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   2020| October-December  | Volume 18 | Issue 4  
    Online since December 16, 2020

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Herbal irrigants in primary teeth: A step toward green dentistry based on the wisdom of past
Archna Agnihotri, Rosy Arora, Urvashi Sharma, Poonam Sood
October-December 2020, 18(4):279-284
A wide plethora of chemical endodontic irrigants are used to achieve the desired results in terms of disinfection and removal of debris besides mechanical means. However, their detrimental properties such as allergic potential, cytotoxicity, antimicrobial resistance, and safety concerns have intrigued researchers over the years to look for safer options. During the past decade, the number of studies has increased utilizing herbs as irrigating solutions. This literature review was conducted to summarize the existing knowledge and provide a comprehensive review of clinical trials on herbal irrigating solutions in pediatric dental patients. An exhaustive literature search was performed in the indexed databases electronically for publications in peer reviewed scientific journals to find the relevant clinical studies evaluating efficacy of herbal root canal irrigants employed in primary teeth.
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Dental public health: Fallout of the COVID-19 pandemic
Venkitachalam Ramanarayanan, Vineetha Karuveettil, Chandrashekar Janakiram
October-December 2020, 18(4):277-278
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Awareness of night brushing and its importance in oral health in parents and among their children
P Akhil, Jyothsna V Setty, Ila Srinivasan, Clarissa Suting, Swathi Kakathkar, KM Nayana
October-December 2020, 18(4):285-289
Background: One of the goals of a pediatric dentist is providing awareness among children and their parents about oral hygiene and health. Night brushing is an important step in the prevention of plaque accumulation and caries and is inevitable in maintaining good oral health. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the awareness of importance of night brushing and its significance on oral health among parents and their children aged 3–13 years in East Bangalore, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: Sample of 300 children was divided into three age range groups, and each group was subdivided into five socioeconomic strata (SES). Separate questionnaires, which were validated by pediatric dentists, were used to record data from the child and the parent. Descriptive analysis of all the explanatory and outcome parameters was done using mean and standard deviation for quantitative variables, frequency, and proportions for categorical variables. SPSS for Windows version 22.0 was used to perform statistical analyses, and the value of P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: There is an increase in awareness about night brushing in all SES due to increased educational standards and influences of social media and advertisements, but the frequency of practicing the same is questionable. The total child awareness scores in Class I SES demonstrated that 3–6-year age group showed a significant difference as compared with 7–10-year age group (P < 0.001) and 11–13-year age group (P = 0.003). In Class II, 3–6-year age group showed a greater awareness as compared to 7–10-year age group (P = 0.02) and total parent awareness scores in Class III and Class V demonstrated that 3–6-year age group showed significant differences with 7–10-year age group and 11–13-year age group. Conclusion: The awareness of the importance of night brushing is an essential factor affecting oral health. The extent of awareness varies in different SES among the various age groups of children and their parents.
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President's Message
K Pushpanjali
October-December 2020, 18(4):273-274
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Knowledge, perceptions and practices about tooth brush sterilization among dental students and faculty in Andhra pradesh, South India – A Cross sectional study
Kuna Vandana, S Harikrishnam Raju, D Rajesh Kumar, J Narendra Babu
October-December 2020, 18(4):296-301
Background: Toothbrush is habitually used as an oral hygiene aid to maintain good oral health. The contamination of toothbrushes leads to oral and systemic diseases. Awareness on toothbrush disinfection is essential for oral health-care professionals in order to educate people. Aim: The aim was to assess the knowledge, perceptions, and practices about toothbrush storage, contamination, and disinfection among dental professionals in Andhra Pradesh, South India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire among 450 oral health professionals categorized into three groups (faculty, postgraduates, and interns) in Andhra Pradesh. The statistics were computed with the Statistical Package of Social Sciences version 22. Chi-square test and analysis of variance were used for statistical analyses. P < 0.05 is considered statistically significant. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between the three groups regarding the P value denoted by (*) is considered as statistically significant, frequency of brushing, change of toothbrush, storage of toothbrush and knowledge on toothbrush disinfection (P value is 0.01), whereas knowledge on toothbrush contamination (P value is 0.04). P value denoted by (**) is considered as statistically highly significant. A highly statistical significance was noticed pertaining to the factors on type of toothpaste,reason behind change of toothbrush,contact between toothbrushes during storage and sharing of toothpaste with family members ( P value is <0.001). Conclusion: The study conclude that there were varied opinions regarding the toothbrush contamination and disinfection among faculty, postgraduates, and interns which might be attributed to the difference in academic knowledge, exposure to a wide range of information, and clinical experience over the years between the groups.
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Evaluation of the remineralizing potential of Nigella sativa, sodium fluoride and caesin phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on enamel: An In vitro study
N Kiran Kumar, Savitha B Naik, C H Laxmi Priya, Seema Merwade, Biji Brigit, CN Guruprasad, Pavithra Prabakaran
October-December 2020, 18(4):313-317
Background: Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that results from an imbalance between pathological and protective factors. The imbalance produced will favor demineralization of enamel. If detected early, noncavitated lesions can be reverted with the help of remineralizing agents. Aim: To compare remineralizing potential of novel agent-Nigella sativa with conventional remineralizing agents. Materials and Methods: An in vitro study was done to compare remineralizing potential of N. sativa with conventional remineralizing agents. Sixty-four human premolars were covered with nail varnish except for 4 mm × 4 mm exposed window on the facial aspect, which was treated with 37% phosphoric acid for 30 s. Samples are then randomly divided into four groups (n = 16): Group I – N. sativa, Group II – 5% sodium fluoride, Group III – Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate, and Group IV – Control. The samples in each group were treated with the remineralizing agent, after which they were rinsed with deionised water, dried, and stored in artificial saliva. The same procedure is repeated for the span of 14 days. Depth of demineralization and remineralization were analyzed using the confocal laser scanning microscopy. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package SPSS 22.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) and level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Kruskal–Wallis test was used to analyze the depth of demineralization and remineralization among groups followed by post-hoc Mann–Whitney test to compare demineralization and remineralization between the groups. Results: Group I specimens showed greater depth of remineralization (1558.83) compared to other groups, which is statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Herbal product like N. sativa can be considered as a promising remineralizing agent in treating noncavitated demineralized carious lesions.
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Awareness regarding E-cigarettes among public health dentists in dental colleges of Bengaluru: A population study
Aarya N Bharadwaj, B Vijayalakshmi, Rekha Raju, Radha Gubbihal, Pallavi Swami Kousalya
October-December 2020, 18(4):318-322
Background: Available in the market as replacements to conventional cigarettes, the evidence regarding the efficacy of electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) in smoking cessation is unclear, while potentially harmful health effects have been reported. Public health dentists in dental colleges are likely to encounter E-cigarette users as they are involved in tobacco cessation counseling. Aim: The aim was to assess the knowledge and awareness about E-cigarettes among dental public health faculty and postgraduate students in dental colleges of Bengaluru. Materials and Methods: Dental public health faculty members and postgraduate students in all dental colleges of Bengaluru participated in this population-based, cross-sectional, questionnaire study. Questionnaires were handed out after written consent was obtained. Questions included the participants' details and ten knowledge questions with sub-questions on E-cigarettes. Data analysis was done by computing descriptive statistics and Chi-square test to determine its associated factors using SPSS v. 22. Level of significance was kept at 5%. Results: A total of 129 public health dentists were a part of the study, with 60.5% being postgraduate students and the rest comprising faculty members. One hundred and seven participants had previously heard of E-cigarettes. The mean knowledge score of the whole study population was 5.813 (standard deviation –1.83) out of a maximum score of 14 and was considered fair. This was statistically significantly associated with participants' smoking status (P = 0.05). Conclusions: This study concluded that most participants were aware of E-Cigarettes. Their knowledge level ranged from poor to fair and was significantly associated with their smoking status.
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Association of oral health status and oral health-related quality of life among adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A cross-sectional study
Nagashree Savanur Ravindranath, Rekha Raju
October-December 2020, 18(4):290-295
Background: The growing burden of noncommunicable diseases like type II diabetes mellitus is a challenge worldwide. Type II diabetes mellitus has a number complications which includes oral conditions like periodontitis, tooth loss, dry mouth, and taste alterations. However, it is unclear if these oral conditions affect the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in diabetic patients. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the association between oral health status and OHRQoL in adult type II diabetes patients. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was done in a teaching dental hospital setting on a convenient sample of 350 participants. The WHO Oral Health Survey Proforma 2013 was used to assess oral health status, and Oral Health Impact Profile-20 (OHIP-20) questionnaire was used to collect information on OHRQoL. The mean OHIP score of the participants was compared between the different categories of the oral health status variables using independent t-test and Chi-square test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 19 was used for analysis. Results: Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth score, bleeding on probing, loss of attachment, and presence of denture were significantly associated with high OHIP scores as compared to the absence of these conditions (P < 0.001). The presence of oral mucosal lesions was not associated with OHIP scores (P = 0.099). Conclusion: The present study found an association between oral health status and OHRQoL in type II diabetes mellitus patients.
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Honorary Secretary's Message
Vamsi Krishna Reddy
October-December 2020, 18(4):275-275
  1,136 130 -
Perception toward low-cost generic medicines and their usage among dental patients visiting community outreach programs in the peripheral areas of Bangalore South: An exploratory cross-sectional survey
Nigy Johnson, Y Shweta Somasundara, Padma K Bhat, Santhosh Kumar, M Nayana
October-December 2020, 18(4):308-312
Background: The burden and prevalence of oral diseases are higher in developing countries, especially among the poor and disadvantaged populations. These people may suffer from various dental and systemic illnesses. Hence, provision of reducing the out-of-pocket money by purchasing generic drugs might enable better oral and general health-care-seeking behavior. Objectives: The objective was to assess the perception toward low-cost generic medicines available through the Pradhana Manthri Bhartiya Janaushadhi Pariyojana and their usage among dental patients visiting community dental outreach programs conducted in the villages near a tertiary care dental teaching hospital, Bangalore South. Materials and Methods: An exploratory descriptive cross-sectional survey was carried out over a period of 3 months among 200 residents participating in the dental outreach programs in 15 villages of Bangalore South. Data were collected using a prevalidated closed-ended interviewer-administered questionnaire. Results: Most respondents (82.5%) were not aware of Prime Minister Jan Aushadhi Kendra (PMJAK) and only 17.5% knew about the nearest PMJAK. The majority (96.5%) were not aware of the availability of dental-related medicines in PMJAK and (95.5%) preferred to buy Jan Aushadhi drugs over branded medicine if the quality of generic and branded medicine is the same. Most respondents (98%) liked to have more awareness through mass media about PMJAKs/medicines. Conclusion: The results indicate that more awareness must be created, and strict laws implemented about the Jan Aushadhi scheme to save health cost expenditure; if the quality of generic and branded medicine is the same, most people are willing to use the medicines sold at PMJA Kendras.
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From the Editor's Desk
KR Sowmya
October-December 2020, 18(4):276-276
  1,001 95 -
Access and dental health service utilization by children of government schools in Bangalore, India: A parent perspective
Vinod Kumar A, Romshi Raina, Ranjini Narayanaswamy, Varsha K Pavithran
October-December 2020, 18(4):302-307
Background: Access to oral health care refers to patient's ability to utilize oral health care. The availability of oral health services is very scarce in rural India; therefore, the unmet treatment needs of rural population are very high. Aim: We aimed to determine the dental service utilization and factors affecting the same among the 6–12-year-old government schoolchildren in Bangalore South-1, Karnataka, India. Methodology: In-depth interviews regarding access, utilization of dental services, and factors affecting them were conducted with 1080 parents/guardians of 6–12-year-old government schoolchildren from Bangalore South-1 in this cross-sectional analytical study. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis were used for data analysis using SPSS version 20.0 (IBM Corp. Ltd.). Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The most common ailment reported by parents was gum problem (17.5%). Only 7.80% of the parents visited dental facility in the past 12 months. Majority of the parents (62.1%) had access to private dental health services. The barriers to utilization of dental services majorly included financial constraints (45.19%) and parent's unawareness of the oral health-care facilities nearby (21.84%). Multiple regression analyses showed that the head of the household with middle school education and high school education (odds ratio = 1.55; 1.74) had a higher probability of having visited a dentist in the past 1 year. Conclusion: Dental service utilization rate was very low in the past 12 months. Relief from pain was the sole reason for visiting a dentist. Oral health-promoting programs and provision of government hospitals are required for increased utilization of dental services so as to improve the dental attitude, accessibility, and affordability and overcome the barriers among the parents.
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National toothbrushing day 2020

October-December 2020, 18(4):328-329
  754 95 -
Use of geographic information system in dentistry
Jatin Chaudary
October-December 2020, 18(4):325-327
  724 99 -
Difference in dental students' communication skills as perceived by self, patients, and their trainers
Ankur Sharma, Meena Jain, Nisha Rani Yadav, Vishal Jain
October-December 2020, 18(4):323-324
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