vitamin d level needed to initiate anti - Inflammatory effect on gingivitis. A dose response randomised controlled trial
Vishwanath P Hiremath, C Bhasker Rao, Vijaya Naik, K.V.V. Prasad
November 2011, 9(18):849-856
Purpose: Decreased serum vitamin D levels have been linked with gingivitis. Also studies have shown that vitamin D has anti inflammatory effect at higher dose. The objective of this study was to determine the optimum level of vitamin D that could initiate an anti inflammatory effect on gingivitis after oral supplementation. Materials and methods: After collecting the baseline serum vitamin D and gingival status in the 96 subjects of the 451 screened, a double blind randomized controlled trial was conducted in Maratha Mandal Dental College Belgaum.. The subjects were divided into four groups and later randomly given a daily oral vitamin D3 supplementation in dose of 2000 IU for Group A, 1000 IU for Group B , 500 IU for Group C and placebo for Group D over three months period. The changes in gingival scores were measured at the period of 1st, 2nd and 3rd month to assess the anti inflammatory effect. Results: Group A which had mean baseline serum vitamin D of 22.46 ± 6.97 had a final visit scores of 52.20 ± 10.17. An average increase of 9.91 was seen per month. The mean baseline gingival scores in this group of 2.4 got reduced to 1.7 at end of first month and later to 0.8 at end of two months and 0.3 at the end of third month. When baseline scores were compared with subsequent visit scores by Wilcoxon paired test, Group A showed significant anti inflammatory effect at end of first month itself with P<0.0001. The group B with baseline serum vitamin D levels of 26.50 ± 3.68 had an average increase of 5.62 per month with final visit scores of 43.67 ± 8.80. The mean baseline gingival scores in this group from 2.3 got reduced to 2.0 at end of first month and later to 1.1 at end of two months and 0.5 at the end of third month. This group showed anti inflammatory effect at the end of 2nd month with P<0.0001.Group C had significant anti inflammatory effect at the end of the 3rd month with P<0.0001 having baseline gingival scores as 2.2 after one month as 1.9, after two months as 1.4 and 0.8 at the last visit. Also baseline vitamin D scores was 23.98 ± 5.65 and final visit score of 36.81 ± 6.13 respectively, a monthly increase of.4.27. However Group D did not show significant anti inflammatory effect. The anti inflammatory was initiated when serum vitamin D level in the groups reached 30-32 ng/ml. Conclusion: An optimum level of 30-35 ng/ml of serum vitamin D can initiate an anti inflammatory effect on gingivitis.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  675 61 -
Adverse oral habits and understanding of oral cancer risk among male general population of Guntur, Andhra Pradesh
K.V.N.R. Prathap, C Ravikumar, Madhavipadma , PMallika Mahalakshmi
November 2011, 9(18):915-918
India has one of the highest rates of oral cancer in the world. Tobacco is one of the most common hazardous substance for general health as well as oral health. The use of tobacco in any form increases the risk of oral cancer. To assess the knowledge regarding the harmful effects of betel quid, areca nut and tobacco among the general population of Guntur city and understanding regarding oral cancer risk. To assess the reasons for the consumption of betel quid, areca nut and tobacco. A descriptive cross sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among general population of Guntur city and 600 persons were assessed for the evaluation of habits of smoking and chewing tobacco. The study consists of simple random sampling and a Standard questionnaire was developed which elicited details of samples and information about tobacco chewing practices. Prevalence of betel quid, areca nut and tobacco habits among general population of Guntur is high. 81.67% respondents consume tobacco either in smoke or smokeless form. 7.53% consume betel quid and 5% consume areca nut 6% consume tobacco, betel quid and areca nut in combination. Among the Guntur city population there is general lack of awareness regarding risk factors of oral cancer.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  666 67 -
Organ transplantation and its dental implications - A review
C Madhavi Padma
October 2011, 9(18):667-670
Organ transplantation along with the immunosuppressive therapy, which has developed in recent years in India, has saved many failing lives, thus restoring and improving the quality and longevity of life. With the known increasing trends in the poor dental health in India it becomes all the more important to be more knowledgeable and treat dental patients with a broader perspective, keeping the complications and precautions prior to and after the transplantation surgeries. The present day's dental surgeons are at the cross roads and so must understand that these organ transplant cases need specialized dental care and their compromised health and immune system place them at an increased risk for systemic as well as oral infections. Thus this article provides a review of the dental implications among the organ transplant patients.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  671 62 -
Geriatric dental care - A review
Amit Tirth, Anmol Mathur, Pradeep Tangade, Sunil Chaudhary
November 2011, 9(18):733-736
Across the life there are various age group ranging from young born to age ones. School going children are grown up adults now, young adults are grown up citizens now, and middle aged have become elders. Throughout the world a demographic revolution is underway. Medical advancements aimed at better monitoring day to day and simple intervention such as blood pressure and clotting level, will prevent many sudden deaths or strokes. Because of improvement in medical and health services the life span has increased, the proportion of older people is growing faster than any other age group. The percentage of older people continues to grow world wide, especially in developing countries. Non-communicable diseases are rapidly becoming the leading causes of disability and mortality. Globally, poor oral health among older people has been particularly evident in high levels of tooth loss and dental caries. This review is to highlight the oral health needs of older people and health care programs undertaken in different parts of the world for the betterment of geriatric population.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  669 64 -
Detection of early carious lesion - A challenge to modern dentistry
Vrinda Saxena, Ajay Bhambal, Shanti Vanka
October 2011, 9(18):452-454
Management of Dental caries demands early detection of caries lesion. This article provides an over view of state of the art methodology for detection and assessment of early carious lesion and suggest advancement in field of assessment, caries activity status is an only answer. Caries activity test determines a cutoff point to determine for caries predilection.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  662 70 -
Oral hygiene habits and oral health status of rural school going children in Mangalore, Dakshina Kannada, Karnataka
N Vanishree, S Sequeira, Ashwini Rao, BS Chandrashekar, A.N.J. Mohan
November 2011, 9(18):781-783
Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the oral cleansing habits, oral hygiene levels and caries status of rural school going children in Mangalore, Karnataka. Material and methods: A sample of 278 school going children of 12 years of age were examined in five different rural schools; three government and two private schools, in Mangalore. A questionnaire regarding the teeth cleansing methods was filled for each student. Oral examinations were carried out to record the oral hygiene and caries status of these children using oral hygiene index simplified and DMFT index. Fischer's exact test and chi- square test were used for analyzing the data. Results: Only 9.7% of the private school children brushed their teeth twice a day as compared to none of the government school children. There was no significant difference between private and government school children regarding oral hygiene or caries status. Conclusion: The greatest need of dental health education at an early age including proper instruction of oral hygiene practices and school based preventive programs, which would help in improving preventive dental behaviour and attitude which is beneficial for the entire life time.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  671 60 -
The dentist-patient relationship - A review
N Vanishree, J Jeswin, Madhusudhan , Naganandini
November 2011, 9(18):737-741
The dentist-patient relationship has long been assumed to be a straightforward association and encounter between an expert in medicine and a person in need of dental care. In the last decade, rapid changes in the health care delivery system and the social climate have resulted in considerable strain on this relationship. These factors include the ethical standards of dentists, the communication between dentists and patients, and their shared responsibilities of decision-making. Much patient dissatisfaction and many complaints are due to breakdown in the dentist-patient relationship. Therefore the scope of this article is to review the behavioral researches published mainly in the past two decades especially on patient-dentist relationship, dental anxiety, communication and patients' satisfaction.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  668 60 -
Awareness of risk factors and signs of oral cancer among non-medical degree students in Mangalore
N Vanishree, Peter S Sequeira, Ashwini Rao, Nishi Gupta, Chandra Shekhar, Mohan
November 2011, 9(18):728-732
Aim: To assess the awareness among non-medical degree students about the risk factors and signs of oral cancer in Mangalore. Methodology: A questionnaire study using self administered close ended questionnaire containing 17 questions pertaining to awareness of risk factors and signs of oral cancerwas conducted among 542 non-medical degree students attending 2 colleges in Mangalore city. ANOVA (analysis of variation) and chi-square test was used for analysis. Results: :The BBM students have less knowledge compared to BSc, BCom and BA students and most of them obtained their knowledge through newspapers, magazines and television. Conclusions: There is a lack of awareness about risk factors and signs of oral cancer among the non medical students.Frequent educational programmes are needed to improve the situation thereby reducing the incidence of oral cancer in the community.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  669 59 -
Bacterial analysis of aerosols generated in the dental departments of sibar dental college, Guntur, A.P
K.V.N.R. Prathap, Madhavi Padma, P Mallika Mahalakshmi
November 2011, 9(18):803-807
Bioaerosols which carry potentially hazardous microbes, viruses, fungi and allergens are of important concern in dentistry because of their potential effects on the health of patients and of dental personnel. Objective: To assess the level of atmospheric microbial contamination before, during and after clinical procedures in multi chair dental environments and to compare the findings during each time. Methodology: Air sampling was performed from the respective dental departments by placing blood agar plates 2 feet away from the patients mouth before, during and after clinical procedures. Samples were incubated aerobically at 37$c for 48 hrs. Colony counting was performed and expressed as colonies per plate (c/plate). Results: The results showed that atmospheric microbial contamination was higher during the clinical procedures as compared to the levels before and after the clinical procedures.The largest bacterial colony counts were seen in the periodontics followed by endodontics and by pedodontics. t-test carried out, failed to demonstrate significant difference in the colony counts between the various departments. Conclusion: The study shows the increased risk of transmission of infectious agents to the dentists. Hence, all necessary preventive measures should be advised and need to be followed strictly.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  672 52 -
Ethical principles for biomedical research involving human participants - An update
MK Vanishree, Ganesh Shenoy Panchmal, GK Umashankar, GK Bhat Sairam
November 2011, 9(18):822-826
In the past 25 years the area of medical research is growing immensely. Large number of studies has been undertaken in both developed and developing countries. Though this is a matter of pride at the same time there is a lack of awareness of ethical and legal aspect of biomedical research in the investigators. History has shown lot of ethical violations. Some of the ethical issues being informed consent, confidentiality and privacy. World Health Organizations' in association with various organizations have now given a guidelines for the protection of human participants in biomedical research starting from Nuremberg Code to recent Universal Declaration of Bioethics and Human Rights. Hence this paper is an attempt to highlight the Ethical guidelines by ICMR for Biomedical research and Role of ethic committees.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  656 68 -
Knowledge and attitude about HIV infection and aids among dental professionals in Bengaluru City - A questionnaire study
S Naganandini, SS Hiremath
October 2011, 9(18):618-630
Introduction: Diagnostically dentists may detect the first signs of HIV infection as HIV infection associated lesions may appear in or around the mouth. There is little evidence of how best dentists are prepared to assume ethical and professional responsibility to prevent the spread of the HIV infection. This study was undertaken to assess knowledge & attitude about HIV infection & AIDS among dental professional in Bangalore city. Material & methods: The data was collected from 550 dental professionals by administering a specially designed proforma. Knowledge & attitude of the dental professionals was evaluated using a Likert scale. Results & conclusion: Of the 550 respondents, 57.09% (n = 314) were male dental professionals and 42.19% (n = 236) were female dental professionals. The age ranged from 23 to 65 years. Most of the respondents, 79.3% (n = 436) were practicing dentistry for less than 10 years. In this study overall knowledge score of the dental professionals was better compared to their overall attitude score. HIV related knowledge and attitude to treat HIV infected or AIDS patients were best predicted by age and number of years in practice.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  661 62 -
Oral malodor: Causes and cure - An overview
P Basavaraj, Nitin Khuller
November 2011, 9(18):788-791
Halitosis or bad breath is an oral health condition characterized by unpleasant odors emanating time after time from the oral cavity. The origin of halitosis may be related both to oral and systemic conditions, but a large percentage of cases are generally related to an oral cause. Oral causes are related to deep carious lesions, periodontal disease, oral infections, peri-implant disease, pericoronitis, mucosal ulcerations, impacted food or debris and mainly, tongue coating. In general, halitosis most often results from the microbial degradation of oral organic substrates including volatile sulfur compounds (VSC). So far, there are few studies evaluating the prevalence of oral malodor in the general population. Thus, the aim of the present review was to describe the etiological factors, prevalence data and the therapeutic mechanical and chemical approaches related to halitosis.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  662 58 -
A study of computer literacy and its usage among dental post graduate students in Bengaluru City
N Vanishree, Madhusudhan , S Naganandini, BushraNaaz F Jaleel
November 2011, 9(18):905-909
Introduction The effective use of computers, information and information technology has become necessary competence for the oral health care professionals and students. Numerous consensus documents place a strong emphasis in generic and field-specific computer literacy, especially with in the field of academic oral health care education. Hence the aim of our study was to assess the computer literacy and its usage among dental post-graduate students in Bangalore city. Materials and methods A total of 741 post-graduate dental students from 9 specialties, from 14 dental colleges of Bangalore city, affiliated to Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Bangalore, were selected for the study. Data were collected through the self administered questionnaire. Results 483 post-graduate students responded to the survey, resulting in a response rate of 65.18%. The mean age of the participants was 27.5 years. There were 47% males and 53% females who participated in the study. Out of these 38.7% were in first year, 34.2% were in second year and 27.1% were in third year. 54.7% of the students were using computers everyday, 33.3% were using 2 to 3 days a week, 11.6% were using once a week and 0.4% were using once a month for their academic activities. When students were asked to grade their general computer skills (Windows, Microsoft Office and internet) 2.9% graded as 'unable or beginner', 45.1% graded as 'competent in some basic skills' and 52% graded as 'competent in most skills'. Conclusion The computer literacy of dental post-graduate students of Bangalore city is adequate. Most of the students are competent in the basic skills. Students had the positive attitudes towards the implementation of computer courses in their college and also basic computer literacy should be a part of undergraduate dental program as a supplementary tools of learning.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  660 58 -
Determination of the correlation in the hygiene of hard and soft tissues of the mouth - A pilot study
R Sushma, S Naganandini, D Nagabhushana
October 2011, 9(18):660-662
Purpose: To determine correlation in the hygiene of hard and soft tissues of the mouth. Materials and methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 100 subjects (patients and accompanying person) attending out patient department at oxford dental college aged above 12 years. Details regarding oral hygiene practices and hygiene of hard tissues were recorded using the oral hygiene index (John.C.Greene and Jack.R.Vermillion) and hygiene of soft tissues was recorded using the tongue coating index (Winkel 2003) and the use of disclosing agent (Methylene blue) for other parts of soft tissues in a specially designed Proforma. The results were subjected to statistical analysis using the Pearson correlation test. Results: The results showed that the correlation between the OHI and STI was found to be moderate (0.487), where as the correlation between OHI and TCI was found to be weak (0.327) and correlation between TCI and STI were found to be negligible (0.196). Conclusion: In this study a positive correlation (moderate) was found between the oral hygiene index and the soft tissue index, hence the oral hygiene index reflects the hygiene of hard and soft tissues of the mouth. It is recommended that Oral hygiene regimen should include the maintenance of the hygiene in relation to the tongue and soft tissues
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  658 59 -
Oral piercing and oral trauma - A review
N Vanishree, Madhusudhan , J Jeswin, S Naganandini
November 2011, 9(18):792-802
Aesthetics has become an important issue over the past few years and has led to the development of new materials and techniques in dentistry. Body decoration has also gained influence. Irreversible changes to the human body have been practised by ancient as well as modern civilizations for a variety of reasons. Some changes are made to express spiritual devotion or dedication to magic, to fulfil social demands, to make a personal statement or to enhance individual sex appeal. Some of these procedures such as skin tattooing, branding and body piercing that were used by ancient civilisations are commonly seen today especially in developing countries. Body piercings, in particular, have been extended to all parts of the human body and can be found to be adorned by members of all socioeconomic groups. Of special interest to oral health professionals is the recent worldwide increase in intraoral piercings at sites such as the lip, tongue, cheek, frenum and uvula. Depending on the piercing area, specific complications involving the hard and soft tissues have been observed, including tooth fractures, gingival recession, tooth sensitivity and gingival trauma. In addition, speech impairement, interference with mastication and swallowing, aspiration, infection, allergic responses, haematoma and prolonged bleeding have also been occured. Therefore, dentists and oral and maxillofacial surgeons should be aware and advise patients with oral and facial piercings or those who plan to acquire this type of body art. Hence this paper reviews the oral piercing, types of oral piercing and its complications.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  661 54 -
Peripheral ossifying fibroma - A case series
P Basavaraj, Nikhil Sharma, Sumit Malhotra, Nitin Khuller, Mallika Sethi
November 2011, 9(18):752-756
Peripheral ossifying Fibroma (POF) is a non-neoplastic enlargement of the gingiva that is classified as a reactive hyperplastic inflammatory lesion. POF is typically a solitary, slowly growing nodular mass that is either pedunculated or sessile. It is possible to misdiagnose peripheral ossifying fibroma as pyogenic granuloma, peripheral giant cell granuloma, or odontogenic tumors. Therefore, histopathological examination along with the clinical findings is essential for an accurate diagnosis of such lesions. Differential diagnosis is important, because POF has a tendency to recur with a recurrence rate of nearly 20%. This common solitary gingival growth is managed by excisional biopsy. Objective of the present report is to describe 3 cases of peripheral ossifying fibroma, which were followed for one and half years with signs of recurrence in one case, thereby emphasizing the importance of proper excision and aggressive curettage of the adjacent tissues for prevention of recurrence.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  657 54 -
Assess the knowledge attitude and practice among dental interns regarding the consumption of carbonated drinks in Bangalore City: A questionnaire study
N Vanishree, Amandeep , S Naganandini, Bushra Naaz Fatima Jaleel
November 2011, 9(18):844-848
Carbonated drinks are the most popular drinks consumed in the world and the targeted population is the youth in every country across the globe. The consumption is not just limited to the vulnerable group but surprisingly, health professionals also drink soda/ carbonated drinks without being aware of the constituents or the effects of these drinks. The aim of the present study is to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of dental students (interns) regarding consumption of carbonated drinks in Bangalore city. Out of 960 interns presently in the dental colleges of Bangalore city, a sample size of 274 was taken. Pre-tested structured questionnaire were distributed to the participants and filled forms were taken back. the analysis of descriptive in nature. About 97% (n=262) of the students had heard of carbonated drinks and only 83% (n=221) knew about the ill effects caused by these drinks. Reasons stated were taste (29%) and availability (21%). Interestingly 43% of the students believed that having carbonated drinks personified their image, especially when consumed with alcohol (n=125 i.e 41%.). Average consumption stated by the students is about 200-250 ml (38%) where as 30% consumed about 350-500 ml. Hence, it is vital for the health professional to be aware and also bring about a change in their own attitudes and practices towards the harm caused by various food items commercially available in the market.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  651 60 -
Association of serum vitamin D levels of 25(OH)D with Marginal Gingivitis
Vishwanath P Hiremath, C Bhasker Rao, Vijaya Naik, K.V.V. Prasad
November 2011, 9(18):874-879
Purpose: Gingivitis is the inflammation of gingiva and a mildest form of periodontal disease. Earlier studies have revealed that vitamin D has an anti inflammatory effect on gingiva and low levels of serum vitamin D are associated with many chronic diseases.. The objective of this study was to assess the association of serum level of 25-OHD to marginal gingivitis. Materials and Methods: This was a cross sectional study conducted in Maratha Mandal dental college, Belgaum, India. Out of the 451 people screened, 96 subjects who had Gingivitis score more than 1 and who satisfied the inclusion criteria and signed the informed consent were considered for the study. The gingival status was assessed by Loe and Silness Index and the serum vitamin D levels of 25-OHD were analysed by The Diasorin vitamin D Direct Elisa kit Germany. Also the information on the Demographic profile which included the age, sex, weight and calculus status was collected in the form. Results: On statistical analysis the relationship of serum vitamin D with gingival status was found to be negative and statistically significant at P<0.05. Further with multivariate analysis the total contribution of age, sex, vitamin D, weight and calculus on gingival status was 38.92% in which the calculus status contributed maximum of 20.11% compared to minimum of 0.83% by gender, followed by serum vitamin D 11.77%, age by 3.96% and weight by 2.25% respectively Conclusion: Based on this analysis we can conclude that serum vitamin D and calculus are the most important contributors for the gingival status.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  647 55 -
Gender differences in perceived sources of stress among dental students of Bhopal City
Aishwarya Singh, Ajay Bhambhal, Vrinda Saxena, Sudhanshu Saxena, Vidhatri Tiwari
November 2011, 9(18):839-843
Dental students encounter numerous sources of professional stress, in dental college. This stress can have a negative impact on their personal and professional life. The purpose of the study was to determine gender differences in the main source of stress among dental students in five years of undergraduate study. It is a questionnaire study with 49 close ended questions. Results & Conclusion: Female students were more stressed than male dental students. There is a need to review the curriculum and evaluate what impacts on female students stress levels and also introduce strategies to reduce the stress level among female dental students.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  648 51 -
Social marketing: An approach to planned social change
S Naganandini, K Sanjeev, KB Shilpashree
November 2011, 9(18):815-821
Full text not available  [PDF]
  580 69 -
Detecting child abuse and neglect - Are dentists doing enough to identify the dirty secret?
Bushra Naaz Fathima Jaleel, Aarathi Vijayan, S Naganandini, N Vanishree
November 2011, 9(18):857-864
Full text not available  [PDF]
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Panel discussion - "school oral health program in India" at the 5th National IAPHD PG convention on 28th June 2011 host. Dr. D.Y.patil dental college and hospital, Pimpri, Pune
Pradnya V Kakodkar, Sahana Hegde Shetiya, Amol Jamkhande Shetiya
January-June 2011, 9(18):311-312
Full text not available  [PDF]
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Employees state insurance (E.S.I) corporation
K Jayaprakash, HG Raju, R Thanuja
January-June 2011, 9(18):246-250
Full text not available  [PDF]
  149 73 -
The oxford dental college and hospital, Dept. of public health dentistry
S Naganandini
January-June 2011, 9(18):319-320
Full text not available  [PDF]
  145 75 -
World Hepatitis Day - 2011
S Vinay
January-June 2011, 9(18):313-314
Full text not available  [PDF]
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World No Tobacco Day - 2011
S Vinay
January-June 2011, 9(18):315-316
Full text not available  [PDF]
  135 68 -
Mission...Kill Tobacco
Bharatraj , Pallavi , B Vijayalakshmi
January-June 2011, 9(18):317-318
Full text not available  [PDF]
  139 60 -