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   2020| July-September  | Volume 18 | Issue 3  
    Online since October 24, 2020

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Maternal knowledge and attitude about the relationship of periodontitis and its adverse obstetric outcomes in India
Ambar Khan, Basavaraj Patthi, Chandrashekar Janakiram, Ashish Singla, Ravneet Malhi, Divyangi Goel
July-September 2020, 18(3):221-227
Background: Pregnancy is not a disease, but a normal physiological process; still it is associated with certain risk to the health and survival of both the mother and the child. Oral health is an essential component of the overall health status of a pregnant woman. Aim: This study aims to assess the knowledge and attitude about the association between periodontitis and its adverse obstetric outcomes among pregnant women in Modinagar, North India. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based study was conducted, which comprised of pregnant women visiting for Antenatal checkup at a public health care (Community Health Care) system in Modinagar, a North Indian city. A self-administered validated questionnaire in local language (Hindi) was used. This 30-item closed ended questionnaire consisted of different domains of oral hygiene practices, importance of periodontitis obstetric outcomes and demographic information. A 5 – point Likert scale was used to assess the attitudes of pregnant women. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 21.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Mean, Standard deviation, and Independent t-test were used to compare the knowledge and attitude about the association of maternal periodontitis and its adverse obstetric outcomes between the two groups of women: Prima gravida and Multi gravida. P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Two hundred pregnant women participated in the study (50% each of Prima gravida and Multi gravida). The mean age of participants was found to be 32.88 ± 0.86 years. Most of the study population had poor knowledge (33%) and attitude (18.4%) about the association between maternal periodontitis and its adverse obstetric outcomes. For knowledge, a mean difference of 0.23 (P ≤ 0.05) between the two groups, which was found to be significant regarding whether visiting a dentist during pregnancy is necessary. First time pregnant (Prima gravida) has less knowledge compared with Multi gravida women regarding poor oral health which can lead to any complications during pregnancy. Conclusions: There is a knowledge deficit about pregnancy-induced periodontitis symptoms, prevention of complications and about the impact of obstetric outcomes among the mothers. Health-care providers should implement the focused health education programs during antenatal visit.
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From the Editor's Desk
KR Sowmya
July-September 2020, 18(3):191-191
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Role of public health dentists toward enhancing the value of dentistry in India
Puneet Gupta
July-September 2020, 18(3):192-192
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Honorary Secretary's Message
Vamsi Krishna Reddy
July-September 2020, 18(3):190-190
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Centre: Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal

July-September 2020, 18(3):271-271
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Probiotic potential of daily consumption of homemade curd on dental plaque among schoolchildren: A randomized controlled trial
Varsha Manoharan, Nusrath Fareed, Hemant Battur, Jaseela Praveena, Pragati Ishwar
July-September 2020, 18(3):193-198
Background: Probiotics are live microorganisms having the potential to convert a dysbiotic bacterial environment into a healthy one. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the probiotic potential of homemade curd on the quantity and quality of dental plaque among schoolchildren. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial. A total of 30 schoolchildren were enrolled in this study, 15 participants in each group. The participants in the intervention group were provided with one cup of freshly prepared homemade curd for a period of 30 days. An evaluation was done at baseline, after 30 days, and after a washout period of 14 days which involved both quantitative and qualitative (Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacilli, and anaerobic bacterial counts in colony-forming units [CFUs]/ml) analysis of dental plaque. Results: A statistically significant difference was not observed for quantitative changes in mean plaque score among the interventional and control groups at various stages of evaluation. Qualitative analysis after 30 days yielded a significant reduction in the number of microbial CFUs of S. mutans ([208 (126.5, 268)] vs. [132 (94.5, 156.5)] P < 0.001), lactobacillus ([3 (1, 5)] vs. [2 (1, 2)] P < 0.001), and anaerobic bacteria ([232 (165, 251)] vs. [190 (127.5, 237.5)] P < 0.001) among the intervention group. Gradual recolonization of microorganism was observed following the cessation of curds. Conclusion: This study concludes that homemade curds have a probiotic effect on both aerobic and anaerobic organisms of dental plaque. However, statistically significant changes were not observed for quantitative analysis of dental plaque.
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Prevalence of early childhood caries among children attending anganwadis in Davangere City: A cross sectional survey
Puja Chandrashekar Yavagal, Chandrabhaga S Velangi, Ishita Singh, Prathmesh Desai, Christy Helen Sunny
July-September 2020, 18(3):199-203
Background: Early childhood caries (ECC) is a public health problem and children from low-income and minority families are particularly vulnerable to it. Aim: This study aims to assess prevalence of ECC among children attending Anganwadis in Davangere City. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 349 children aged 2–5 years selected via cluster random sampling, attending Anganwadis in Davangere city. Caries experience was assessed using decayed missing filled teeth (dmft) index (the WHO-criteria) and ECC was recorded. IBM SPSS Statistics software version 19 was used for statistical analysis and significance level was set at P < 0.05. Descriptive data were generated in percentages. Chi-square test, Kuskall–Wallis test and Man–Whitney U-test were used for statistical analyses. Results: A total of 349 children, with mean age 3.8 ± 1.3 years, were examined. Among them, 47.7% were boys and 52.3% girls. The prevalence of ECC was 52.9%. The prevalence of ECC increased with the increasing age. It was significantly higher among 5-year-old female children compared to males (P = 0.02). The mean dmft of study population was 1.16 ± 1.54. There was only one detectable filled tooth among study population. Conclusion: The high prevalence of ECC (52.9%), along with very low prevalence of filled teeth among the Anganwadi children of Davangere city is a cause of concern. It suggests unmet dental treatment needs. Therefore, there is a need for caries preventive and treatment programs for this section of children.
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Do social support and social network influence dental caries in 12–14-year-old schoolchildren of Hyderabad City? – A cross-sectional study
Vishnu Priya Sadhu, M D Shakeel Anjum, V Divya, Vinila Tenali, T Sravya, M Jyothi
July-September 2020, 18(3):204-209
Background: Evidence on the influence of psychosocial factors (social support and social network) on dental caries is scarce in the Indian literature. This assessment is even more important in children, owing to the serious complications of caries that could make their daily activities painful. Aim: We aimed to study if social support and social network influence dental caries among 12–14-year-old schoolchildren of Hyderabad city. Methodology: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted on a sample of 1015 students, and information about social support (using the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support) and social network (2 questions on number of friends and family members) was recorded. Caries was assessed through the “WHO Dentition Status and Treatment Needs 1997 pro forma” and Decayed, Missed, and Filled Teeth (DMFT) (caries experience) was calculated. Correlation between psychosocial and outcome (D and DMFT) variables followed by binary logistic regression with D and DMFT as the outcome variables in two models were conducted using SPSS 24 with a significance level set at P < 0.05. Results: The mean social support score was 4.10. Almost half of them had a good network of friends and family members. A significant negative correlation was found between “social network family” and both the outcome variables. None of the psychosocial variables predicted caries in the regression. Conclusion: Although psychosocial variables could not predict caries, teaching children about their importance in life and influence on oral health would not only minimize caries but make them healthy and happy.
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The challenge of late presentation by dental patients in our climes: Reasons behind the enigma
Adebayo Aremu Ibikunle, Abdurrazaq Olanrewaju Taiwo, Ramat Oyebunmi Braimah, Olawale Adamson, Azeez Fashina, Mujtaba Bala
July-September 2020, 18(3):210-215
Background: Late presentation among patients is a global phenomenon. It exerts deleterious effects on health-care indices. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess reasons for late presentation by patients and interventions implemented. Materials and Methods: This study was done at the dental outpatient clinic of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital following ethical approval. A survey of patients aged 18 years and above who presented with more than 1-month history of symptoms was done using an adaptation of a validated questionnaire. Data analysis was done using the IBM SPSS Statistics version 20 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). Categorical data were compared among groups using Chi-square test and the level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: One hundred and seven participants were included in the analysis. A male-to-female ratio of 1.4:1 and a mean age of 30.9 ± 11.4 years were observed. Most participants were of low socioeconomic status. A comparison of the socioeconomic status of the participants between genders revealed no statistically significant difference (P = 0.289). Forty-five (42.1%) participants had never visited a dental clinic before. Notably, the pain was the most common symptom encountered in 63 (58.9%) participants. Majority of the respondents had experienced symptoms for 1–3 months 30 (28%). The most frequent reason for the late presentation was that respondents had “tried other medications” (23 [21.5%]). Fear alone or in combination with other factors was the reason in 18 (16.8%) patients, majority of whom were females (11 [61.1%]). Where fear was the underlying reason, the fear of contracting disease had a significant presence (8 [44.4%]). Conclusion: The reasons underlying the late presentation in our climes are varied. Self-medication featured prominently and should therefore be discouraged. Moreover, awareness of dental treatment among the populace should be improved.
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Coloring sheets for oral health education on prevention of dental caries in children: Development and evaluation
Archana Krishna Murthy, Nusrath Fareed, SS Hiremath
July-September 2020, 18(3):216-220
Background: Dental caries is a globally prevalent disease among children. Many preventive measures are effective, one among them being oral health education (OHE). OHE using activity-based techniques has been found useful for children. Aim: This study aims to develop and evaluate the coloring sheets (CSs) for educating children on the prevention of dental caries. Subjects and Methods: Activity sheets already existent in the literature were reviewed and content validation using the Lawshe method was applied. In addition, the design, cultural acceptability and suitability of use of the CS were assessed. The resultant CS was applied to 411 7–8-year-old children in their classrooms. The responses were compiled and proportion of correct responses for each item were calculated. Results: Ten items that were protective and harmful to teeth were unanimously accepted by the panelists. It was decided to use a happy or a sad tooth to indicate the choice of the child. A nonglossy paper with white background suitable for coloring with a crayon was used. A revised CS was finalized on the A4-sized sheet. The mean score for correct responses was 9.61 ± 0.54. Compared to other items, milk was scored incorrectly by significantly higher proportion of children. Conclusion: The CS can be used to educate children on the prevention of dental caries.
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Impact of educational intervention on oral health knowledge among AYUSH workers in Sriganganagar, Rajasthan – A quasi experimental study
Parul Sharma, Simarpreet Singh, Anmol Mathur, Manu Batra, Vikram Pal Aggarwal, Mankirat Kaur Gill
July-September 2020, 18(3):228-231
Background: Young children receive no dental care though they are frequently visiting AYUSH workers for routine medical check-ups. These checks-ups can be integrated with oral health to uplift the oral health status of children by taking advantage of an existing network of the workforce who has made roots into the existing society. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of educational intervention on oral health knowledge among AYUSH workers. Materials and Methods: Quasi-experimental study design was used among AYUSH workers registered under RBSK program in the Ganganagar district. A close-ended questionnaire was prepared. The intervention was carried out by a PowerPoint presentation regarding oral health after data collection. The same questionnaire was mailed again to the doctors after 1 month, with 1-week duration to respond back. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square and paired t-test using SPSS v22. Chi-square and paired t-test were used for analysis. P value was considered significant at <0.05. Results: Posttest analyses showed an overall increase in the knowledge level of AYUSH health care workers with a mean 13.22 ± 1.40, which was highly significant (P < 0.001), whereas the mean pretest score was 8.37 ± 2.8. Conclusion: The utilization of AYUSH health care workers at the grass root level can be used to provide basic oral health education to the general population in rural areas where the dentist-to-population ratio is low.
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Oral health status and treatment needs among multiple factory workers, Tumkur City – A cross sectional study
Mythri Halappa
July-September 2020, 18(3):232-235
Background: The oral cavity is a port for entry of many diseases and presents several unique features which make it especially prone to occupational disease. Aim: To describe the oral health problems among multiple factory workers of Tumkur city. Methodology: A cross-sectional, observational study was designed to include multiple (garment, leather, cement, and food) factories. A total of 3551 workers who voluntarily gave consent to participate were included and the data were recorded using modified WHO proforma - 2013. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 19.0, IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). Descriptive statistics and Spearmen's correlation were applied and the P < 0.05 were considered as significant. Results: The mean age of the study participants was 32.12 ± 2.02 years. Oro mucosal lesions were found among 15.8% of people and 1.6% of subjects had leukoplakia. Alveolar ridge/gingiva (28%) was the most common site of occurrence for oro-mucosal lesions. The mean Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) was 3.11 ± 1.72. There was a positive correlation with age and all other parameters such as oro-mucosal lesions, decayed status, treatment needs, periodontal conditions and prosthetic status (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Oral health among multiple factory workers was poor. There was a trend of increase in DMFT, prosthetic need, oro-mucosal lesion along with the age of the factory workers which was statistically highly significant.
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Professional satisfaction among dental practitioners of Telangana State: A cross-sectional study
Arun Shyam, R Dande
July-September 2020, 18(3):236-239
Context: During the last decade, there has been a high increase in the number of dentists and dental practices in India. However, the literature on professional satisfaction among dental practitioners is lacking. Aims: This study aims to assess the level of professional satisfaction and to understand the effect of various factors associated with professional satisfaction among Telangana state dental practitioners. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted for 2 months. Materials and Methods: Four hundred dental practitioners were approached. They were surveyed through a self-administered questionnaire. A modified version of the Dentist Satisfaction Survey was used to measure professional satisfaction. Data analysis was carried out using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 18). Step-wise multiple regression was done to predict the effect of explanatory variables on outcome variable. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: A response rate of 56% was achieved. The mean score of overall professional satisfaction was 2.1 ± 1.4 out of 5. A high percentage of the dental practitioners showed satisfaction with respect, patient relations and delivery of care. The least satisfying factors were income and personal time. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that income, patient relations (<0.001) and age were the significant predictors of overall professional satisfaction (adjusted R2 = 0.93). Conclusion: Telangana state dental practitioners showed a low level of overall professional satisfaction. This study suggests that patient relations, income and age are important predictors of professional satisfaction.
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Knowledge, attitude, and practices of dentists of aligarh and mathura regarding shortened dental arch therapy in elderly: A questionnaire study
Neha Agrawal
July-September 2020, 18(3):240-245
Background: There is an escalating demand for geriatric oral health care in all developed and developing countries including India. Dental caries and periodontal diseases are the most common dental disorders, which cause loss of teeth, mostly molars among elderly, creating high unmet needs. A complete dental arch is usually wanted, though not affordable, nor always achievable, especially in old age dental patients with compromised general health. Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) toward shortened dental arch (SDA) concept among dentists of Aligarh and Mathura (Uttar Pradesh, India). Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 307 dentists working as academicians or clinicians or both in Aligarh and Mathura. KAP of dentists regarding SDA concept was assessed using a pretested structured self-administered questionnaires. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software, version 16.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Chi-square test was employed. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Of the 307 dentists, only 294 dentists responded to the questionnaire, generating the response rate of 95.76%. Only 64 (21.8%) had knowledge about this concept and had positive attitude regarding the concept. A great majority of MDS 20 (31.25%) in comparison of BDS 6 (9.3%) applied this concept but only in <10% of their patients. This difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Most of the dentists did not know SDA concept but had positive attitude about this concept and only few dentists practiced it. It is essential to raise the SDA understanding as well as its application clinically, which can prove to be a practical and cost-effective approach in providing care to geriatrics.
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Prevalence of tobacco use and effect of restrictions on smoking at home, at school, and in public places on teenagers in Lucknow City: A cross-sectional study
Madhuri Kumari, Sabyasachi Saha, Vamsi Krishna Reddy, Pooja Sinha
July-September 2020, 18(3):246-249
Background: This study focused on the estimation of the prevalence of tobacco use among school-going students (between the age of 14 and 17 years) and to determine the relation between the extent of restrictions on smoking at home, at school, and in public places. Materials and Methods: A total of 310 school students of Lucknow aged 14–17 years were selected by the convenient sample design. A specifically designed questionnaire was used for determining the relation between the extent of restrictions on smoking at home, at school, and in public places and smoking uptake and smoking prevalence among school students. A cross-sectional survey with merged records of extent of restrictions on smoking in public places was done. The collected data were analyzed and tested for significance using the Statistical Software Package, SPSS software for windows (version 23.0). Descriptive statistics were used to measure the frequency distribution with a P value 0.05. Results: More restrictive arrangements on smoking at home were associated with a greater likelihood of being in an earlier stage of smoking uptake. Based on the questionnaire on the tobacco restriction, 93.9% admitted to having complete restriction on smoking at home, 42.1% had school ban, and 42.1% had strong school ban, whereas 57.9% had no or weak ban 97.7% of the participants followed the restriction on smoking at the public places (P value 0.001). Conclusion: The restrictions at home and public places and enforced bans in schools have a protective effect on teenage smoking.
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Content analysis of oral health information in science textbooks: A cross sectional study in schools of Pune, India
Deepika S Dagar, Pradnya V Kakodkar, Sahana Hegde Shetiya
July-September 2020, 18(3):250-255
Background: Since school textbooks form the base for acquiring knowledge, it is thus important that the information provided in it should be valid. Content analysis helps us evaluate the presence, extent, and validity of the information. Aim: To conduct content analysis of the oral health information in science textbooks of Standard I–X among the schools in Pune. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 25 schools, selected using quota sampling (Central Board of Secondary Education [CBSE] [n = 17]:Indian Certificate of Secondary Examination [ICSE] [n = 5]:International Board [n = 1]:Cambridge Assessment International Education [n = 1]:State Board [n = 1]). Convenience sampling was used to recruit the required number of schools. Content analysis was done using an assessment tool of oral health-related core components for different standards based on content, extent, and evidence The data were analyzed descriptively using Microsoft Excel 2013. Results: The study was completed in 21 (84%) schools affiliated to three boards only. A total of 242 pages were analyzed (565 oral health messages and 51 pictures). Of the little information that was present, it was found that the messages and pictures in the books of the CBSE (346 and 29), were more than that in the books of ICSE (166 and 6) and State Board (53 and 6), respectively. The results revealed that the textbooks of all the three boards were lacking in the oral health content with regard to the core components and coverage extent. Conclusions: Science textbooks are lacking in the oral health information, and there is an urgent need to improvise the textbook content.
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Pattern and correlates of tobacco use among school personnel from a rural area in Kashmir, India
Romshi Raina, Suhail Majid Jan, Aasim Farooq Shah
July-September 2020, 18(3):256-265
Background: Tobacco -free schools and non smoking school personnel set a positive environment for the younger genration. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the patterns and correlates of tobacco use among school personnel in a rural area in Kashmir. Methodology: This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April 2018 to November 2018 in 50 government high schools. The study population comprised all the school personnel (teaching as well as nonteaching) of the selected schools. An anonymous pretested self-administered questionnaire (Global School Personnel Survey) was used for the collection of data. All data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 to demonstrate frequencies, cross-tabulation obtained from Chi-square tests. Multivariate analysis was done to predict factors associated with tobacco control. A significance level of < 0.05 was considered for statistical analysis. Results: Majority of the school personnel (68.3%) were smoking cigarettes on a daily basis (P < 0.001). Current bidi and hookah use was significantly higher among females than males (5.5% vs. 3.9%, P < 0.001). About 93.8% of the school health personnel strongly perceived the need for an anti-tobacco training (P = 0.151). Multivariate regression analysis predicted a positive association between the position in the school, age, and knowledge concerning harmful effects of environmental tobacco smoke (P < 0.001). School personnel with primary responsibility of teaching about health predicted a higher need for specific anti-tobacco training (P < 0.001). The smokers less strongly perceived the need for nonclassroom anti-tobacco activities (P = 0.000). Conclusions: The present study reports a high level of tobacco consumption among the school personnel and paucity of tobacco control school policies. Moreover, smokers felt a lesser need for tobacco control training among school personnel. These findings underscore the importance of support for tobacco control regulations and training in educational units.
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Assessment of procrastination trait among dental students – A preliminary outlook
Sakshi Shukla, Manu Batra, Simarpreet Singh, Deeksha Gijwani, Thounaojam Leimaton, Parul Mangal
July-September 2020, 18(3):266-270
Background: Procrastination is a form of self-regulation failure characterized by the irrational delay of tasks despite potentially negative consequences. The scenario among dental students is virtually unknown. Aim: The aim was to evaluate the prevalence of trait procrastination among dental students. Materials and Methodology: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was conducted during September 2019 which included BDS final-year students and interns for assessing their procrastination trait. Lay's Procrastination Scale (LPS)-student version was used to collect desired information. The descriptive statistics were computed to evaluate the prevalence of significant procrastination (LPS score ≥60), and inferential statistics was done using SPSS (v21.0 IBM) software. Results: The results showed that interns had significant procrastination prevalence (LPS score ≥60) as compared to BDS final-year students. The procrastination trait among males was found to be at higher extent as compared to females. Conclusion: Because procrastination has been consistently reported to exert an adverse influence on the academic performance of students, the final-year students, to obviate the downscaling in their performance, tend to have significantly lesser procrastination trait than the interns and these findings highlight the need for active measures to reduce the causes and consequences of procrastination in dental education.
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President's Message
K Pushpanjali
July-September 2020, 18(3):189-189
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