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   2022| January-March  | Volume 20 | Issue 1  
    Online since February 25, 2022

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Redefining dental public health competencies in India. “Dr. Mohandas Bhat Oration”. The 25th IAPHD National Conference, November 20, 2021
Nayanjeet Chaudhury
January-March 2022, 20(1):4-8
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Effectiveness of game-based oral health education method on oral hygiene performance of 12-year-old private school children in Lucknow City: A field trial
Panchali Kashyap, L Vamsi Krishna Reddy, Pooja Sinha, Ila Verma, Jyoti Adwani
January-March 2022, 20(1):43-48
Background: Health education is a part of health promotion and disease prevention measures to improve the oral health and well-being of all children. When education and entertainment are combined to make the process of learning a joyful one, it facilitates and reinforces child's learning in a thought-provoking and self-motivating format. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of conventional and game-based oral health education on oral hygiene performance of 12-year-old private school children of Lucknow city. Materials and Methods: The study population aged 12 years comprised 160 participants. This was followed by a school survey in which the 12-year-old school children were randomly assigned into two groups: Group A and Group B after the necessary inclusion and exclusion criteria. A pretest evaluation of their knowledge regarding oral health and the estimation of debris index simplified and plaque index was carried out. Children in Group A were given oral health education through PowerPoint presentation once daily for 7 days. Children in Group B were educated through the play method (i.e., crosswords and quiz with PowerPoint presentation). The evaluations regarding oral health-related knowledge were done using pretested, predetermined questionnaire, and debris scores, and plaque scores were recorded using debris index simplified component of OHI-S by (J. C Green and Jack R Vermillion 1964) and Plaque Index by Loe H (1967), respectively, on postintervention 1, 3, and 6 months. Statistical analysis was done using the t-test and ANOVA test which was carried out using the SPSS software version 21.0 for Windows, and the value of P < 0.001 was considered statistically significant. Results: In Group B, high knowledge scores of 4.05, 4.73, and 6.02 were obtained on postintervention 1, 3, and 6 months, respectively. In both the groups, there was a significant increase in good oral hygiene scores and a significant decrease in debris scores and plaque scores on postintervention 1, 3, and 6 months' follow-up, but much better scores were seen in group B compared to Group A at both the follow-ups. Conclusion: As the knowledge scores of children increased and debris score and plaque score decreased considerably, thereby the implementation of game-based oral health education program is an easy and effective method in improving the oral health and preventing oral diseases.
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Antiplaque efficacy of toothpaste – A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Sneha Nachu, Srinivas Ravoori, Srinivas Pachava
January-March 2022, 20(1):16-24
Background: Different toothpastes of the corresponding active ingredients could have variable extent of effectiveness; this raises the amount of choices with the marketplace for toothpaste containing these agents and makes it more difficult to gauge their effectiveness. Therefore, the purpose of this systemic review and meta-analysis was to gauge the antiplaque efficacy of different toothpaste agents in studies involving randomized clinical trials published over a span of January 2015-May 2020. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive and systematic electronic search via PubMed, TRIP, Cochrane, and Google scholar prompted in 593 articles. Subsequently screening titles and abstracts for applicability, 31 Randomized controlled trial (RCT) articles were enclosed in the review. With the aid of the Cochrane Collaboration's tool, the risk of bias of each study was assessed. Results: A total of 2467 individuals partake in 31 RCT studies. Triclosan toothpaste was superior over sodium fluoride/monofluorophosphate toothpaste (standard mean difference, SMD − 1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] (2.81–0.10), P = 0.007) in plaque reduction. Long-term utilization of stannous fluoride toothpastes reduced dental plaque superior than monofluorophosphate toothpaste (SMD − 0.61, 95% (CI 1.04–0.18), P = 0.005). There was no discernible difference in plaque reduction. Conclusion: Within the confines of the current study's limitations (which embody the severe imbalance within the quantity of evidence), once scrutiny among products, triclosan and stannous fluoride in dentifrices seem to be the foremost efficacious plaque controlling active agents.
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From Editors Desk
KR Sowmya
January-March 2022, 20(1):3-3
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Honorary Secretary's Message
L Vamsi Krishna Reddy
January-March 2022, 20(1):2-2
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January-March 2022, 20(1):111-114
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Assessment of knowledge and practice of lasers among dental professionals of Central India – An online questionnaire-based survey
Vineeta Gupta, Supriya Mishra, Kuldip Singh Sangha, Waheda Rahman, Varsha Goswami, Vallabh Thakkar
January-March 2022, 20(1):100-105
Introduction: The invention of the laser has sparked the interest of many people throughout history. It is critical to have a thorough understanding of laser use, different types of lasers, and which type of laser is suitable for each case to use laser safely and effectively in various dental fields. Aim: The objective of the study is to assess the knowledge and understanding of the application of lasers and their preferred choices among different procedures in dentistry among dental professionals of Central India. Materials and Methods: An online questionnaire-based survey was carried out among dental professionals of Central India. A questionnaire was developed using Google Forms and shared with respondents via WhatsApp and mail. Collected data were analyzed using Stata Version 16 software. The relevance of study parameters on a categorical scale was determined using Chi-square analysis. P value was set at 0.05 as the level of significance. Results: Out of 350 respondents, about 15.4% of dental surgeons were currently using lasers and 75.7% of participants were interested in using lasers. Potential barriers reported were: High cost, procedure sensitivity, and health risks. Conclusion: Lasers need comprehensive training in both theoretical and applied. Incorporating laser education into undergraduate courses may provide students with an early opportunity to learn about and practising with lasers.
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Assessment of oral health care practices and smokeless tobacco habit among adults in Odisha: A cross-sectional study
Shilpa Mahapatra, Preetha Elizabeth Chaly, Smruti Chandan Mohapatra
January-March 2022, 20(1):106-110
Background: Tobacco chewing is an ancient habit dating back to more than 2000 years. Since then, it has spread with remarkable rapidity, seeping into all sections of the society. Aim: The study was carried out to compare the oral health care practices among the tobacco chewers and nonchewers and to record the tobacco chewing habit among the tobacco chewers of Khordha city, Odisha. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from March 2015 to August 2015, among 25–64 years old patients attending the dental out-patient department of Gopabandhu Khordha District Headquarter Hospital. The study sample of 512 subjects (256 tobacco chewers and 256 nonchewers), who were age and sex matched, were then interviewed regarding their oral hygiene practices and tobacco chewing habit using a closed-ended questionnaire, derived from the National Youth Tobacco Survey Questionnaire, 2012 and the WHO Oral Health Questionnaire for Adults, 2013. Data obtained were analyzed using Chi-square test. The significance level was set at P ≤ 0.05. Results: All the study subjects had people at home who had the habit of chewing some or the other form of tobacco. Most (73.4%) of the tobacco chewers felt that tobacco chewing probably makes young people look cool or fit in their peer group. Furthermore, 72.2% never saw a warning label on a smokeless tobacco product and 95.3% never had family or friends talk to them about not using any type of tobacco product. However, 87.1% were willing to quit this habit if proper guidance was provided. Conclusion: Tobacco chewing is a socially and culturally acceptable habit in Khordha city, Odisha. Awareness about the harmful effects of tobacco chewing among the users was very low, emphasizing the need to educate and promote awareness about smokeless tobacco products.
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Oral impacts of number of natural teeth and posterior occluding pairs on daily performance of an elderly population
Ruchi Nagpal, Amrita Jaggi, Charu Mohan Marya, Pratibha Taneja, Sakshi Kataria, Sukhwinder Singh Oberoi
January-March 2022, 20(1):25-30
Background: Globally, poor oral health among older people has been assessed in terms of high levels of tooth loss, dental caries experience, high prevalence rates of periodontal disease, xerostomia, and oral precancer/cancer. Aim: The aim of the study is to compare impacts of total number of natural teeth (NT) and posterior occluding pairs (POPs) present in the oral cavity on daily performances among elderly population. Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study which included 300 subjects recruited through convenience sampling from a physiotherapy center. The included subjects were asked in a face-to-face interview about their demographic information (i.e., age and gender), tobacco habits (type and frequency), oral hygiene habits (frequency and material used), oral health-related quality of life, and various symptoms of xerostomia. Impacts on daily performances were measured by the use of oral impacts on daily performances index. Clinical examination was done to measure number of NT and POPs. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21, IBM Inc., and for inferential statistics, Mann–Whitney U-test and Chi-square tests were used. Level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The overall mean age of the study population was found to be 63.81 ± 4.50 with gender wise no statistically significant difference (males = 63.82 ± 4.13, females = 63.79 ± 4.94; P ≤ 0.05). Overall, mean number of NT present in the study population was found to be 24.76 ± 7.21 with 25.90 ± 6.29 among males and 23.32 ± 8.03 among females. Mean number of NT present was significantly more among males as compared to females (Mann–Whitney U-test, P = 0.003). Conclusion: Number of NT and POPs were found to be the significant predictors of daily performances among elderly population.
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Care sought and normative need assessment for dental caries among rural adults in jeelugumelli mandal, Andhra Pradesh, India
Chinna Babu Palli, Srinivas Pachava, Parveen Sultana Shaik, Srinivas Ravoori, Suresh Chand Yaddanapalli, Asha Lodagala
January-March 2022, 20(1):31-35
Introduction: Different rates of dental caries prevalence are experienced among different populations due to the influence of various demographic, political, and socioeconomic factors. Aim: To assess the prevalence of dental caries, the type of self-care remedies utilized, and normative needs assessment among rural adults residing in Jeelugumelli Mandal, West Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 800 adults by using a multi-stage random sampling technique in Jeelugumelli Mandal, West Godavari District, India. Data were collected using a pretested pro forma consisting of questionnaire-related demographics, traditional care, and clinical examination which was investigated by a single examiner to record caries experience (Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth [DMFT]) using WHO 1997 criteria. The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics, Version 20.0. Mann-Whitney U-test, Kruskal-Wallis, and Multivariate Linear Regression analysis tests were used and the level of significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Results: Mean DMFT value of the study population was 10.29 ± 4.806 and 33.4% of the subjects had used home remedies related to plant origin. The majority of the study population required surgical need (Extractions) with a mean value of 4.23 ± 5.553 and compared with unskilled workers, unemployed workers had 2.8 units higher chances of having caries (R = 2.810 confidence interval [CI] 1.876–3.744) while it was 5.031 units lesser for professionals in having caries (R = −5.031 CI [−4.16] – [−5.901]). Conclusion: Dental caries prevalence and normative needs for dental caries were high in the adult population residing in Jeelugumelli Mandal and most of the individuals are depending on self-care procedures to relieve pain.
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Relationship between sense of coherence and knowledge on early childhood caries among pregnant women in Bangalore Rural and Urban District
Gopika Krishnan, G Dhananjaya
January-March 2022, 20(1):36-42
Context: Sense of coherence (SOC), as stated, is a global orientation that views life as comprehensible, structural, manageable, and coherent. Pregnancy is considered as a crucial time period where an individual experiences increased stress and apprehension which could indirectly affect the child's Quality of Life. Hence, it is important to assess the SOC during this phase of life. Aims: This study aimed to assess the SOC and knowledge about early childhood caries (ECC) among pregnant women and to correlate SOC, level of education, and oral health status of the pregnant women. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted on pregnant women. The oral health status of the pregnant women was assessed using ICDAS II index and the education status of the participants was also obtained. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square test was used for intergroup comparison. Mann–Whitney U-test and Pearson's correlations were done to compare the variables between urban and rural population. Simple linear regression analysis and binary logistic regression were done to determine if SOC varied with change in other variables. Results: The mean SOC among rural and urban population were 33.64 and 41.01, respectively. It was seen that urban pregnant women had more knowledge regarding ECC and less Decayed Missing Filled Teeth (DMFT) as compared to rural pregnant women. There was an inverse relation of knowledge on ECC and SOC with DMFT among urban and rural pregnant women and a direct correlation between knowledge on ECC and SOC with education. Conclusions: This study concludes that SOC and knowledge on ECC are low among rural pregnant women. Furthermore, the SOC correlates with the level of education and oral health status of pregnant women in urban and rural districts of Bangalore, Karnataka.
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Factors influencing the acceptance of online teaching among dental students during COVID-19 crisis in India: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey
Mansi Atri, Sukhvinder Singh Oberoi, Nilima Sharma
January-March 2022, 20(1):49-53
Aim and Objectives: The present study assessed the perceived barriers as well as the preferences of the students toward the mode of education in the current scenario. Material and Methods: The study investigators developed a self-administered questionnaire using Google Forms® (Google LLC, Mountain View, CA) and were E-mailed to their respective E-mail ids and were informed telephonically about the survey. This survey was done among the BDS students of public health-care sector dental colleges in Delhi and the final data included 440 BDS dental students. Chi-square test was used to assess the association of the various factors among BDS students. Results: Higher response was obtained for Classroom Teaching for the 1st year students (65.6%) and Online Teaching for final year students (37.3%). The preference for online teaching over classroom teaching and understanding for the subject with your online classes was significantly better among final-year students (61.3%). The most common barrier experienced by the students was Network issue/poor range (52.5%) followed by understanding (17.0%) and excessive number of classes/Too long classes (10.2%). Conclusion: The present study showed that the 1st year dental students who just passed from the school had difficulty adapting to the Education via communication media. While the final year students were in a better position for adapting to the new system of learning.
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Evaluation of general dentist's and dental student's knowledge about emergency management of dentoalveolar trauma in Bojnurd, North Khorasan, Iran
Dastpak Mahsa, Masoumi Fateme, Norozi Khalili Mina, Rajaey Amir
January-March 2022, 20(1):54-58
Background: Traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) are one of the most common dental problems among children and adolescents, which usually occur in the anterior parts of the mouth and have great impact on the patient's physical and mental health. Therefore, dentist's knowledge and effective measures in the treatment of TDI are the most important factors in improving the prognosis of these teeth. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of general dentists working in Bojnurd and also 6th-year dental students about the treatment of such injuries. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire was provided to 70 general dentists and 6th-year dental students, including personal information and questions related to the knowledge of general dentists, on how to deal with various TDIs by available methods. Data were analyzed using t-test, Chi-square test, Kruskal–Wallis test, and analysis of variance, Spearman's, and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: Regarding general dentists' knowledge about dentoalveolar trauma: 39 (55.7%) were moderate, 28 (40%) were good, and 3 (4.3%) were excellent. The mean value knowledge of dentists and dental students was 8.18 ± 1.98. There was no significant relationship between age, gender, place of work, university of study, desire for education, and self-evaluation of dentists and level of awareness (P = 0.26, P = 0.61, P = 0.47, P = 0.93, P = 0.35, and P = 0.57, respectively). Conclusions: The results of our study indicate that majority of the participants are moderately aware of TDIs and the type of treatment, and due to the increasing prevalence of dental trauma and its high complications, especially in children, the need to make appropriate plans to update the level of knowledge of general dentists in the management and treatment of TDI increases.
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Assessment of knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding safety laboratory measures during COVID-19 pandemic – A cross-sectional study among oral pathologists in Kerala
Plakkil Viswanathan Deepthi, PM Shameena, Sujatha Varma, MN Navajeevraj
January-March 2022, 20(1):59-62
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Discernment in practicing nonpharmacological modes of intervention in combating SARS COVID-19: Reflections of dental patients in India
Suresh Chand Yaddanapalli, Parveen Sultana Shaik, Srinivas Pachava, Srinivas Ravoori, Raja Sekhar Potluri
January-March 2022, 20(1):63-68
Background: As a massively polarizing practice, concealing or face covering has emerged in the midst of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Given the increasing speculation regarding therapeutic control measures, nonpharmacological approaches offer promising successful mitigation in the battle against severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) COVID-19. The evaluation of public capacity, prospects, and actions offers recommendations for public oversight of the implementation of prevention activities. Hence, this investigation was aimed to explore the discernment in practicing nonpharmacological modes of intervention in combating SARS COVID-19 among a group of people, dental patients. Materials and Methods: A pictorial questionnaire survey was done using convenience sampling, aimed at participants visiting the triage facility of the institution to capture their discernment in practicing nonpharmacological modes of intervention for 3 months. Results: A total of 6015 individuals with a mean age of 35.44 ± 14.20 years participated in the study. The majority of the participants were in the age group of 18–30 years (n = 2340, 38.9%) with female (n = 3105, 51.6%) and urban (n = 3745, 62.3%) predominance. Most of the study participants had purchased cloth masks (n = 2980, 49.5%) and had spent about 10–50 INR per mask (n = 4050, 80.6%). Patients have reported that the usage of a mask (n = 1330, 22.1%) was the most difficult measure to follow and also stated that sanitizing hands (n = 2505, 41.6%) was the easiest measure to follow during this pandemic. Crowding in the market (n = 2255, 37.5%) and placing masks around the neck (n = 735, 12.2%) were infringements served in their surroundings. Irrespective of educational qualification touching the outer area of the mask was the most common noncompliance reported by the participants which were statistically significant (P = 0.0001). Conclusion: The study participants have divulged that usage of masks and following social distance in public transport were the most difficult preventive measures of SARS COVID-19 to follow. Evaluating the attitudes of public in preventive procedures for COVID-19 can pave the way to make comprehensive guidelines.
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Epidemiological profile of tobacco users attending a tobacco cessation centre at Puducherry, India
S Saravanan, Kuppusamy Rajagopal Lenin
January-March 2022, 20(1):69-74
Background: Tobacco is a major health burden and an effort has been made to help users to quit tobacco by establishing a tobacco cessation centre in our Institution. A knowledge on the extent of distribution of tobacco use across the various sub-groups of the users would provide clues to behavioural patterns. Objective: To describe the epidemiological profile of tobacco users and to provide a baseline data about the attendees of the cessation centre. Materials and Methods: The data for the present descriptive evaluation were collected by reviewing of case records of participants enrolled from April 2014 to March 2015. Data on demographic characteristics, tobacco use details, substance use details and geographic profile were evaluated. Descriptive statistics were used to present the data using number and percentage. Results: Of the 621 current tobacco users, 95.5% were of male gender. Most participants were married (79.4%), literates (84.9%) and were in the fourth decade of life. 78.1% were exclusive Smokers, 18.2% were exclusive Smokeless tobacco (SLT) users and 3.7% were dual form users. “Peer pressure” was the major reason for initiation of the habit. “Cigarette” was used by 65% of the Smokers and “Betel quid with tobacco” was used by 36.6% of the SLT users. 86.1 and 13.9% of the Puducherry residents were smokers and SLT users respectively. “Oral potentially malignant disorders” were noted in 8% of the users. Conclusion: The observations of the present evaluation provide a baseline data which may serve as a starting point for future epidemiological enquiry.
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Perceptions of health-care workers to educate community about oral cancer and its risk factors in Chikkaballapur District
KM Shwetha, K Ranganath, Pushpanjali Krishnappa
January-March 2022, 20(1):75-80
Background: Health-care workers form the strong linkage between the health-care system and the community they belong. The glaring maldistribution of dental workforce in rural areas with higher prevalence of oral cancer warrants the need for involving health-care workers for playing an active role in the prevention of oral cancer. Aim: The aim of this study is to study the perceptions and attitude of the health-care workers in creating the awareness on oral cancer and its associated risk factors to the community they serve. Settings and Design: Chikkaballapur District and Qualitative research. Subjects and Methods: Since the aim was to assess the perceptions and attitude, qualitative research method adopting ethnography strategy was conducted. The data were collected through focus group discussions (FGDs). The FGDs were carried out on the informed schedules with health workers to know their perceptions and attitude. The tools used were semistructured interview/discussion guides. Statistical Analysis Used: The codes were extracted by the deductive approach, and data analysis was done using the Spradley's method (1979) for Ethnography. This includes domain analysis, componential analysis, and identifying themes. Results: A total of 44 key informants and health workers were involved and more than 250 codes emerged after inductive coding. Eleven domains and three themes were identified reflecting the participants' compassion to serve people. Three themes emerged from the FGDs are: (i) Perception that oral cancer can be prevented, (ii) Recognition of the myths and practices associated with the disease and its treatment, and (iii) Motivation to educate people in their villages. Conclusions: Health workers perceived oral cancer was preventable and showed positive attitude to help their rural community by educating about OC and its risk factors.
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Impact of general hygiene behaviors on oral hygiene among adolescents of Ghaziabad - A cross-sectional study
Iram Ahsan, Ipseeta Menon, Ritu Gupta, Vikram Arora, Dipshikha Das, Asifa Ashraf
January-March 2022, 20(1):81-85
Background: There is the presence of plenty of evidence supporting the unidimensionality of hygiene behaviors inferring oral hygiene and general hygiene is correlated. More than two-third of India's population still lives in rural areas; therefore, this study is also conducted in the rural areas only. Rural areas generally tend to have poor general hygiene behaviors because of sociodemographic and educational factors and that directly affect the oral hygiene behaviors. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the impact of general hygiene behaviors on oral hygiene among adolescents of Ghaziabad district of Uttar Pradesh. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from 800 adolescents among 510 households from all the four blocks of Ghaziabad district. A pretested questionnaire was used to assess the demographic variables, oral hygiene, and general hygiene behaviors. Oral hygiene was assessed using oral hygiene simplified index, and general hygiene behaviors were recorded using the four indices related to drinking water index (score 0–3), food index (score 0–3), personal hygiene index (score 0–3), and domestic household hygiene index (score 0–6) and one summary hygiene index (SHI; range 0–15). Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 20.0. Results: More than 50% of the study participants had a low level of general hygiene. A significant association was observed between general hygiene (SHI) and oral hygiene of the individuals. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates significant association between general hygiene and oral hygiene behaviors among adolescents.
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Addiction and usage of social media among dental students studying in dental institute of Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh
Shivangi Varshney, Ipseeta Menon, Ritu Gupta, Anubhav Sharma, Vikram Arora, Sana Bashir
January-March 2022, 20(1):86-94
Background: Social media is frolicking as an utmost priority in today's livelihood, and it is such a milieu today to see people browsing and surfing social networking sites, reading blogs, or chatting by using laptops, mobile phones, or other sophisticated devices anywhere and at any time and enjoying with their favorite social apps – Facebook, WhatsApp, YouTube, etc., Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices of social media usage and addiction among dental students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was done among 360 students of a dental teaching institute in Uttar Pradesh, India. A questionnaire was prepared which had three sections - related to demographic details and usage and frequency of social media apps based on “Social Media Addiction Scale,” developed by Arslan A and Kırık. These were used as the data collection tool to measure social media addiction among dental students. Responses were recorded in 5-point Likert scale – strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree, and strongly disagree. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 23. Results: Out of total 360 participants, 276 (76.70%) were female while 84 (23.30%) were male. 238 (66.11%) were undergraduates (UGs) followed by 122 (33.89%) postgraduates (PGs). A significantly higher number of UGs were engaged with their patients in personal conversation on social media platform, while a significantly higher number of PGs believed that social media had a positive effect on dentistry. Questions on social media addiction scale by Arslan A and Kırık revealed that out of total study participants, 48.7% of UGs agree on the belief that new media technologies change human life, whereas 39.4% of PGs agree on the same and the result was statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: Social media networking sites and apps have attracted students in its digital web and hold strong position with new horizons whether in comprehensive or educational, interacting, entertainment, or spending leisure time.
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Efficacy of ozone oil compared with chlorhexidine gluconate gel (1% w/w) for the treatment of gingivitis: Randomized controlled trial
Mahima B Bulani, Sahana Hegde Shetiya, Deepti Agarwal
January-March 2022, 20(1):95-99
Background: Ozone oil has both antimicrobial and antiinflammatory properties. This study was undertaken to compare the efficacy of ozone oil with chlorhexidine gluconate 1.0% w/w gel for the treatment of gingivitis. Methods: A triple-blind, controlled trial with parallel design was conducted for 28 days as a pilot study. Thirty participants aged 14–17 years were recruited. After baseline data collection involving gingival index (GI) and plaque index (PI), the products were distributed, scaling of teeth was done, and oral hygiene instructions were given. The participants were asked to apply the gel and oil topically and followed up on days 7 and 28. Results: A statistically significant difference (P < 0.01) was seen within the ozone and chlorhexidine groups at the end of 28 days, showing a reduction in the plaque and gingival scores. At day 28, the reduction in plaque and gingival score was significant for the chlorhexidine group. It was found that chlorhexidine gel showed a greater reduction in the clinical parameters than the ozone oil, which was statistically significant but clinically similar. Both the products showed a substantial reduction in plaque scores. The participants from both the groups showed an improvement, having mild gingivitis post intervention. Conclusion: Ozone oil showed a significant reduction in the clinical parameters of PI and GI similar to chlorhexidine gel, thereby signifying its antimicrobial and antiinflammatory effects on the gingival tissues without any adverse effects, implicating the possession of properties required by a chemotherapeutic agent.
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President's Message
Sabyasachi Saha
January-March 2022, 20(1):1-1
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Impact of oral frailty on general frailty in geriatric population: A scoping review
Aneesa Karuthora Ayoob, Sandhya Kizhakke Neelamana, Chandrashekar Janakiram
January-March 2022, 20(1):9-15
Background: Oral health is believed to be an important component of aging and frailty. Poor oral health is highly prevalent among older adults and has been linked to general health and chronic diseases including different components of frailty. Literature previous evidence has demonstrated a strong link between self-reported oral health and nutrition. Objectives: The objective of the study was to find the current impacts of oral frailty on general frailty in geriatric population. Sources of Evidence: A systematic search was conducted in one electronic bibliographic database (PubMed) to identify relevant peer-reviewed studies. Sources included different types of information such as practice guidelines, reviews, and quantitative and qualitative research. Charting Methods: Pie charts, sunburst, and tree map were used. Results: The searches from the databases hit a total of 8697 records (PubMed: 180) that led to a total of 180 titles and abstracts that were screened after the removal of duplicates. We retrieved a total of 55 full-text articles from our different libraries. Six records were excluded with full text. The full-text screening stage led to 49 potential articles relevant to our scoping review. A total of 49 articles (39 quantitative and 3 qualitative studies, 6 reviews, and 1 Practice guidelines) were included in our final analysis. Maximum studies were found in Asia (44.8%), Europe (22.4%), and North America (14.2%) of the articles related to Oral frailty on General frailty. The included articles used a variety of terminology to describe physical and oral Frailty. The prevalence of physical frailty ranged from 1.5% to 66.6% and oral frailty ranged from 4.1% to 63.7%. Conclusions: Oral frailty is a crucial aspect of general frailty. More cohort studies need to establish a causal relationship between oral and physical frailty. Medical–dental collaboration is inadequate and should be improved in geriatric medicine.
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