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   2017| April-June  | Volume 15 | Issue 2  
    Online since June 13, 2017

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Oral health status and treatment needs of asthmatic children aged 6 – 12 Years in Lucknow
Pramod Kumar Yadav, Sabyasachi Saha, Sanjay Singh, ND Gupta, Neha Agrawal, Kusum Bharti
April-June 2017, 15(2):122-126
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_136_16  
Introduction: Asthma is a growing public health problem affecting over 300 million people worldwide. Asthmatic children have an altered immune response and a high tendency to mouth breathing especially during an episode of rhinitis or an attack thus predisposing them to serious oral health problems. Aim: This study aims to assess oral health status of asthmatic children aged 6–12. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 450 asthmatic children aged 6–12 years in Lucknow, asthmatic children were chosen from pediatric department of major hospitals. Gingival index (GI), oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S), and dentition status and treatment need of World Health Organization oral health survey pro forma (1997) were used to assess oral health status. ANOVA, Chi-square test, and descriptive statistics were carried out. SPSS 16 was used for the data analysis. Results: Mean dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT) was 2.98 ± 1.52 and 3.05 ± 1.60, mean GI score was 1.55 ± 0.52 and 1.53 ± 0.42 and mean OHI-S was 2.59 ± 0.68 and 2.48 ± 0.77 among the male and female asthmatic children. Conclusion: Female asthmatic children had higher mean DMFT score, but lower mean GI score and oral hygiene score than male children in comparison and also they had a compromised oral hygiene status.
  2,187 374 -
Attitudes, experiences, and barriers to research and publishing among dental postgraduate students of Bengaluru City: A cross-sectional study
Aditi Hegde, Gopikrishna Venkataramana, Smitha B Kulkarni, Nithin N Bhaskar, Jeswin Jacob, Sourabha K Gangadharappa
April-June 2017, 15(2):157-161
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_11_17  
Background: Research experience not only enhances understanding but also instills evidence-based practice and improves skills. A natural successor to research is academic publishing. Unfortunately, student research itself is plagued by a number of barriers. Aim: To identify the attitudes, experiences, and barriers to research and publishing among dental postgraduate students of Bangalore city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey using purposive sampling technique was conducted among the dental postgraduate students of all specialties in Bengaluru city in the months of July–August 2015. A prevalidated, close-ended, self-administered questionnaire consisting of 26 questions was used. Data from 638 completed questionnaires were entered into and analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2013 and SPSS software version 14. Results: The majority of the students displayed a positive attitude towards research and stated that they would like more opportunities to take part in research (89%). Most students were positive toward publishing research; 94% agreed that it is important to publish, although only 43.7% had submitted an article for publication. The single most often stated barrier to conducting research was a lack of funding from the institution (15.7%), followed by workload and time constraints (15.0%). Lack of training and good mentorship was the most often (23.3%) faced barrier to publishing, along with high publication fee for indexed journals (17.9%). Conclusion: Dental postgraduate students show an urge to conduct research and publish their results. Research-related workshops for teachers and students are suggestions for improving the status of research in dental colleges.
  2,012 301 1
The hand hygiene objective graphical assessment index: An index to assess macroscopic hand hygiene efficiency
Jishnu Krishna Kumar, Basavaraj Patthi, Ashish Singla, Ritu Gupta, Monika Prasad, Irfan Ali
April-June 2017, 15(2):116-121
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_161_16  
Introduction: Infectious diseases are a global health problem, and are a major cause of infant mortality. Most middle- and low-income countries have a heavy burden of communicable diseases. There has been no relevant picture pertaining to individual/public hand hygiene because there is no measure to quantify, categorize or compare macroscopic hand scrub levels. Aim: This study aims to present a new index to assess the macroscopic hand hygiene scrub levels. Methodology: The Hand Hygiene Objective Graphical Assessment Index (HOGAI) records the hand hygiene levels based on the net area “not covered” during a hand scrub procedure and labels it into inadequate, basic, intermediate, adequate, advanced, and establishes it on examination of 171 participants. The data were subjected to quantitative analysis, and nonparametric tests were used. Chi-square test was used to test the difference between the males and females. Results: The total percentage of area not covered during the hand scrub ranged from 3.87% to 15.78%. The mean age of the participants were 20.99 (±2.33) years, where 41.52% had “Basic” level of hand hygiene followed by 35.67% having “Intermediate” level and a total of 19.88% had “Adequate” level of hand hygiene with 2.34% at “Advanced” level whereas 0.59% of the participants had “Inadequate” hand hygiene level. On comparison, a nonsignificant statistical difference (P ≥ 0.05) was noted pertaining to hand hygiene assessment between the two gender groups under study. Conclusion: The use of HOGAI paves a landmark into the neglected problem of lack of proper hand scrub and can be utilized in future to train and monitor better hand scrub practices. It complements with relevant information for epidemiologist and policy makers to improve hand scrub guidelines and macroscopic assessment.
  1,962 347 -
Assessment of empathy among clinical dental students in a teaching dental institution in Telangana State, India
V Siva Kalyan, S Manjula, T Madhavi Padma, K. V. N. R. Pratap, P Vineela, Surya Chandra Varma
April-June 2017, 15(2):162-165
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_174_16  
Introduction: The understanding of patient's view is considered as an important component in doctor–patient relationship. The health-care provider with an empathetic understanding may perceive patient's need as more reasonable and thus therapeutic. Aim: To assess empathy among clinical dental students in a teaching dental institution. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among clinical dental students during the period between June 2016 and July 2016 in a teaching dental institution in Khammam town. Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Health Care Provider Student version was used to assess empathy among the students in this study. Gender differences were analyzed using t-test, and one-way ANOVA was used for comparison of empathy scores across year of study. P< 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 364 students participated in the study with a mean age of 22.76 ± 2.4 years. Males exhibited more empathy (86.54 ± 7) compared to females. The mean empathy level was found to be highest for the postgraduates (85.92 ± 6.5) followed by 3rd year students (P = 0.0943). Conclusion: There is a need to train these students not only from technical point of view but also in “life skills” such as communication, interpersonal relationship and empathy.
  1,984 319 5
Barrier-free dental health care: A situation analysis of the dental care settings and providers' attitudes in private dental clinics for the movement-disabled in Bengaluru City
Vyoma Grandhi Venkatesh, Nagashree Savanur Ravindranath, Rekha Raju
April-June 2017, 15(2):166-169
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_204_16  
Introduction: Movement-disabled individuals require oral health care like everyone else. However, they face a multitude of accessibility issues. Since private dental clinics are the most commonly utilized type of oral health care in India, it becomes pertinent to know how accessible these clinics are for movement-disabled individuals. Aim: To assess the accessibility of private dental clinics in Bengaluru city to movement-disabled people. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a random sample of 250 dentists practicing at private dental clinics in Bengaluru city using a structured questionnaire. The data were entered into the Microsoft Office Excel 2007 and were analyzed. Chi-square test was done to assess the association of dentists' previous experience in treating mobility-disabled patients and their attitude toward treating such patients. Results: In the current study, 81.2% (203) of the respondents expressed willingness to treat mobility-disabled individuals. However, wheelchair provision was present in only 15.6% (39) of the clinic, and only one-fifth of the clinics had a slope or ramp for facilitating entry of wheelchair-bound individuals. Gurneys, stretchers, and ceiling-mounted lifts were present in <10% of the private dental clinics. The reasons for poor accessibility to movement disabled were reported as lack of financial resources followed by lack of utilization of facilities by movement-disabled individuals. Conclusion: The dentists displayed favorable attitude toward treating movement-disabled individuals. However, only a few private dental clinics met the architectural requirements and were equipped for treating such patients.
  1,994 247 -
Comparison of chewing ability, oral health-related quality of life, and nutritional status before and after the insertion of complete denture among edentulous patients in Lucknow
Punit Karmacharya, Sabyasachi Saha, Minti Kumari
April-June 2017, 15(2):145-150
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_121_16  
Introduction: Reduction in chewing ability is one of the most impactful sequels resulting from oral disorders and is a common problem reported among elderly adults. This tends to make them more irritable and to lose interest in life. One of the major problems among the old age people is loss of teeth, affecting their chewing ability, dietary intake, and overall general health. Aim: To assess and compare the chewing ability, oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL), and nutritional status before and after insertion of complete denture among elderly edentulous patients attending the Dental Hospital, Lucknow. Materials and Methods: An intervention study design was used and nonprobability convenience sampling method was used. The population under the study consisted of edentulous patients, both males and females aged 50 years and above. A predesigned questionnaire was used to collect the data that include sociodemographic information and oral hygiene practices. Clinical examination was done using Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI), Mini Nutritional Assessment, and body mass index. Comparisons between pre- and post-insertion of denture were evaluated at three levels, at baseline and 1st and 3rd month. Results: Chewing ability, GOHAI, and data from food intake questionnaire showed statistically significant improvement from baseline to 3rd month, but calf circumference had no statistically significant improvement. Conclusion: The denture insertion was effective in increasing the chewing ability, food intake, and OHRQoL in the elderly.
  1,787 315 1
Knowledge and usage of evidence based practice among dentists in Modinagar City: A questionnaire based study
Jishnu Krishna Kumar, Basavaraj Patthi, Ashish Singla, Ritu Gupta, Monika Prasad, Kuldeep Dhama
April-June 2017, 15(2):170-176
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_206_16  
Introduction: Dentistry has witnessed various innovative advancements, and there is a requirement of evidence-laden progress to cater better oral care and clinical knowledge. Good and sound dental practice relies not on fragments of selected evidence but rather on the collection of best available research evidence. Aim: To determine the various factors affecting utilization of evidence-based practice among dental academicians, clinicians, and academicians with clinical practice. Materials and Methods: A close-ended questionnaire on evidence-based dentistry (EBD) was distributed among the dental fraternity in Modinagar city, India, to analyze their awareness, understanding, transitional views, and major barriers faced in practicing EBD. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 19.0 and were subjected to Chi-square test to determine the significant difference between the dental professionals (P < 0.05). Results: A significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) was noted between the percentage scores of all the three groups of dentists under comparison, except the context of awareness about systematic review and databases along with a term “number needed to treat.” Among all the dentists, 90% of full-time clinicians had only heard about EBD but had not utilized it in clinical practice and felt need for lengthy discussion with a patient to be the primary barrier to evidence-based practice, while 83.33% of academicians with clinical practice had read through scientific literature. Transitional views of 79.37% of academicians suggested seeking and applying evidence-based summaries to practice than applying conventional skills in EBD. Conclusion: Full-time dental practitioners were not sufficiently familiarized in utilizing EBD in comparison with the full-time academicians or dentists carrying out both academics and clinical practice. Clinicians relied on conventionally told facts than utilization of information technology to improve evidence-based practice.
  1,803 289 2
Estimating concentration of fluoride in edible leaves locally grown around Raipur, Chhattisgarh
Anubhuti Jain, Ashok Kumar Mohapatra, GY Yunus, Ram Tiwari, Abhinav Parakh, Swati Verma
April-June 2017, 15(2):177-180
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_208_16  
Introduction: Fluorine is the 13th most abundant element in the earth crust and is available in various environmental, clinical, and food samples in varied concentrations. Aim: To estimate concentration of fluoride in five medicinal and five nonmedicinal edible leaves locally grown around Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India. Materials and Methods: Samples of ten medicinal and nonmedicinal edible leaves, namely, spinach (Spinacia oleracea), coriander leaves (Coriandrum sativum), chawli bhaji (Amaranthus spinach), lal bhaji (Alternanthera bettzickiana), mooli bhaji (Raphanus sativus), neem (Azadirachta indica), tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum), mint leaves (Mentha longifolia), betel leaves (Piper betle), and bael leaves (Aegle marmelos) were collected in the clean polyethene bags. After thorough washing with water, leaves were left to dry in ambient temperature and crushed into powder using a mixer grinder. One gram of each of the powdered samples was taken and analyzed for fluoride concentration using a 2-(4-sulfophenylazo) 1,8-dihydroxy-3,6-naphthalenedisulfonic acid trisodium salt spectrophotometric method. Results: The presence of fluoride in varied concentrations in locally grown edible leaves were analyzed. The highest concentration of fluoride was reported in tulsi (6.0 μg/g) and lowest in mint leaves (1.1 μg/g). Two edible leaves, neem and bael, showed fluoride concentration below detection limit. Conclusion: Knowledge regarding the importance of edible leaves may be lost in the near future unless efforts are made to educate younger generations about their importance. Hence, the time has come to make good use of centuries-old knowledge through modern approaches for their better economic and therapeutic utilization.
  1,808 239 -
Caries status and salivary characteristics of South Indian school children with molar incisor hypomineralization: A cross-sectional study
Allwyn Samuel, Sharath Asokan, PR Geethapriya
April-June 2017, 15(2):135-139
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_39_17  
Introduction: Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a common developmental condition resulting in enamel defects in first permanent molars and permanent incisors. Aims: This study aims to determine the prevalence of MIH in school children aged 8–12 years in Tiruchengode, Tamil Nadu, South India. The caries status and the salivary characteristics of children with and without MIH were compared. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 4495 children were screened. Children with hypomineralized permanent molars and incisors were diagnosed using the European Academy of Pediatric Dentistry criteria. The caries severity was assessed using the International Caries Detection Assessment System II scoring criteria. The saliva and plaque samples of 50 children with MIH and 50 children with molar hypomineralization (MH) children were collected in a sterile container. Similarly, saliva and plaque sample of the 100 children with no caries and no MIH (control group) were collected and compared with the MIH/MH children. Salivary pH, buffering capacity, and plaque pH were estimated. The data were subjected to statistical analysis using the SPSS software version 17.0. Pearson and Student's t-test were used to compare the data. P =0.05 or less was considered to be of statistical significance. Results: The prevalence of MIH/MH was 5.25% (n = 236) in Tiruchengode district. Among the children, 3.33% (n = 150) boys and 1.91% (n = 86) girls had MIH/MH. The prevalence of dental caries in children with MIH/MH was 52.1% (n = 123 children). Conclusion: MIH is an important clinical problem that often concerns both the general dentists and pediatric dentists. Creating awareness about this condition, early diagnosis, and prompt treatment among the dentists, and population is obligatory, especially in countries like India.
  1,547 316 -
Dental fluorosis and oral health status of 13–15-Year-Old school children of Chikkaballapur District: A cross-sectional study
Punith Shetty, A Shamala, R Murali, Y Mansi, Roomani Srivastava, Arpan Debnath
April-June 2017, 15(2):140-144
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_45_17  
Introduction: The high prevalence, severity, and the crippling nature of oral diseases lead to significant absenteeism in schools and economic loss in the working population. Dental fluorosis is endemic in 15 states of India and Chikkaballapur district is one among them. Aim: To assess dental fluorosis and oral health status and in Chikkaballapur district among 13–15 years school going children. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 2400 school going children of 13–15-year-old in Chikkaballapur district. The data regarding the dental fluorosis were collected using the Thylstrup and Fejerskov index. The clinical examination for the oral health status was determined using the WHO Oral Assessment Form 1997. Proportions were compared using Chi-square test, and one-way analysis of variance was used to test the differences. Results: It was seen that the mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth was highest among the 13-year-old at 1.39. Bleeding on probing and calculus was highest among 15-year-old with 83.5% and 84.6%, respectively. The prevalence of dental fluorosis in Chikkaballapur district was found to be 41.1%. Conclusion: The oral health status of the individuals was poor, and the prevalence of fluorosis was high. There is a need to create awareness regarding oral health and fluorosis.
  1,559 241 -
Oral health status among workers of lead acid battery factories in Ghaziabad: A cross-sectional study
Hansa Kundu, P Basavaraj, Ashish Singla, Ritu Gupta, Swati Jain, Khushboo Singh
April-June 2017, 15(2):127-130
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_135_16  
Introduction: Oral health is a vital part of general health which not only depends on the environment in which a person lives but also the one in which he/she works. Exposure to various harmful substances in lead acid battery factory affects various organ systems of the body including tissues of the oral cavity. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the oral health status among production line workers of lead acid battery factories in Ghaziabad. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1400 production line workers of twenty lead acid battery factories in Ghaziabad. The sample comprised all the workers in the factories including the production line. Oral health status was assessed using the WHO oral health assessment form, 2013. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 19. Results: The mean age of the study group (production line workers) was 32.15 ± 7.91 years and of control group (nonproduction line workers) was 31.49 ± 7.62 years. Mean years of experience were 10.90 ± 7.35 for production line workers and 9.07 ± 5.97 years for nonproduction line workers. Prevalence of gingival bleeding was present among 89.10% of the study group workers and 80.90% of control group workers (P < 0.001). Periodontal pockets were found to be present in 43.3% of workers when compared to 25.6% of control group workers (P = 0.001). Prevalence of dental erosion was found to be 55.5% among study groups as compared to 1.4% among the controls (P < 0.001). Conclusion: This study documents the association of various oral conditions with workplace environment. The present study points the need of establishing appropriate educational, preventive, and treatment measures coupled with efficient surveillance and monitoring in the workplace environment.
  1,530 217 -
Perceptions on faculty development among dental faculty in Andhra Pradesh
Sudharani N. V. Guntupalli, Suresh Sanikommu, Srinivas Pachava, Devaki Talluri, Srinivas Ravoori, Siva Kumar Pydi, Narayana Rao Vinnakota
April-June 2017, 15(2):151-156
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_177_16  
Introduction: Development of the teaching skills by the faculty has become a critical component of health professionals' education. Faculty development is an important tool for improving educational standards. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the perceptions on faculty development among dental faculty members in Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted during the months of August and September 2015 in five randomly selected dental institutions of Dr. NTR University of Health Sciences, Andhra Pradesh. Semi-structured, self-administered questionnaires were distributed to faculty members who were present on the day of survey and collected personally. Chi-square test was used to analyze the categorical data using SPSS version 20. Results: A total of 130 respondents returned duly filled forms. Mean age of the respondents was 34.7 ± 6.53 years. Nearly 80% of the respondents never attended any faculty development program. Preponderance of the respondents reported a lack of any established faculty development program in their respective institutions. Half of the respondents reported that they had not received any support from their institutions for improving their teaching skills. The most frequently reported barrier for faculty development was a lack of initiation from authorities followed by excessive clinical and teaching load. Majority of the respondents felt that faculty development programs can improve standards of dental education and quality of dental care. Ninety-three percent of the faculty members were interested in attending faculty development programs. Conclusion: It is time for the institutions and authorities to initiate reforms to remove the barriers and provide institutional support for faculty development programs.
  1,444 215 -
Prevalence and severity of dental erosion among jeep battery manufacturing workers at Metagalli, Mysore: A cross-sectional study
Jyothi Chavan, Anjan Giriraju
April-June 2017, 15(2):131-134
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_199_16  
Introduction: Majority of people employed in various industries are exposed to hazardous environment. Exposure to chemical agents in the workplace can result in adverse effects on workers. This exposure deteriorates the general and oral health of people, working in industries for long hours. Aim: The aim is to assess the prevalence and severity of dental erosion among battery manufacturing factory workers at Metagalli, Mysore, Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 175 jeep battery manufacturing factory workers were enrolled and divided into study and comparison groups based on acid exposure. Demographic details of workers were recorded. Severity of dental erosion was calculated using Smith and Knight tooth wear index. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17.0 software. Chi-square test was used to compare the categorical variables. Results: The prevalence of dental erosion among the jeep battery manufacturing factory workers was 80%. Majority of the participants in the study group had severe degree of dental erosion (scores of 3 and 4) when compared to the comparison group. Conclusion: Dental erosion was more prevalent among the jeep battery manufacturing factory workers. Study participants were the more affected group with dental erosion when compared to comparison group.
  1,260 200 -
LETTER TO EDITOR
Inverse care law still holds for oral health care in India despite so many dental graduates: Where do we lack?
Sukhvinder Singh Oberoi, G Gautam, Avneet Oberoi, Roma Yadav
April-June 2017, 15(2):181-182
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_119_16  
  1,179 194 1
HON SECRETARY MESSAGE
Hon secretary message
Sabyasachi Saha
April-June 2017, 15(2):114-114
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_81_17  
  1,189 151 -
FROM THE EDITORíS DESK
From the editor's desk
Manjunath P Puranik
April-June 2017, 15(2):115-115
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_84_17  
  1,152 157 -
PRESIDENTS MESSAGE
President's message
MB Aswath Narayanan
April-June 2017, 15(2):113-113
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_83_17  
  1,119 174 -
IAPHD NEWS
JIAPHD news

April-June 2017, 15(2):183-189
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