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   2021| January-March  | Volume 19 | Issue 1  
    Online since March 31, 2021

 
 
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PRESIDENTS MESSAGE
President's Message
K Pushpanjali
January-March 2021, 19(1):1-1
DOI:10.4103/2319-5932.312643  
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HON. SECRETARYS MESSAGE
Hon. Secretary's Message
Vamsi Krishna Reddy
January-March 2021, 19(1):2-2
DOI:10.4103/2319-5932.312644  
  1,078 153 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A primary care approach for oral health promotion among HIV patients: An interventional study
Anisha Rodrigues, Suvetha Kannappan, Bhakti Sadhu
January-March 2021, 19(1):10-15
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_22_20  
Background: HIV-positive patients are at a greater risk for developing oral health problems, making them potentially susceptible to nutritional deficiencies, decreased adherence to treatment, and failure of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Their oral health needs are unmet due to a lack of awareness, social stigma, and other factors. The primary care workers (PCWs) are the first point of contact for health issues of these patients. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of the educational intervention for the PCWs on oral health. Materials and Methods: This interventional pilot study was conducted at two residential centers for HIV patients in Mangalore. The participants included 15 PCWs working at these centers. An educational module was prepared as the intervention that included dental conditions that could compromise oral health, oral manifestations of HIV, and oral health care. A structured questionnaire was administered to the PCWs before the intervention, immediately after the intervention, and at 3 months. The PCWs were required to routinely examine the HIV patients for any dental or oral health problems and refer them to the dental hospital for treatment. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 20.0 software (Chicago. IL, USA) was used for analysis. p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Repeated measures analysis of variance and Chi-squared test were used for data analysis. Results: 73% of the caretakers had no training in oral health care. Analysis of the mean scores revealed a statistically significant improvement (p < 0.05) in their knowledge and skills from 2.53 ± 1.3 to 7.57 ± 1.2. There was also a statistically significant increase in the number of referrals to the dental hospital. Conclusion: Educating the PCWs showed positive outcomes enabling patients' access to regular professional oral health care, thus improving their quality of life.
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Oral health-related quality of life among adult smokeless tobacco users and nontobacco users of Ghaziabad district, Uttar Pradesh: A cross-sectional study
Iram Ahsan, Ipseeta Menon, Ritu Gupta, Vikram Arora, Asifa Ashraf, Dipshikha Das
January-March 2021, 19(1):48-54
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_60_20  
Introduction: Smokeless tobacco (ST) being a crucial determinant of oral health and oral health-related quality of life is a part of many religious and cultural rituals which has gained a degree of social acceptance in the Indian subcontinent. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among adult ST users and nontobacco users of Ghaziabad. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was designed to determine the oral health status and OHRQoL of ST users and nontobacco users. A sample of 620 adult individuals was taken. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect the demographic variables. Oral health status was assessed using the World Health Organization 2013 Oral Health Assessment Form, and OHRQoL was measured with the Oral Health Impact Profile-14. Statistical analysis was done by the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20.0. Chi-square test, Spearman's correlation coefficient, Mann–Whitney U-test, and Kruskal–Wallis test were applied. Statistical significance was considered at P < 0.05. Results: In ST users, 90.3% had gingival bleeding, whereas 58.4% of the nontobacco users had gingival bleeding; 53.2% of the ST users had periodontal pocket compared to 47.7% of the nontobacco users. ST users had higher mean scores on the handicap (1.96 ± 1.29), psychological disability (1.89 ± 2.66), psychological discomfort (1.44 ± 1.31), functional limitation (0.92 ± 1.35), physical pain (0.79 ± 0.91), and social disability (0.52 ± 0.70) when compared to the nontobacco users. A ST user has a higher (8.03 ± 4.14) mean score when compared to nontobacco users (4.56 ± 4.01) (P < 0.001) in all subscales of OHRQoL. A statistically significant difference in the oral OHRQoL between ST users and nontobacco users was observed. Conclusion: Hence, the study revealed that ST users definitely had an influence on OHRQoL, with a statistically significant increase in oral health problems in ST users compared to nonusers.
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Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice towards infection control among dental undergraduate students-A cross-sectional survey
Charu Girotra, Siddharth Acharya, Omkar Shetty, Siddhi Savla, Mahinoor Punjani, Tanmik Shah
January-March 2021, 19(1):65-70
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_122_19  
Introduction: Health-care personnel are always susceptible to infectious diseases if inadequate infection control measures are undertaken. In a dental setup, transmission occurs through air, blood, saliva droplets, or improper sterilization of instruments. Despite various standardized protocols in infection control, dental undergraduate students fail to obey the same. Aims: We aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding infection control among dental undergraduate students of Mumbai. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study comprising a 13-point close-ended, self-administered questionnaire was prepared and distributed among interns, final-year dental students, and 3rd-year dental students across six dental colleges. The questions were divided into three categories: knowledge, attitude, and practice. The responses were used for data collection and accordingly results were made. The analysis was done using IBM SPSS Statistics version 22. The statistical significance was considered at P ≤ 0.05. Results: A total of 851 undergraduate students were assessed for knowledge, attitude, and practice toward infection control. Only 40% of the interns, 40% of the final-year students, and 42% of the 3rd-year students had precise knowledge about infection control measures. Twenty-four percent of the interns, 27% of the final-year students, and 25% of the 3rd-year students showed accurate attitude for infection control. Finally, 41% of the interns, 44% of the final-year students, and 39% of the 3rd-year students inculcated right practice in controlling infection. Conclusion: Infection control is essential to reduce the risk of occupational infection to the practitioner and the auxiliary staff. Dental schools should give more emphasis on infection control protocols.
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Assessment of health-care ethical challenges in a dental hospital: A patient's perspective
Ashok Ranjit Chakrapani, GA Babitha, Shobha Prakash, GM Prashanth, VH Sushanth, Nirmala Kumari
January-March 2021, 19(1):16-21
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_8_20  
Introduction: Ethical practice in health care is defined as consisting of informed consent, respect for integrity, and patient's autonomy. In the past few years, there has been an increase in the number of disputes ranging from inadequate and inappropriate treatments to serious problems of medical malpractice and negligence. There is thus a growing need to identify whether or not patients are satisfied with services provided and which ethical challenges, if any, patients value most in a health-care setting. This is not only to elevate the quality of treatment but also to potentially avoid unnecessary legal complications. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the opinion of patients at a dental hospital about some commonly encountered ethical challenges and to investigate the ethical challenges which patients feel most important to them. Materials and Methods: One hundred and two participants were recruited for this cross-sectional study among patients who have visited the dental hospital more than twice. Each participant completed a self-administered questionnaire on some common ethical challenges. A three-point Likert scale was used. Data were entered in Microsoft Excel 2016 spreadsheet (Microsoft, USA), and Chi-square test was performed using SPSS (IBM) software (version 23.0). The results were considered as statistically significant when P < 0.05. Results: Seventy percent of the participants felt that doctors were competent in completing procedure in the time frame, and 82% felt that doctors followed the personal hygiene protocol. Only 47% of the participants felt that doctors accommodated missed appointments/lateness. Category E (infection control) was the category most commonly selected as the most important ethical challenge to patients with 36% of the participants. Conclusion: Participants were satisfied with a majority of the clinical services provided. The majority of the patients considered doctor competence and infection control as important issues. There is, however, a general lack of awareness regarding ethical issues in the dental field.
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FROM THE EDITORíS DESK
From the editor's desk
KR Sowmya
January-March 2021, 19(1):3-3
DOI:10.4103/2319-5932.312645  
  882 130 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Knowledge, attitude, and behavior related to secondhand smoke exposure among pregnant women with smoking spouses in Davangere City: A cross-sectional survey
Puja Chandrashekar Yavagal, Chandrabhaga S Velangi, Jagruthi Mutalik Desai, Himani Gupta, Farheen S Sheik, Manika Kaushal
January-March 2021, 19(1):37-41
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_15_20  
Background: Exposure to secondhand smoke among pregnant women is highly prevalent in India. Secondhand smoke exposure is linked with various serious deleterious health problems. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude, and behavior related to secondhand smoke exposure among pregnant women with smoking husbands in Davangere city. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among 245 nonsmoking pregnant women with smoking husbands attending two antenatal clinics in Davanagere city using pretested, validated, investigator-administered closed-ended 18 item questionnaire. Responses to items were placed on a 3-point Likert scale. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, version 21 (IBM Corp., Armonk, N.Y., USA) was used for statistical analysis. Descriptive statistics were generated in terms of percentages. Results: The mean age of study participants was 26.22 ± 4.11 years. Majority of pregnant women were unaware of secondhand smoke exposure (>60%). They were unaware of its systemic complications such as cardiac problems, respiratory problems, and cancer. They were unaware of the harmful effects of secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) on fetus/child (>60%) which indicated poor knowledge of participants toward harmful effects of secondhand smoke exposure majority of participants showed favorable attitude (>50%) and felt the need to get educated regarding SHS. Majority reported positive behavior by refraining themselves from secondhand smoke (>50%). Conclusions: Knowledge regarding secondhand smoke exposure among pregnant women with smoking husbands was poor. Inspite of having favorable attitude and behavior toward avoidance of smoke exposure, majority of women felt helpless in refraining their husbands from smoking.
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Caries prevalence and associated risk factors in school children at Kannur in Kerala, India: A cross-sectional study
K Nithya, Faizal C Peedikayil, TP Chandru, Soni Kottayi, Shabnam Ismail, TP Aparna
January-March 2021, 19(1):32-36
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_137_20  
Background: Caries is the most prevalent affliction of children and is dependent on various factors such as social, economic, demographic and nutritional factors. Aim: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of dental caries in school going children and its association with risk factors. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted during the period from August 2019 to December 2019. Study subjects were 1947 school children. The examination was done by a single examiner and the data was entered by trained assistants. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to record the risk factors for dental caries in children. The components of Decayed, missing, filled (DMF) and Decayed, extracted, filled (def) were recorded as per the criteria of WHO (1997) for diagnosing caries. Using SPSS version 22 (IBM Corporation Chicago, USA) data were analyzed. Chi-square test were done to find the relationship of prevalence with the risk factors. P < 0.05 is considered as statistically significant. Results: Total Caries prevalence was found to be 49.1%.The highest rate of caries occurrence, 55.4% was observed in children who belonged to the age group of 6–8 years. The def was shown to be more in the 9–11 age group and DMF in 12–15 age groups with 3.34 ± 3.74 and 2.18 ± 2.65 respectively. Statistically significant increase in caries is found in children whose both the parents were working (P < 0.001) and also in children who take sweets twice a day or more (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The prevalence of caries in 6–15 year old school children at Kannur is 49.1%. Working parents and high sugar consumption were found to be risk factors for caries in school going children.
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Assessment of tobacco prevalence among employees working in a shopping mall in Panvel, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
Heena Lachhman Dodeja, Vibhuti Bhupat Dhameliya, Sabita M Ram, Vaibhav Pravin Thakkar
January-March 2021, 19(1):22-26
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_145_20  
Background: India is one of the countries in the world where prevalence of smoking and smokeless tobacco use is high. There is a need of cessation programs in various settings, and workplace with high prevalence can be targeted for the same. There are no studies conducted on prevalence of tobacco consumption among employees working at a shopping mall in this part of the country. Aim: This study estimates the prevalence of tobacco use among employees working in a shopping mall in Panvel. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among the selected study population of 250 employees using the questionnaire adopted from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). Informed consent was taken from every participant. The data were collected by means of a structured questionnaire adopted from GATS. Data collected were entered and statistically analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 24.0 software (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were carried out in the present study. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: 73.2% (183) of the employees were nontobacco users and 26.8% (67) consumed tobacco. The prevalence of smoking was 12% (30), and for smokeless, it was 11.6% (29), and 3.2% (8) consumed both forms. It was found that 12% (30) were willing to take help from the counselor to quit the habit and 13.2% (33) were not willing to take help. Conclusions: The present study reflects high prevalence rates of tobacco use among the employees. De-addiction programs and counseling sessions can be conducted for the employees willing to quit tobacco. New policies and tactics on tobacco use need to be explored to ensure the initiation of new tobacco control activities and monitor the existing tobacco control policies.
  770 126 -
Prevalence and risk factors associated with traumatic dental injuries among 12–15 year old school going children, Mathura city
Roopali Gupta, Navpreet Kaur, Vivek Sharma, Manish Bhalla, Manvi Srivastava, Siddharth Sisodia
January-March 2021, 19(1):76-80
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_87_19  
Background: Traumatic dental injuries are a serious public dental health problem throughout the world. The incidence of traumatic injuries is increasing over the years. Trauma to the permanent anterior teeth is a common finding. Dental trauma is an irreversible pathology that after the occurrence is characterized by a life-long debilitating effect. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and assess factors related to traumatic injuries to permanent anterior teeth among 12–15-year-old children attending private and government schools in Mathura city. Materials and Methods: An epidemiological cross-sectional study was carried out among 1000 school children aged 12–15 years in which 500 children from both government and private schools, respectively, of five geographical zones of Mathura city were randomly selected. Children completed a questionnaire related to the history of trauma to their anterior teeth after which they were examined for type of lip coverage, Angle's molar relationship, and incisor nature of trauma sustained. Statistical analysis: SPSS 21 was carried out using Student's t-test (P < 0.05), Chi-square test, and Mantel–Haenszel test. Results: The prevalence of traumatic injuries was 8.9% and was higher among government school children compared to private school children. The boys and girls with a history of trauma were 67.4% and 32.6%, respectively. The main cause of trauma was fall in the playground (46.0%). The main reason of trauma was because of pushing (65.2%). The most predominant injuries were enamel fractures and the most common place for occurrence was school. Conclusion: The prevalence of dental injuries in Mathura city was high and it has a great potential to be considered as an emerging public health problem.
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Assessment of the correlation between the perceived, desired, and normatively determined orthodontic treatment needs in a rural population of India
Amit Rekhi, Jyoti Singh, Mohit Dadu, Shreya Singh, Archana Rai, Vineet Rai
January-March 2021, 19(1):4-9
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_54_20  
Background: The perception about what constitutes a pleasing smile varies from person to person. The problem of crooked teeth may not be perceived as an actual need for treatment by some, and may differ not only on an individual basis, but also from a geographic perspective. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess if orthodontic treatment needs correlated with the actual self-perception and desire for orthodontic treatment in a rural population and was there an influence of gender and age. Materials and Methods: The study population included 495 older adolescents and younger adults between the age group of 16–24 years, randomly selected from villages in Dehradun. They were asked about their desire for orthodontic treatment and evaluated through the esthetic component of Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN-AC) and the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI). Bivariate analyses using the Chi-square test were performed (SPSS software [version 17.0]) to test the influence of age and gender on desired, perceived, and normative needs. Associations between the different needs were tested using both simple and multiple logistic regression analysis. P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Approximately 48.1% of the study population showed a desire for orthodontic treatment for their teeth. For perceived needs assessed through IOTN-AC, 11.91% indicated a definite need for orthodontic treatment. The DAI scores estimated the normative treatment needs with 25.86% indicating a mandatory need for orthodontic treatment. Gender and age differences influenced desired need (P = 0.017; P = 0.014) but had no relation with perceived (P = 0.269; P = 0.058) or normatively determined orthodontic treatment needs (P = 0.093; P = 0.087). Conclusion: Statistically significant association was observed between the normative needs and desire for orthodontic treatment. Gender and age differences influenced desired needs only.
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Knowledge, opinion, values, and practice of sealant use among dental practitioners in Bangalore city
Imran Pasha Mohammed, Bushra Naaz Fathima Jaleel, Umme Amarah, SS Hiremath, C Manjunath, Archana Krishnamoorthy
January-March 2021, 19(1):71-75
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_82_20  
Introduction: Recent Cochrane review has recommended sealants in preventing occlusal caries in children and adolescents but its use in clinical practice is still underutilized all over the world. Aim: The aim was to assess knowledge, opinion, values, and practice among dental practitioners in Bangalore city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a convenience sampling of 312 general dental practitioners (GDP) in Bangalore city. The data was collected using an anonymous, self-reporting 5-point Likert-scaled questionnaire by Martin et al., and analyzed using SPSS version 21 and ANOVA and t-test was utilized for analyzing the results P < 0.05 was regarded as significant. Results: Effectiveness of fissure sealants is supported by strong scientific evidence and also as a restorative material, 76% of the GDP agreed and 86.9% thought that it is difficult to justify the cost of sealants to parents. 62.2% valued that fissure sealants are used less than they should have been. Most of them had a positive attitude toward sealant application. Conclusion: Dental practitioners knowledge of pit and fissure sealant is high and attitude is also positive but when comes to practice it has been underutilized.
  754 104 -
An 8-year retrospective analysis of oral submucous fibrosis in patients visiting dental College, Secunderabad
Vedati Prathima, Mrunalini Koneru, V. V. N. Sunil, Harshavardhan Jois, Madhusudhan Reddy
January-March 2021, 19(1):61-64
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_34_20  
Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a chronic, progressive, scarring precancerous condition of the oral cavity seen predominantly in the Indian subcontinent and South East Asia. In India, the prevalence of OSMF has been increased over the past four decades from 0.03% to 6.42%. Aim: The study aims to provide an 8-year retrospective analysis of OSMF in patients visiting dental college, Secunderabad. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted from 2008 to 2016 in dental college, Secunderabad. Data were collected from patient's outpatient records from the department of oral medicine and radiology, year wise in the perspective of demographic details, history of nutritional deficiency, adverse habits, symptoms, clinical features, site involved, and mouth opening. There were no inclusion or exclusion criteria. All the cases which were provisionally diagnosed to be OSMF were included. The data were analyzed with SPSS package version 24. Chi-square test has been applied to check the association of different parameters such as gender, nutritional deficiency, adverse habits, area, palpable fibrous bands, and mouth opening with age. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The total patients were found to be 107. The mean age of the patients was 38 ± 12. Among the total patients, 86% were males and 14% were females. Among them, 3.7% were unskilled workers. Almost all of them (99%) reported no nutritional deficiency. Majority (51.4%) were having betel nut chewing habit, followed by tobacco chewing, intake of spicy food, smoking, and alcohol. Nearly 43% had limited mouth opening, followed by burning sensation and other symptoms. Palpable fibrous bands were present in 4.1% of the patients. Nearly 83.2% have been affected with OSMF in the buccal mucosa site. Grade 1 (>20 mm) mouth opening was present in 12.1% of the patients, 7.5% were having Grade 2 (11–19 mm), and 3.7% had Grade 3 (<10 mm) mouth opening. A significant association was found between age and adverse habits (P = 0.023). There was no significant association between age and sex (P = 0.924), nutritional deficiency (P = 0.766), area (P = 0.567), palpable fibrous bands (P = 0.221), and mouth opening (P = 0.155). Conclusion: Majority of the patients with OSMF were males who were < 30 years, having betel nut chewing habit and Grade 1 mouth opening.
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Dental anxiety and sense of coherence among outpatient department patients of a dental college in Chhattisgarh: A correlational study
N Naveen, Aanchal Pradhan, Sneha Singh, Payal Borkar
January-March 2021, 19(1):27-31
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_143_20  
Context: The term “dental anxiety” (DA) refers to the feeling of uneasiness one undergoes during their appointment. Sense of coherence (SoC) is known to be capable of strengthening resilience and developing a subjectively positive state of health. There have been scarce studies showing the association between these two variables. Aim: The present study correlates DA and SoC among patients visiting outpatient department for the first time of a dental college in Chhattisgarh. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire study was conducted among 400 participants. SoC and DA were measured using Antonovosky's Modified DA Scale and SoC Scale (SoC 13), respectively. The Chi-square test and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used. The analysis was done using the SPSS software version 16.0. Results: Out of 400 participants, the mean age was 37.5, where the number of male participants was high (male = 265 and female = 135). 44.8% of the study participants were slightly anxious. DA according to the age and gender was found to be statistically insignificant (P ≤ 0.896), (P ≤ 0.171), respectively. The overall SoC among the study population was low and a statistically significant association between SoC and age (P ≤ 0.046) was seen. A statistically significant association was found between SoC and gender (P ≤ 0.001). The results stated that SoC is inversely proportional to DA (r = −0.97). Conclusions: The present study reflects that DA and SoC have inverse correlation.
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Knowledge, preparedness and percieved barriers among clinicians and academicians regarding tobacco cessation counseling in Bhopal City
Swapnil Jain, Swati Agrawal, Vijayta Sharva, Juhi Lohiya
January-March 2021, 19(1):81-86
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_35_20  
Background: Tobacco use is responsible for 3 million deaths globally every year. Tailored counseling by a specialist increases quit rates additionally by 4%–7% compared to normal. Now, tobacco cessation is a part of oral health assessment. Hence, brief advice from dental health professionals as part of their routine consultations or interactions is an approach that makes use of existing health-care systems. Purpose: A study was carried out among the dental professionals of Bhopal to assess their knowledge, preparedness, and perceived barriers regarding tobacco cessation counseling. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted among dental professionals which include academicians (Group 1), clinicians (Group 2), and both clinicians and academicians (Group 3) of Bhopal City over a period of 3 month's from May to July 2019. Two-hundred dental professionals were approached, in which 145 participated in the study. Self-administered structured, semi-open, and coded questionnaire was mailed to them and analysis was done. Results: The findings of the study suggest that almost all the groups agreed that they have a role in helping patients regarding tobacco cessation. Our study has overcome all the perceived barriers as 75.9% of Group 3 professionals got positive feedback from the patients after counseling and 70.9% of academicians feel chances of quitting tobacco have increased after they advised the patient to quit the habit, but 42.9% of Group 3 professionals think that they don't get time to counsel patients. Conclusion: As concluded in our study, Group 3 dental professionals (both academicians and clinicians) have better knowledge and actively participate in cessation of patients as compared to academicians and clinicians. Hence, there is an urgent need to sensitize and train clinicians and academicians at community and institutional levels.
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Assessment of self-perception and need for orthodontic treatment using the index of orthodontic treatment need in visually impaired students of Northern Karnataka, India
Sanjeev B Singh, Roopa Jatti, Sumedh R Deshpande
January-March 2021, 19(1):42-47
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_63_19  
Background: In recent years, the perception of an individual with a disability like visual impairment has been slowly evolving from the “forgotten” person to one who is recognized as needing treatment. Aim: The aim is to assess the self-perception and orthodontic treatment need in visually impaired (VI) students and to compare these with the control group (CG), and also to create awareness about malocclusion and orthodontic treatment in both groups. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted in the special schools for the VI in the North Karnataka region. The CG was from the local schools in the same region. A total of 125 VI, 162 control students aged 11–19 years were included in the study. Determination of Esthetic Component (AC) and dental health component (DHC) in VI and control students were done. Chi-square test and Kappa statistics were used to compare between the study and the CG and to find out the agreement between the subjects and the orthodontist respectively. A P value of <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: About 24% of VI and 6.1% of the control perceived to be in need of orthodontic treatment according to the AC. However, 24% of VI and 20.9% of control showed “definite need” of treatment based upon the DHC. The AC when compared between study and CG by Chi-square test, was found to be highly significant statistically with a P < 0.001. Conclusions: High percentage of VI students perceived a “definite need” as compared to control students based on AC. The data of the present study suggest that the VI students are more concerned about their malocclusion and perceive that they need orthodontic treatment.
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Awareness of Smokeless Tobacco among Professionals with Sedentary Lifestyles- A Cross Sectional Study
Shitanshu Malhotra, Pallavi Singh, Himangi Dubey, Gaurav Mishra, Neha Agarwal
January-March 2021, 19(1):55-60
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_90_20  
Background: Smokeless tobacco is tobacco orally consumed and not burned. Smokeless tobacco is associated with substantial risks of oral cancer. Smokeless tobacco is the cheapest and very commonly used tobacco product in India. It is highly addictive, is high in carcinogens, and causes a broad spectrum of diseases; yet awareness about its ill effects is low. Aim: The aim is to provide descriptive information on the awareness of smokeless tobacco among software professionals with sedentary lifestyles in Lucknow city, Uttar Pradesh. Subjects and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted. The sampling technique adopted for this study was the two-staged simple random sampling. The first stage consisted of division of city, and then selection of samples was done randomly in the second stage. After giving consent to participate in the study, the final study population was 500 professionals (320 males and 180 females). The 23-item self-administered structured questionnaire with closed-ended questions was formulated. Chi-square test was used to compare the categorical data. Analysis was performed on Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software SPSS, ver. 20.0; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA. Results: The prevalence of smokeless users among professional was 28.4%. The knowledge of awareness about ingredients (P = 0.016) and harmful effects (P = 0.038) of smokeless tobacco was significantly (P < 0.05) higher among users as compared to nonusers. In contrast, the knowledge about harmful types (betel quid, pan masala with tobacco, pan masala without tobacco, and all these) was higher in nonusers than users (P = 0.021). Conversely, users are significantly more familiar with counseling techniques for quitting tobacco than nonusers (P = 0.017). Conclusion: Most of the software professionals continued the habit of chewing in spite of good knowledge about the hazards of smokeless tobacco. The prevalence of smokeless tobacco users among professionals was 28.4%. Higher prevalence of pan masala with tobacco among professionals was demonstrated by this study, which is not a good sign for the future toward tobacco control.
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IAPHD NEWS
IAPHD News

January-March 2021, 19(1):87-88
DOI:10.4103/2319-5932.312653  
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