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   2015| July-September  | Volume 13 | Issue 3  
    Online since September 14, 2015

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Evaluation of efficacy of a commercially available herbal mouthwash on dental plaque and gingivitis: A double-blinded parallel randomized controlled trial
Sanjukta Bagchi, Sabyasachi Saha, GV Jagannath, Vamsi Krishna Reddy, Pooja Sinha
July-September 2015, 13(3):222-227
Aim: To evaluate if a commercially available herbal mouthwash, can be a better choice as an anti-plaque and antigingivitis agent when compared with chlorhexidine. Materials and Methods: In a double-blind, parallel group randomized clinical trial 90 nursing students aged 18-25 years were randomly divided into three groups: A (chlorhexidine), B (HiOra) and C (distilled water). These groups were asked to rinse with their respective mouthwash two times daily for 21 days. Plaque and gingivitis were evaluated by using Turesky et al. modification of Quigley Hein Plaque Index (1970) and Modified Gingival Index by Lobene et al. (1986) respectively. Statistical analysis was done using ANOVA test. Results: There was statistically significant reduction in plaque and gingival scores from baseline to 21 days in both the groups A and B. Conclusions: Although chlorhexidine group proved to be the best anti-plaque and antigingivitis agent, it was found that HiOra group also showed gradual improvement from baseline to 21 days. Whereas no improvement was seen in the Group C using distilled water over 21 days.
  4,886 775 3
Effectiveness of herbal and nonherbal fluoridated toothpaste on plaque and gingivitis: A randomized controlled trial
Roopali Gupta, Navin Anand Ingle, Navpreet Kaur, Pramod Yadav, Ekta Ingle, Zohara Charania
July-September 2015, 13(3):218-221
Introduction: Dental plaque is a well-known etiologic factor for gingivitis. Ayurvedic drugs have been used since ancient times to treat diseases including periodontal diseases. Toothpastes made from herbal medicines are used in periodontal therapy to control bleeding and reduce inflammation. Aim: To compare the effectiveness of herbal and nonherbal fluoridated toothpaste on plaque and gingivitis among residents of ladies hostel in Mathura City. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled clinical trial was carried out on 60 participants aged 18-30 years residing in a ladies hostel of Mathura City. The 60 participants were randomly allocated into two groups: Group-I: Experimental group using herbal toothpaste, Group-II: Control group using fluoridated toothpaste. The subjects were asked to brush twice daily with the assigned dentifrice using standardized brushing technique for 46 days. The plaque and gingival indices were recorded according to Silness and Loe (1964) and Loe and Silness (1963), respectively. These parameters were assessed at baseline, 3 weeks, and 6 weeks. Data were analyzed by Student paired t-test and unpaired t-test using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 21 manufactured by IBM Corporation - Armonk, New York, US. Results: Baseline plaque and gingival scores were found 1.02 ± 0.02 and 0.88 ± 0.06 for the experimental group and 1.02 ± 0.03 and 0.81 ± 0.08 for control group, respectively. After 6 weeks plaque and gingival scores were found 0.77 ± 0.07 and 0.72 ± 0.08 for experimental group and 0.78 ± 0.07 and 0.73 ± 0.11 for control group, respectively. Statistically significant differences were obtained before and after intervention in both groups (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: The herbal toothpaste was as effective as the conventionally formulated fluoride dentifrice in controlling plaque and gingivitis.
  3,166 536 1
An emerging trend: Hookah smoking among youth smokers in Gurgaon, Haryana
Esha Bali, BR Chinmaya, Sachin Chand, Shourya Tandon, Sumanth Prasad, Deepsikha Sahu, Sahil Handa
July-September 2015, 13(3):244-249
Introduction: Hookah is becoming the favorite form of tobacco use by youth globally. This problem has received more attention in recent years. Aim: The aim was to investigate the characteristics, behavior, and perceptions related to hookah smoking among the youth smokers in Gurgaon, Haryana. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and fifteen established hookah smokers participated in this study. Data were collected using a 28-item questionnaire, constructed using three main domains: Characteristics (sociodemographic and personal), behavior and perceptions (about harmful effects in comparison to cigarette smoking). Descriptive and Chi-square test were performed, and P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant value. Results: The mean age of starting hookah smoking in the present study was 17.3 years. Hookah smoking on a daily basis was reported by 37.7% participants. Another 44.7% participants smoke hookah in hookah cafes with friends and the total number of participants who informed that hookah is easily available and accessible are 83.3%. The participants who were addicted to hookah smoking; light-headedness, dizziness and headache, post hookah smoking are 63.3%. About 60.9% participants had attempted to quit but restarted. Most of the participants 60-70% had misperception about the safety of hookah smoking over cigarette smoking, and 36-82% participants were unaware of health effects. Conclusions: Compared to cigarettes, there appears to be a lack of knowledge about the harmfulness of smoking hookah among users regardless of their demographic background. Education about the harmfulness of smoking hookah and policies to limit its use should be implemented to prevent the spread of this new form of tobacco use.
  2,983 290 -
Association of oral health-related quality of life and nutritional status among elderly population of Satara district, Western Maharashtra, India
Parth Patel, KM Shivakumar, Snehal Patil, KV Suresh, Vidya Kadashetti
July-September 2015, 13(3):269-273
Introduction: The major proportion of the population suffering from nutritional deficiency and continues to grow worldwide, especially in developing countries like India, and it is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality. Aim: To evaluate the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQOL) and nutrition status and association between nutritional status, and OHRQOL in the elderly. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the elderly of Karad city. The elderly were subjected to type 3 oral examination. Data regarding the nutritional status and OHRQOL were obtained using Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) and mini nutritional assessment (MNA) index. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze data using SPSS version 21. Results: The sample included 200 elderly, of which 59% consisted of males, and 41% are females. The majority of study subjects (46%) were between age group 61 and 70 years. Among the assessed subjects, nearly 95% of them had total scores of GOHAI between 12 and 57 which require "needed dental care." As per MNA, 3.5% had adequate nutrition, 60% were at risk of malnutrition, and remaining 36.5% of subjects were malnourished. There was a significant correlation between GOHAI and MNA scores. Conclusion: Nutritional status was associated with the poor OHRQOL among the elderly. A strong association was found between mean GOHAI and MNA scores and nutrition status and OHRQOL.
  2,797 370 2
Glycemic control and periodontal disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: A cross-sectional study
Vaibhav Tandon, Pradeep Tangade, Ravishankar Telgi Lingesha, Amit Tirth, Sumit Kumar Pal, Vipul Yadav
July-September 2015, 13(3):297-301
Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic, noncommunicable disease with concomitant oral manifestations that impact on dental care. Aim: To determine the correlation between glycemic control and periodontitis among 35-45 years aged patients with DM type 2 (DM2). Materials and Methods: A convenient sample of 40 subjects aged 35-45 years with DM2 on oral medication were recruited for the study. Glycosylated, hemoglobin(HbA1c), probing pocket depth (PPD), gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI), and the relevant drug history were recorded. The data were analyzed using unpaired student t-test to compare the means of PPD, GI, PI between different HbA1c levels, gender, and duration of drug, and the Pearson correlation was used to find correlation between HbA1c and PPD, GI, PI, duration of drug. Results: With the increase in HbA1c values there was a significant rise in PPD, PI scores, and GI scores (P < 0.001). Diabetic males had a higher PPD, PI, and GI score as compared to females. With the increase in duration of the drug, there was an increase in PPD, which was found to be statistically nonsignificant. Conclusion: Patients are having poor glycemic level had more severe periodontitis as compared to patients having a fair glycemic level.
  2,746 376 1
Thickness, permeability and tactile perception of commercial latex examination gloves used in dental practice
Shilpa Ashish Warhekar, Sandesh Nagarajappa, Pralhad L Dasar, Prashant Mishra, Sandeep Kumar, Swati Balsaraf
July-September 2015, 13(3):342-347
Introduction: Dentists are at an increased risk of being infected. Some patients may be unaware of their infected status while some patients are unwilling to tell the dentists their disease status. Gloves should be worn in almost all patient procedures. Aim: To assess association between thickness, tactile perception, and permeability of commercial latex examination gloves used in dental practice. Materials and Methods: The experimental study was conducted in Central India. A total of 600 gloves, 120 each from five brands (Kaltex, Nulife, Smartcare, Handshield, Medi-image) were used. Thickness was measured using stereomicroscope. Permeability to fluids was evaluated through 0.2% erythrosine dye. Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC-25923) was used to check for microbial permeability. Tactile sensibility was assessed by 2-point discriminator test using 2-point-calipers on 30 volunteers. Chi-square test and Binary logistic regression analysis were used. Results: Mean thickness of gloves was 0.1333 (range: 0.1028-0.1799). Dye and microbial test showed 10.6% and 43.3% permeability of gloves, respectively. No significant difference was observed among brands. Thicker gloves (0.1285-0.1542) yielded lower touch sensibility (odds ratio: 0.783, P < 0.05). Decrease in tactility was recorded in 78.6% of volunteers with gloves compared to no gloves. Conclusion: Considerable microbial permeability suggests commercial examination gloves are unsafe. Balance between thickness, permeability and touch sensation should be established to decrease permeability maintaining same touch sensibility.
  2,638 308 1
Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among dentists: A pilot cross-sectional survey
Deepsikha Sahu, Shourya Tandon, Sonal Dhingra, BR Chinmaya, Sumanth Prasad, Esha Bali, Abhishek Ghosh
July-September 2015, 13(3):307-312
Introduction: Musculoskeletal symptoms are of major concern among dental practitioners. Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WRMSD) has been reported to have a high prevalence among dentists in different parts of the world. Aim: To assess the prevalence of self-reported WRMSD among dental professionals in Gurgaon, one particular region of Delhi National Capital Region (NCR). Materials and Methods: A pilot cross-sectional survey of 250 dentists (response 81%) was done using a self-administered questionnaire, which consisted of 21 items based on the Nordic questionnaire for screening WRMSDs. Participants work related physical load characteristics, musculoskeletal symptom characteristics, etc., were evaluated. Results: A total of 206 dentists participated in the study, of which 106 were male, and 100 were female. The study yielded a prevalence of 81.06% (167 dentists) of which 79 males and 88 females were affected with MSD. There were 104 dentists who were young aged 20-29 years, 41 were 30-39 aged, 11 were above 40-49, and > 50 years suffered from MSDs. Around 59.2% young dentists aged 20-29 years, 24.2% were 30-39 years, 4.8% were 40-49 years, and 5.8% were above 50 years who were right handed, 2.9% dentists of 20-29 years age, 1.94% were 30-39 years, and 0.97% were 40-49 years who were left handed. Conclusion: This study found an overall prevalence rate of 81% among dentists with WRMSD in Delhi NCR. The measures for improving education and ergonomic evaluations are indicated on a large scale to prevent a decline in work performance and the incidence of WRMSDs among Delhi NCR dentists.
  2,291 361 -
Formulation and evaluation of antimicrobial activity of Morus alba sol-gel against periodontal pathogens
Shilpa Gunjal, Anil V Ankola, Udaykumar Bolmal, Kirankumar Hullatti
July-September 2015, 13(3):331-336
Background: Periodontitis has a multifactorial etiology, with primary etiologic agents being pathogenic bacteria that reside in the subgingival area. Recent advances in the field of alternative medicine introduced various herbal products for the treatment of periodontitis. Aim: To assess and compare the antimicrobial activity of Morus alba sol-gel with chlorhexidine sol-gel against ATCC standard strains of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Tannerella forsythia. Materials and Methods: Crude extract of Morus alba leaves was prepared by Soxhlet method by using ethanol as a solvent. Phytochemical screening of the crude extract of M. alba was performed to check the various chemical constituents. M. alba sol-gel and chlorhexidine sol-gel were formulated using Pluronic f127 and Pluronic f108 and compared for their antimicrobial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration of both the gels was performed using agar well diffusion technique. Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration of M. alba sol-gel and chlorhexidine sol-gel against A. actinomycetemcomitans is 19 and 17 mm, T. forsythia is 12 and 21 mm, and P. gingivalis is 16 and 18 mm, respectively. Conclusion: Both M. alba and chlorhexidine sol-gel exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against periodontal pathogens.
  2,251 334 -
Assessment of self-medication among dental students in Pune city, Maharashtra: A cross-sectional survey
Dheeraj Deepak Kalra, Prajna V Kini, Rinku D Kalra, Vinod R Jathanna
July-September 2015, 13(3):318-323
Introduction: In the recent years, there has been an increasing trend in self-medication with nonprescription (over-the-counter) drugs available in pharmacies and retail outlets. There are both advantages and disadvantages of self-medication. Data pertaining to the prevalence of self-medication among dental students in India is scarce. Aim: To determine the level of self-medication among the dental students. Materials and Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted on 548 dental students from I BDS to IV BDS, interns, and postgraduate students, in classroom setting in census type, hand delivery of questionnaires was done. Out of that, 494 questionnaires were returned duly filled and analyzed. Data analysis were done using SPSS software (v 22.0, IBM). Results: A total of 40.9% of respondents indulged in self-medication. Both male and female dental students equally had a habit of taking medicines on their own. The most common drugs used for self-medication were antipyretics (46.56%), followed by analgesics (40.08%), and cough syrups (18.02%). Cold (19.43%) was the major indication for self-medication, followed by (18.02%) a cough, and (16.19%) was a fever. Most common reason not to see a doctor was that there is no need to see a doctor because of a simple disease (31.58%) followed by the need for a quick relief (20.45%). The predominant guiding sources of information for students was media (magazines and internet) (38.06%) and books (39.88%). Conclusion: The majority of students indulged in the practice of self-medication though they had poor knowledge of the benefits and risks.
  2,183 313 -
Awareness on smoking cessation counseling among dentists in Kerala, India
Benley George, Vinod Mathew Mulamoottil, Sunu Alice Cherian, Jacob John, T Aby Mathew, Shibu Thomas Sebastian
July-September 2015, 13(3):254-258
Introduction: Although dentists are ideally placed to deliver smoking cessation advice and assistance to their patients, smoking cessation interventions are not often incorporated as a routine part of dental care. Aim: To assess the awareness on smoking cessation counseling among dental practitioners in Kerala. Materials and Methods: A pretested questionnaire was used for the study. Four hundred and sixteen registered dentists practicing all over Kerala participated in the survey. Results: Dentists are willing to ask and advise patients about smoking, but are less inclined to assist patients to quit or arrange follow-up. Dentists are more likely to implement one-off, opportunistic interventions rather than take a systematic preventive approach. Dentists are interested in attending further education and say they require training to be relevant to the context of their day-to-day running of the dental practice. Conclusions: Training should aim to legitimize the dentist's role in smoking cessation and provide strategies and resources so that dentists can practice interventions as part of their day-to-day work.
  2,162 330 1
Patient satisfaction in outreach dental programs of a Dental Teaching Hospital in Modinagar (India)
Vaibhav Vashishtha, Basavaraj Patthi, Ashish Singla, Ritu Gupta, Ravneet Malhi, Venisha Pandita
July-September 2015, 13(3):324-327
Introduction: Patient satisfaction with dental services has received minimal attention in India. The perceptions of satisfaction of the oral health care service among patients in outreach dental programs and their level of satisfaction are an important factor toward improving the service provided. Aim: To assess patient satisfaction at outreach dental programs of a Dental Teaching Hospital in Modinagar India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients attending community dental outreach programs organized by the Dental Teaching Hospital over a period of 1-month. A total of 4 weekly and 1 monthly camp were included, and all the subjects who attended these camps were administered the pretested structured questionnaire. The questions were related to the satisfaction level of the patient in outreach dental camps and answers were recorded using a four-point "Likert" scale with Chi-square and independent t-test were used for statistical analysis. Results: The results showed that level of satisfaction among patients were higher in weekly camps (95.2%) as compared to monthly camps that is (80%). The response rate for the weekly camps was 95.2%, whereas for the monthly camp was 80%. Overall patient satisfaction scores with the care received ranged from the poor (1) to excellent (4). The highest reported levels of satisfaction were for the aspects of explanation of dental treatment by the doctor followed by meeting of perceived need of the patient with the treatment. Conclusion: Patient satisfaction with the community dental outreach programs was high, reflecting the delivery of quality treatment and positive attitude of the dental team during the camps. The overall high level of patient satisfaction reflected the dental team's approach of responsibility and accountability toward the target population.
  2,024 316 1
Association of maternal food choices with caries status and sugar consumption among preschool children in Vikarabad town
Md Shakeel Anjum, P Parthasarathi Reddy, M Monica, K Yadav Rao, Irram Abbas, Kistigari Poornima
July-September 2015, 13(3):285-291
Introduction: Children choose sweet, energy dense foods in preference to more nutritious options. Despite being aware about healthy food, mothers regularly purchase, prepare and allow their children to eat unhealthy food. Aims: To explore the association between the knowledge of mothers of preschool children about making food choices and oral health of their children and to assess the association with their children's sugar consumption and caries status. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 358 mother and child pairs from preschools and Anganwadi centers in the Vikarabad town of Ranga Reddy district in Telangana using simple random sampling. Data were collected using a questionnaire filled by their mothers who gathered their views on choices about food; a 3-day diet chart and clinical assessment of the children's caries status. Chi-square, t-test and ANOVA were used. Results: Majority of mothers were motivated by their child's preferences (51%), availability and accessibility of food products (19%) and affordability (15%) when making food choices for their children. Though, mothers had a favorable knowledge regarding food choices for their children and about oral health, it was not found to be associated with caries status of their children. However, the association between the sweet scores of the children and their caries status was significant. Conclusion:Though the mothers had favorable knowledge about providing healthy foods to their children, it did not reflect in their behavior when choosing foods. Higher sugar consumption of the children was associated with more dental caries.
  1,965 265 -
Influence of educational intervention on knowledge and attitude toward emergency management of traumatic dental injuries among nursing students in Davangere, India: Pre- and post-design
GY Yunus, Ambika Nalwar, GK Divya Priya, DJ Veeresh
July-September 2015, 13(3):228-233
Introduction: Dental trauma has become an important attribute of dental public health. The management of traumatized teeth depends on prompt and appropriate treatment, which often relies on knowledge of dentists, doctors, and nurses who render the initial care. Aims: To assess the level of knowledge and attitude toward traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) and their emergency management among nursing students in Davangere city. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted among the nursing students (240 students) in Davangere city. Pretest knowledge and attitude toward TDIs and its emergency management were assessed using a 21 items structured questionnaire followed by posttest knowledge and attitude assessment after delivering health education on the same day. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was applied to check the pre and post difference in the attitude, knowledge of the nursing students. Results: Post health education, a significant difference in knowledge about immediate emergency management of avulsed tooth and tetanus vaccination was observed (P < 0.005) and also in difference in attitude about need of treating avulsed tooth and emergency management of TDIs as one of their educational priorities was noted. Conclusions: Though nursing students have a good attitude toward the management of dental injuries but the lack of knowledge regarding the storage media and time management for avulsed tooth leads to undesirable practice in the management of TDIs.
  1,903 292 1
Assessment of the relationship among the oral health status, oral hygiene practices, and habits of school teachers in Mangalore city
Nishi Gupta, N Vanishree, Ashwini Rao, Peter Sequeira, Deepa Bullappa, N Naveen
July-September 2015, 13(3):274-279
Background: In India, teachers play an important role in providing long-term health education and changes in behavior. Aim: To assess the relationship among the oral health status, oral hygiene practices, and habits of primary and middle school teachers in Mangalore city. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey was carried out for 1½ months on 241 primary and middle school teachers in Mangalore city. Oral hygiene practices and habits were assessed using a questionnaire. The oral health status of the teachers was examined using simplified oral hygiene index, gingival index, and caries experience was scored using the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square were done. P < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: A total of 241 school teachers were included in the study. The majority of the males and females were in the age group of 30-39 years and 40-49 years, respectively. The increase in the gingival score in subjects was not statistically significant with the use of indigenous methods along with the brush. With respect to caries experience and oral hygiene practices, as the frequency of brushing increase, there was a decrease in the number of decayed and missing teeth and increase in the number of filled teeth (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The findings of this study highlight the importance of proper oral hygiene habits and its relationship of oral health status and recommend the continuous implementation of school-based programs to promote the oral health.
  1,893 252 1
Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in dental practitioners in Davangere, Karnataka: A cross-sectional survey
DJ Veeresh, GY Yunus, R Deepta
July-September 2015, 13(3):302-306
Introduction: Despite numerous advances in dentistry many occupational health problems still persist in modern dentistry, of which the most common is a musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) and pain is the most common symptom of MSD. Aim: To investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among the dental practitioners in Davangere and the prevalence of pain in different anatomic location. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 70 dental practitioners residing in Davangere city. A self-designed questionnaire containing eight questions was self-administered to all the available dentists at their place of work. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi- square test. Results: The prevalence of at least one musculoskeletal pain among the dentists was found to be 34.71%, and they reported a higher frequency of pain in the neck region (71%). Conclusions: Among the dentists practicing in Davangere, there was relatively lower prevalence of at least one musculoskeletal pain and the most common site of pain was neck region.
  1,840 269 -
Assessment of microbial contamination and oral health risks associated with handling of Indian currency notes circulating in Bengaluru city: A cross-sectional survey
DP Narayan, Mayur Nath T Reddy, BK Sujatha, Suvarna V Biradar
July-September 2015, 13(3):337-341
Introduction: Accumulated data obtained over the last 20 years on the microbial status and survival of pathogens on currency notes indicate that this could represent a potential cause of sporadic cases of food borne illness. Objectives: To identify the micro-organisms present on the Indian currency notes and the oral health risks due to microbial contamination of Indian currency notes circulating in Bengaluru city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted and the Indian currency notes of various denominations (Rs. 10, Rs. 20, Rs. 50, Rs. 100, Rs. 500, and Rs. 1000) were collected from fruit vendors, hawkers, vegetable vendors, bus conductors, railway ticket counters, hotel counters, and butchers. Sample size was determined to be 70 Indian currency notes. Convenience sampling technique was used. Microbiological analysis of the collected currency notes was done. Results: The contamination rate of collected currency notes from the butchers and hawkers were 80% and 60% respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was present on 15 currency notes (21.42%) and was found to be higher in Rs. 10 than in other currency denominations. Streptococcus pyogenes was present on four currency notes (5.714%) of Rs. 10. Conclusion: The Indian currency notes circulating in Bengaluru city were contaminated with pathogenic bacteria. The oral health risks due to microbial contamination of Indian currency notes are acute pharyngitis, peritonsillar or retropharyngeal abscess, mastoiditis, sinusitis, otitis media, mild cellulitis, angular cheilitis, some endodontic infections, osteomyelitis of the jaw, parotitis, and oral mucositis.
  1,826 276 -
Household out-of-pocket medical and dental expenses among residents of Modinagar city: A crossectional questionnaire study
Khushboo Singh, Basavaraj Patti, Ashish Singla, Ritu Gupta, Hansa Kundu, Swati Jain
July-September 2015, 13(3):264-268
Introduction: Out-of-pocket (OOP) payments are the principal source of health care finance in most Asian countries, and India is no exception. Availability and accessibility of the health care are important for the overall health status of any community. Aim: To assess the proportion of monthly family income spent on medical and dental expenses. Materials and Methods: A door to door survey was conducted in Govinpuri ward of Modinagar using dual stage random sampling. A 14-item open-ended questionnaire was used, which was filled by the investigator by interviewing the head of the family. Data were entered into Microsoft excel and analyzed using SPSS version 19 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: A total of 101 families were included in the study. The major amount of the monthly family income was spent on medical treatment as compared to dental treatment. The average OOP expenditure on the dental and medical treatment was 2135.94 ± 656.8 international normalized ratio (INR) and 8771.28 ± 1056.43 INR (P = 0.038), respectively. Medical insurance formed a substantial proportion of the monthly family expenditure as compared to dental insurance (P = 0.023). The total medical expenses were 13.21%, and dental expenses were 8.84% of family income. Conclusion: The present study revealed that the family expenditure on medical and dental treatments differs significantly among the peri-urban population of Modinagar. The average three-month expenditure on the dental treatment was found to be rather depressing when compared to that on medical discourse. There was also a pronounced difference in the dental and medical insurance utilization among the study population.
  1,676 264 -
Impact of dental trauma on oral health-related quality of life among 12 years Lucknow school children: A cross-sectional survey
Sanjukta Bagchi, Sabyasachi Saha, Vamsi Krishna Reddy, Pooja Sinha
July-September 2015, 13(3):239-243
Introduction: Dental trauma has become an important attribute of dental public health inducing feelings of embarrassment to smile, laugh, and show teeth affecting social relationships. Available literature regarding the impact of dental trauma on the quality of life of children in Lucknow is scarce. Aims: To assess the impact of traumatic dental injuries (TDI) on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among 12-year-old school going children of Lucknow. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 12-year-old Lucknow school children. A total of 492 school children were selected through multistage cluster random sampling. The participants completed the child perceptions questionnaire (CPQ 11-14) - impact short form: 16 followed by an assessment of TDI. Unpaired t-test was used to determine the association of TDI with CPQ 11-14 because it involved two separate groups; one with dental trauma and other without dental trauma. Results: The prevalence of TDI was 10.8%. Maxillary central incisors (8.73%) were the frequently traumatized teeth. Enamel fracture (7.11%) was the most common type of TDI. OHRQoL had statistically significant association with TDI. Conclusions: TDI has a negative impact on OHRQoL of children affecting their personal relationships and school performance.
  1,662 249 1
Assessment of oral health literacy among patients attending Malabar dental college and research centre in Kerala: A cross sectional survey
Mary Shimi S Gomez, BK Sujatha
July-September 2015, 13(3):328-330
Introduction: Oral health literacy is relatively a new, but critical concept to decrease disparities and increase oral health for all. Low oral health literacy contributes to oral disease which results in increased cost for vulnerable population such as poor, those with low levels of education, minorities, and the elderly. Aim: To assess oral health literacy among patients attending Malabar dental college and research centre in Kerala. Materials and Methods: Health literacy in dentistry scale questionnaire with 29 items was administered by the investigator to collect data related to oral health literacy among 272 patients attending Malabar Dental College and Research Centre. The collected data were compiled and statistically analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: The oral health literacy was assessed based on the interquartile range, of 272 patients, 23.9% of patients had poor oral health literacy, 57% were found to have moderate oral health literacy, and 19.1% patients were found to have good oral health literacy. The results were significant at P < 0.001. Conclusion: Oral health literacy was found to be moderate among patients attending Malabar Dental College and Research Centre.
  1,639 235 1
The association between dental health locus of control and sociodemographic factors among urban and rural people in Davangere, India
Pranati Eswar, CG Devaraj
July-September 2015, 13(3):259-263
Introduction:Oral diseases have underlying socio-behavioral determinants. Oral health promotion programs aimed at behavior modification will be effective if the factors that motivate health behaviors are known. One of the constructs widely used to predict and analyze health behaviors is the health locus of control scale (HLOC). Aim: To determine the association between sociodemographic factors and dental HLOC among a selected sample of urban and rural people in Davangere district, Karnataka state, India. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 300 people, 150 each from urban and rural area, aged 18 years and above. Sociodemographic data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire. Dental HLOC was assessed by a questionnaire prepared by the author in local language. The association between sociodemographic variables and dental HLOC was analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: Significantly more number of people in urban area had internal LOC when compared to rural people (P = 0.00). There was significant association between gender in rural areas (P < 0.001), education level (P < 0.001) and socioeconomic status (P < 0.001) with dental HLOC. There was no significant association between age, gender in urban areas and marital status with dental HLOC. Conclusions: Gender, education level and socioeconomic status were associated with dental HLOC beliefs. The findings can be useful in planning effective oral health promotion programs aimed at positive oral health behavior modification for people from varying sociodemographic backgrounds by modifying their health control beliefs.
  1,643 197 1

July-September 2015, 13(3):348-359
  1,588 195 -
Working conditions and personal characteristics: Predicting burnout among dental professionals in Mysore, India: A questionnaire survey
Swati Harilal Chainani, Siddana Sunitha, CVK Reddy, Maurya Manjunath, Sushma Rudraswamy
July-September 2015, 13(3):313-317
Introduction: Dentistry is a profession demanding physical and mental efforts. Increased workload, stress, poorer mental health, and reduced job satisfaction, these factors might combine, to increase the level of "burnout" among dental practitioners. Aim: To assess the burnout level among the dentist practising in Mysore city and to investigate the association between personal characteristics, working conditions and burnout. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the month of August-September 2011. A predesigned and pretested questionnaire of 22 items called Maslach Burnout Inventory - Human service Survey was distributed among the dentists to assess the burnout levels. The response was obtained using a Likert scale ranging from 0 to 6. Statistical analysis was carried out using Microsoft Excel and SPSS version 17 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The data were subjected to mean, standard deviation, and contingency coefficient test at 5% level of significance. Results: Emotional exhaustion was found to be high in 31 (22.1%), moderate in 16 (11.4%), and low in 93 (66.4%) of the dentists. High level of personal accomplishment was found in 63 (45.0%), moderate in 45 (32.1%), and low in 32 (22.9%) dentists. Depersonalization was found to be low in 63 (45.0%), moderate in 45 (32.1%), and high in 32 (22.9%) participants. Conclusion: Of the 140 participants, 16 (11.4%) were found to be at a high risk. 118 (84.3%) in moderate risk and 6 (4.3%) in low risk of burnout.
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Oro-facial pain perception and barriers to assess oral health care among the children with intellectual disability: A cross-sectional study
G Radha, Abhishek Jha, V Swathi
July-September 2015, 13(3):292-296
Introduction: Dental caries is one of the most prevalent diseases affecting children invariably across the world; a toothache is one of the common outcomes found to be associated with dental caries as pain perception is a subjective phenomenon reporting of pain may vary among different individuals. The aim of this study was to assess the difference in oral health status and pain perception related to oral health status among the children with intellectual disability (ID) and their normal counterparts. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 school children of 9-14 years with or without ID in Bangalore City, ethical clearance and informed consent were obtained. The study involved 50 children with ID and 50 children with non-ID (NID), of age group 9-14 years. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess participant's demographic profile, self-assessed medical and dental conditions. Clinical assessment was done for recording dental caries and gingival status. Dental pain was measured using the "Dental Discomfort Questionnaire +" given by Versloot et al. Results: It was found that children with ID had a higher score for D(T), and M(T) compared to NID control. This difference was statistically significant. Children with ID showed higher discomfort due to pain. Except for chewing on one side all other questions showed a significant difference between the groups. Conclusion: It was found that children with ID had a higher caries experience compared to NID control and showed significantly higher pain experience than children with NID.
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Comparison of caries and oral hygiene status of child laborers and school children: A cross-sectional study
Chanchal Gangwar, Manish Kumar, L Nagesh
July-September 2015, 13(3):280-284
Background: Child labor is recognized as a global health problem and child laborers are exposed to unique living, working conditions and face such events in life, which are not usually faced by other children. Research on its health impact and oral health impact has been very limited and inconsistent. Aim: The aim was to assess and compare dental caries and oral hygiene status of child laborers and school children of Bareilly city. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 child laborers by snowball sampling technique and 400 school children by random sampling technique were included in the study. A specially designed pretested proforma was used to collect data related to the sociodemographic profile, adverse habits and frequency of dental visits. Decayed, missing, and filled teeth index (DMFT) and oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) were used. Results: The mean age of child laborers and school children was 13.07 ± 1.3 and 13.03 ± 1.5. The majority of child laborers (82.8%) had no mouth rinsing habit. Tobacco-related habits were found among 37.8% of child laborers. Most of the child laborers (91%) never visited dentists. The mean DMFT was 3.8 ± 1.7 and 2.9 ± 1.6 for child laborers and school children, respectively, (P < 0.05). The mean OHI-S score was 2.3 ± 0.70 and 2.1 ± 0.9 in child laborers and school children, respectively, (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The study demonstrated that the child laborers have poorer oral health status with respect to dental caries and oral hygiene compared to school children.
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A study on adolescents to assess the impact of pictorial and textual warnings on panels of smoked and smokeless tobacco products in Western Maharashtra, India
Anand Thakur, KM Shivakumar, Snehal Patil, KV Suresh, Vidya Kadashetti
July-September 2015, 13(3):250-253
Introduction: Various pictorial and textual warnings are depicted with a hope that they will deter the individuals from using tobacco and inform them regarding the risks of tobacco. Yet there is lack of information regarding the comprehension of these signs by the adolescents. Aims: The aim was to explore the perception of the adolescents regarding the pictorial and textual warnings on tobacco packs. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 500 adolescents of Satara district using simple random sampling technique. A specially designed questionnaire was administered to assess understanding, credibility and persuasiveness of the pictorial and textual warnings on panel of smoked and chewable tobacco. A model containing the pictorial and textual warnings on panel of smoked and smokeless tobacco products were shown to the study subjects. Chi-square test was used for intergroup comparisons based on gender and age of the participants. The statistical analysis of data were done using SPSS version 20.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: Nearly one-third of the study participants had often noticed warnings on tobacco packs in the last month, had sometimes read or looked closely at the warnings on tobacco packs in the last month and had rarely talked with anyone about these warnings. About more than two-third of the study participants had found the warning related pictures as not easy to understand, not believable and that these images did not deter them from the likely use of tobacco, and it did not stop them from using tobacco. Conclusion: We can infer that the textual and pictorial warnings failed to have desired deterrent impact on the adolescent who tend to initiate or continue the tobacco use despite the warning.
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Liaison amid problem behavior and traumatic dental injury among children aged 12-15 years in Bhopal
Naveen S Yadav, Vrinda Saxena, Manish Jain, Kapil Paiwal
July-September 2015, 13(3):234-238
Introduction: Liaison amid problem behavior and traumatic dental injury among children aged 13-15 years are consequential due to multifactorial dental, orofacial skeletal, psycosocial behavior pattern. The probable etiology is been equated overjet; inadequate lip coverage is the major etiological factors accountable for traumatic dental injuries. Aims: The aim was to assess the relationship of problem behavior, type of lip coverage, and the size of overjet with the traumatic dental injury among children aged 12-15 years. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 children aged 12-15 years in Bhopal, India. Data were collected through clinical examinations in children and interviews with parents. Traumatic injuries were recorded according to Garcia-Goday's classification. The informant - rated version of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire was used to identify problems behavior. Results: About 16.4% subjects had more than 5 mm overjet, and 20.4% subjects had inadequate lip coverage. The largest number of injuries were presented by 15-year-old children (43.90%) followed by 14 and 13 years old children. The traumatic dental injury showed 6.8% association with problem behavior, age, sex, type of lip coverage, and the size of overjet. Conclusion: Problem behavior along with the type of lip coverage and the size of overjet plays a role in the occurrence of traumatic dental injury.
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Hon. Gen. Secretary's message
MB Aswath Narayanan
July-September 2015, 13(3):216-216
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From the Editor's desk
Manjunath P Puranik
July-September 2015, 13(3):217-217
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President's message
Ganesh Shenoy Panchmal
July-September 2015, 13(3):215-215
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